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magnetic separation device - college essays - xfxf123

magnetic separation device - college essays - xfxf123

Magnetic separation device oil pressing oil extraction oil refinery oil press machinery Series without power magnetic material is mainly used for the separation of magnetic metal debris, applicable to all sizes of grain and oil processing plants, feed mills and breweries, solvent factory and so on. Welcome to learn more about the device landed http://www.xfmill.com details flour machine, corn processing equipment, wheat grinding machine, complete corn processing units, such as! Xinfeng grain and oil machinery co., LTD is a company specializing in the production of grain and oil machinery and equipment, scientific research, manufacturing, sales for the integration of large-scale private enterprises, the company with the mechanical design and research institute of henan province, henan university of technology (the former college of food) university-enterprise cooperation, carried out for a long time in oil machinery, preparing protein, lecithin extraction and other aspects of the research and development and application of new technology. Company has oil machinery design institute, the ministry of oil press, large oil complete sets of equipment, international trade, machinery and equipment production.Business involves the small oil mill series, grain and oil engineering design, equipment manufacture and installation, project contracting, technical services, new product development, oil by-products deep processing, etc. Company is located in the capital of henan province, zhengzhou national hi-tech industrial development zone, covers an area of 27000 square meters, has 12 standardization of heavy industrial production workshop, a variety of large and medium-sized gold processing, maohan, assembly equipment more than 100 sets, on-line more than 200 employees, among them with medium and senior title of professional management personnel and engineering and technical personnel more than 60 people. Supply what customers need,think what customers,...

magnetic separation process - college essays - dongfang

magnetic separation process - college essays - dongfang

Magnetic Separation means that minerals are separated according to different magnetism of mineral particles. Mineral particles are separated by magnetic separators. While the mineral particles and the vein stone particles are getting through the magnetic field of the magnetic separator, sand washer machine owing to different magnetism of mineral particles, under the function of the magnetic field, they are moving in different directions. The magnetic particles are attracted by the magnetic force. Hence they attach to the drum of the magnetic separator. Then the magnetic particles are taken to a certain height with the rotating drum. And the high-pressure water washes them away from the magnetic field. The non-magnetic particles or the vein stone particles are not attracted by the magnetic field of the magnetic separator. Therefore, they can not attach to the drum of the magnetic separator. Finally, two kinds of products can be gotten. One is the magnetic products which are moving into the concentrate box, marble quarry equipment the other is the non-magnetic products which are moving into the tailing box. SBM Mining Machinery specializes in producing various magnetic separators, such as the wet type magnetic separators, design of copper processing plant the iron ore magnetic separators, the high gradient magnetic separators, and so on. Our machines have gotten a good praise of our clients. The flotation plant is regarded as one of the most important practical processing production lines with a wide range of application fields. The flotation plant or the flotation separation plant is mainly made up of jaw crusher, ball mill, classifier, mixer, flotation separator, concentrator, and drying machine with the feeder, lifter and conveyor as the auxiliary equipment. The flotation separation line is mainly applied to separate copper, zinc, lead, nickel, gold and other non-ferrous metals, and to do rough or fine separation of ferrous metals and non-metals. It is also...

magnetic separation - an overview | sciencedirect topics

magnetic separation - an overview | sciencedirect topics

Magnetic separation takes advantage of the fact that magnetite is strongly magnetic (ferromagnetic), hematite is weakly magnetic (paramagnetic), and most gangue minerals are not magnetic (diamagnetic).

The current research and development initiatives and needs in magnetic separation, shown in Fig. 7, reveal several important trends. Magnetic separation techniques that have been, to a greater extent, conceived empirically and applied in practice, such as superconducting separation, small-particle eddy-current separation, and biomedical separation, are being studied from a more fundamental point of view and further progress can be expected in the near future.

In addition, methods such as OGMS, ferrohydrostatic separation, magnetic tagging, and magnetic flocculation of weakly magnetic materials, that have received a great deal of attention on academic level, are likely to enter the development and technology transfer stages.

The application of high-Tc superconductivity to magnetic separation, and novel magnetism-based techniques, are also being explored, either theoretically or empirically. It can be expected that these methods, such as magnetic flotation, magnetic gravity separation, magnetic comminution, and classification will take advantage of having a much wider control over these processes as a result of the presence of this additional external force.

Magnetic separation takes advantage of the fact that magnetite is strongly magnetic (ferromagnetic), hematite is weakly magnetic (paramagnetic), and most gangue minerals are not magnetic (diamagnetic). A simple magnetic separation circuit can be seen in Figure 1.2.5 [9]. A slurry passes by a magnetized drum; the magnetic material sticks to the drum, while the nonmagnetic slurry keeps flowing. A second pass by a more strongly magnetized drum could be used to separate the paramagnetic particles from the gangue.

Magnetic separation can significantly shorten the purification process by quick retrieval of affinity beads at each step (e.g., binding, wash, and elution), and reduce sample dilution usually associated with traditional column-based elution. The method can be used on viscous materials that will otherwise clog traditional columns and can therefore simplify the purification process by eliminating sample pretreatment, such as centrifugation or filtration to remove insoluble materials and particulates. The capability of miniaturization and parallel screening of multiple conditions, such as growth conditions for optimal protein expression and buffer conditions for purification, makes magnetic separation amenable to high-throughput analysis which can significantly shorten the purification process (Saiyed et al., 2003).

Paramagnetic particles are available as unmodified, modified with common affinity ligands (e.g., streptavidin, GSH, Protein A, etc.), and conjugated particles with specific recognition groups such as monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies (Koneracka et al., 2006). In addition to target protein purification, they can also be used to immobilize a target protein which then acts as a bait to pull down its interaction partner(s) from a complex biological mixture. See Chapter 16.

Magnetic separation of cells is a simple, rapid, specific and relatively inexpensive procedure, which enables the target cells to be isolated directly from crude samples containing a large amount of nontarget cells or cell fragments. Many ready-to-use products are available and the basic equipment for standard work is relatively inexpensive. The separation process can be relatively easily scaled up and thus large amount of cells can be isolated. New processes for detachment of larger magnetic particles from isolated cells enable use of free cells for in vivo applications. Modern instrumentation is available on the market, enabling all the process to run automatically. Such devices represent a flexible platform for future applications in cell separation.

IMS play a dominant role at present but other specific affinity ligands such as lectins, carbohydrates or antigens will probably be used more often in the near future. There are also many possibilities to combine the process of cell magnetic separation with other techniques, such as PCR, enabling the elimination of compounds possibly inhibiting DNA polymerase. New applications can be expected, especially in microbiology (isolation and detection of microbial pathogens) and parasitology (isolation and detection of protozoan parasites). No doubt many new processes and applications in other fields of biosciences and biotechnologies will be developed in the near future.

Magnetic separation methods are widely used for isolation of a variety of cell types. Magnetic particles with immobilized antibodies to various antigens have been employed for the rapid isolation of populations T-(CD4 +, CD3 +, CD8+) and B- (CD19+) of lymphocytes, NK cells, and monocytes. Similarly, immobilization of glycoconjugates on magnetic beads allows the isolation of cell populations expressing a particular carbohydrate-recognizing molecule [19, 20]. Glycosylated magnetic beads can be prepared by loading biotinylated probes onto streptavidin-coated magnetic beads. The glycoparticles are then incubated with a cell suspension and the subpopulation of interest is fished out by means of a magnetic device [20].

When these materials are used in the biological field, special restrictions should be considered and all possible reactions with the biological materials should be predicted. Magnetic properties should be maintained for a specific time during the test. Some applications can be classified as follows:

Magnetic separation is used for clinical application, such as in the separation of proteins, toxemic materials, DNA, and bacteria and viruses. This is also used for real time detecting of viruses. The most important stage in this field is the labeling of molecules with magnetic materials by a reliable connection. Magnetic beads from iron oxide are typically used for biological separation. The main properties of iron oxide are super paramagnetic properties (Meza, 1997).

Effective drug delivery can greatly improve the process of treatment and reduce side effects. In this method, while the amount of drug decreases, the concentration of the drug in the target area increases. Protecting the drug before its gets to the target area is one of the most important factors, because after releasing the drug in the blood stream, white cells detect the drug and swallow them in a short time. An ideal nanoparticle for drug delivery should have the potential to combine with a relatively high-weight drug and disperse uniformly in the blood stream (Shultz et al., 2007).

Also, while chemotherapy is one of most effective methods for cancerous tissues, many of the other healthy cells are destroyed in the process. So the conventional thermotherapy has many side effects. In hyperthermia treatment, after delivering the drug to the target area, an AC magnetic field is used to generate controllable energy and increase temperature. Heat transfer in this process is a balance between blood flow, heat generation, and tissue porosity and conductivity (Sellmyer and Skomski, 2006).

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is considered a great help in the diagnoses of many diseases. The advantages of this imaging are high contrast in soft tissue, proper resolution, and sufficient penetration depth for noninvasive diagnosis. In fact, in MRI imaging magnetization of protons is measured when exposed to the magnetic field with radio frequency (Corot, 2006).

Magnetic separation: based on the generation of magnetic forces on the particles to be separated, which are higher than opposing forces such as gravity or centrifugal forces. This principle is used to separate ferromagnetic particles from crushed scrap mixtures.

Eddy current separation: is a particular form of magnetic separation. An alternating magnetic field induces electrical eddy currents on a metal particle. This results in a magnetic field whose direction is opposite to the primary magnetic field. The exchange interactions between the magnetic fields result in a repulsive force on the metallic particle; the net effect is a forward thrust as well as a torque. This force and hence the efficiency of separation is a function of the magnetic flux, or indirectly of the electrical conductivity and density and the size and shape of the metallic particles.

Air separation/zigzag windsifter: Air-based sorting technique, which separates the light materials from the heavier. The most prominent application is in shredder plants producing the shredder light fraction, or in fridge recycling, removing among others the polyurethane (PUR) foam from the shredded scrap.

Screening: Separation of the scrap into different particle size classes is performed to improve the efficiency of the subsequent sorting processes and/or to apply different processing routes for different size fractions (based on material breakage and hence distribution over various size fractions).

Fluidized bed separation: A fluidized bed of dry sand is used to separate materials based on density. This technology is in principle a dry sink-float separation, which is still hampered by several difficulties (tubular or hollow particles filling up with sand and tend to sink; formation of unsteady current due to the use of high velocity air, etc.). The fluidized bed could also be heated for simultaneous de-coating and combustion of organic material.

Image processing (including colour sorting): Colour sorting technologies, which sense the colour of each particle and use computer control to mechanically divert particles of identical colour out of the product stream (red copper, yellow brass, etc.). A complicating issue is that shredding results in mixtures of particles that show a distribution in composition, size, shape, texture, types of inserts, coatings, etc. The variance of these properties complicates identification that is solely based on this principle.

X-ray sorting: Dual energy X-ray transmission imaging (well known for luggage safety inspections at airports) identifies particles based on the average atomic number, particle shape, internal structure (e.g. characteristic variations of thickness) and presence of characteristic insert material. It is rather sensitive to particle thickness and surface contaminations.

LIBS (laser induced breakdown spectroscopy) sorting: A series of focused ablation laser pulses are delivered to the same spot on each particle. A pulse of an ablation laser vaporizes only the first nanometres of the surface, i.e. the first pulses are necessary to clean the surface of oxide layers (different composition than the mother metal), the last pulse vaporizes a tiny amount of metal generating a highly luminescent plasma plume. The light from the plasma is collected and analysed to quantitatively determine the chemical composition. This determines to which bin the particle is directed (e.g. by air pulse).

Iron ore processors may also employ magnetic separation for beneficiation of classifier output streams. Wet high-intensity magnetic separators (WHIMS) may be used to extract high-grade fine particles from gangue, due to the greater attraction of the former to the applied magnetic field.

In addition to beneficiating the intermediate middlings streams from the classifier, WHIMS may be used as scavenger units for classifier overflow. This enables particles of sufficient grade to be recovered that would otherwise be sacrificed to tails.

Testwork has been performed on iron ore samples from various locations to validate the use of magnetic separation following classification (Horn and Wellsted, 2011). A key example was material sourced from the Orissa state in northeastern India, with a summary of results shown in Table 10.2. The allmineral allflux and gaustec units were used to provided classification and magnetic separation, respectively.

The starting grade of the sample was a low 42% Fe. It also contained significant ultrafines with 58% passing 20m. This is reflected in the low yield of allflux coarse concentrate; however, a notable 16% (abs) increase in iron grade was eventually achieved. The gaustec results for the middlings and overflow streams demonstrate the ability to recover additional high-grade material. With the three concentrate streams combined, an impressive yield of almost 64% was achieved with minimal decline in iron grade.

The automatic separation system, developed by Magnetic Separation System of Nashville, Tennessee, uses X-ray, IR, and visible spectra sensors for separating the post-consumer recyclate bottles or flakes into individual plastics and into different color groups. X-ray sensors, used for separating PVC, are very accurate and can operate at as high as 99% or better efficiency. IR and visible sensors are used to separate the colored bottles into individual polymers and color groups.

The separation system (Figure 4) essentially consists of a metering inclined conveyer, air knife, special disk screen, singulating infeed conveyor, and sensor module. A motor control system provides operator interface screens which control the sorting functions, including the number of bottles sorted into each fraction, ejection timing, and sort positions. Individual systems currently in use in Germany, Switzerland, and the United States are described in a paper by Kenny and Vaughan.16 The systems are customized, based on the composition of the post-consumer recyclate and the end application of the separated streams. Some systems use X-ray and IR sensors in two locations to achieve better separation. In addition to sorting equipment, some systems also use equipment for breaking the bales and splitting the bottles into more than one stream for smooth operation. Grinders are used when the bottles have to be ground into flakes for further processing. Whereas PVC separation is accomplished at 99%. HDPE and PET separation is between 80 and 90%, depending on the level of contamination.

Automated separation provides two advantages: improved quality and lower labor cost for sorting. The automatic separation system at Eaglebrook Plastics uses the Magnetic Separation System (MSS), which detects and separates the bottles into different categories based on the type of the resin and color, and eliminates impurities such as broken pieces of plastics, rocks, aluminum cans, and other contaminants.17 Metering the feed is critical to obtain maximum throughput at Eaglebrook. This is accomplished by a special debaling device and an incline metering system. Factors contributing to proper operation include clear height, width, spacing, belt speed, and incline angle. Proper presentation of the bottle to the sensor is critical. The bottles are split into four streams and two to three bottles are presented to the sensor per second, one at a time.

The primary identification sensor uses a multibeam, near-IR array to identify the bottles into three classes: Class 1, PVC, PET; Class 2, natural HDPE, PP; Class 3, mixed color HDPE and opaque containers. This sensor is also capable of separating colored PET from clear PET and PP from milk jug HDPE. The X-ray sensor identifies PVC, and a machine vision sensor system provides up to seven color classifications of the plastic bottles. After identification, the containers are ejected from the conveyors into appropriate collection stations using high-speed pulsed air nozzles. The motor control center (MCC) of the separation system controls motor protection, sequential slant up for the system, fault indication, and operation control. In addiiton, a touch screen input panel allows the operator to select any available sort to be directed to any ejection station. Visible light color sensors have been added which sort pigmented HDPE into different colors. The system also includes a decision cross-checking device between the primary sensor and the color sensor. This compares the decisions of the two sensors by comparing them with a logic file. The latter then provides correct identification in case there are discrepancies between the two decisions. The system has successfully operated for the last three to four years at a capacity of 5000 bottles h1.

The debaling system designed for Eaglebrook requires that the bales be presented to the debaling equipment in the same orientation as the original compression. This design feature requires less horsepower, reduces bottle clusters, and requires minimum energy. The debaling and declumping system incorporates a surge bin and metering conveyor to feed the screening system. The improved capacity and higher separation accuracy, due to increased metering efficiency, reduces bottle clusters and provides a more uniform feeding system. The separation efficiency depends on several factors. Timing and catcher bounceback accounts for 12% accuracy loss; contamination, container distortion, and loose labels contribute to about 34%, and nonsingulation of the bottles 510% of accuracy loss.

Asoma Instrument of Austin, TX, is a leading manufacturer of automated bottle sorting equipment. The company uses an X-ray fluorescence spectrophotometer sensor. The identification is completed in 10ms and the separation takes about 20s per bottle. The sorted PET streams have less than 50ppm PVC. National Recovery Technology of Nashville, TN, uses a proprietary electromagnetic screening process which can handle the bottles either in crushed or whole form and does not require any special positioning or orientation of the bottle to achieve high efficiency. Chamberlain/MCR, Hunt Valley, MD, and Automation Industrial Control of Baltimore, MD, offer a paysort bottle sorting system, which uses a sophisticated video camera and color monitor incorporating a strobe to detect and distinguish colors of post-consumer bottles following a near-IR detection system which also determines the primary resin found in each bottle.

A substantial amount of research is focused on microseparation techniques and on techniques which can reject bottles with trace amounts of harmful contaminant. Near-IR spectrometry is being used to separate bottles for household chemicals and ones with hazardous waste residues.

Sorting of automotive plastics is more difficult than sorting of plastics from packaging recyclates. Whereas only five to six polymers are used for packaging, post-consumer automotive plastics contain large numbers of engineering and commodity plastics, modified in various ways, including alloying and blending, filling, reinforcing, and foaming. Hence, sorting of automotive plastic recyclate poses several challenges. Recently, a systematic study, PRAVDA, was undertaken by a German car manufacturer and the plastic suppliers in Europe to investigate the potential of various analytical techniques in separating post-consumer automotive plastics.18

The techniques examined in this study include near-IR spectroscopy (NIR), middle-IR spectroscopy (MIR), Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy (FTR), pyrolysis mass spectrometry (PY-MS), pyrolysis IR spectroscopy (PYIR), and laser-induced emission spectral analysis (LIESA). X-ray methods were excluded because they have insufficient sensivitity to polymers, other than ones containing chlorine. Since commercial spectrophotometers were not available for most techniques except NIR, either laboratory models (MIR, FTR) or experimental stage instruments (PY-MS, PY-IR, and LIESA) were used in this study. A large number of parts (approximately 7000) were analyzed. The techniques were compared in respect to their success in identification, fault rate, time for identification, degree of penetration, and sensitivity to surface quality. The fault rate is the number of wrong identifications, given as percent. If the sum of the identification and fault rate is less than 100, the difference gives the rate of incomplete correct identification. The biggest stumbling block was the identification of black samples which could not be analyzed by NIR and FTR. MIR is the only technique which not only identified the black samples, but gave the highest identification rate. Some difficulties were experienced, however, in MIR analysis in the case of blends of two similar polymers such as PP/EPDM or nylon 6/nylon 66. The pyrolytic methods showed poorer identification rates and higher fault rates. The LIESA method is very fast and a remote technology, particularly for fast identification of heteroatoms. It is therefore suitable for identifying fillers, minerals, reinforcing fibers, pigments, flame retardants, and stabilizers specific to the individual plastic. The difficulty with MIR is that it is sensitive to surface micro-roughness and, hence, the samples need to be very smooth. Also, paint or surface coats on the part have to be removed for correct identification of the resin used for making the parts. Further, at this stage, no fiber optic or separated probe is available with MIR technology and, hence, the part has to be brought close to the spectrophotometer instead of the probe reaching the part. Another method of measuring efficiency is the level of contamination. Contamination of parts sorted by the MIR method was less than 1%, whereas contamination of parts sorted manually, using a Car Parts Dismantling Manual, is greater than 1015%. When the level of contamination is high, further separation by swim-sink or hydrocyclone techniques are necessary.

The cost of a MIR spectrophotometer is approximately DM 100000. The cost calculated for small dismantlers (dismantling less than 25 cars per day) is approximately DM 0.34 per kg and that for large dismantlers is somewhat less than DM 0.19. Manual sorting, on the other hand, would cost DM0.71 and DM0.23 per kg for small and large dismantlers, respectively. Spectrophotometric identification of plastics in automotive plastics waste therefore makes substantial economic sense.

separation of mixtures free essay sample

separation of mixtures free essay sample

Magnetism is only effective in insoluble substances. Examples of magnetic separation include the extraction of iron ore from surrounding silicate. Magnetic separation is also used to separate magnetic substances from waste water. Filtration is a technique that will separate a solid that has not yet dissolved in a liquid. Take a mixture of a solid and liquid and run it through a filter, the liquid will pass through the filter and you will be left with the sold. The filter has little holes in it that are small enough to only let liquid through.

Filtration is not a technique to separate solids, separating solids like that is called sifting. Example of filtration includes your kidney. Kidneys use the same principals but with blood. Another example of filtration is when you make coffee. Making coffee includes the use of a coffee filter. Not that you can do different things with different filters. Extremely fine filters will separate grains of sand from water. Evaporation is the method of separating a substance with heat.

Evaporation works when you take a substance, heat it up and let one of the components evaporate so youre left with the residue which is the other component. In India, citizens would often boil saltwater to obtain salt. The problem with evaporation is that you can only get one component from the substance and its usually the one with the higher boiling point. Do not confuse evaporation with another separation method called distillation, distillation uses the same principals of evaporation, but it takes it to the next level and allows you to get multiple components.

An everyday example of evaporation would include the process of clothes drying on a line; the water gets heated up and evaporates, leaving the dry cloth. Distillation, as I previously mention follows the same principals of evaporation but it allows you to extract both components. In evaporation, a substance is heated up and evaporates, leaving you with one component. In distillation, the component that is evaporated is captured and transferred in its gaseous state to another area; here it is condensed and converted into its liquid form.

This procedure can be carried out with different temperatures and therefore you can extract different components. An example of distillation includes the extraction of different components of crude oil. For example kerosene, fuel oil, etc. Sifting follows the same principals of a filter, but it is used to separate solids from solids. A sifter is basically a filter but the holes are larger. The holes allow tiny solids like sand to pass and trap rock. Sifting is largely used in archeology.

Sorting is self-explanatory, sorting is when you physically separate mechanical substances by hand, it is used most frequently in the modern world with solid mechanical substances, as filtering it, and distilling it and evaporating solids from each other dont work. You could sift it but its inconsistent and isnt the ideal way of separating the components. An example of sorting is at a recycling plant where non-recyclable items are extracted from recyclable ones. By: Gaurav Ranganath Feel Free To Ask and Give Me Feedback

what is magnetic separation? (with pictures)

what is magnetic separation? (with pictures)

Magnetic separation is an industrial process where ferromagnetic contaminants are recovered from materials on the production line. Manufacturers use this to extract useful metal, separate recycling, purify materials, and perform a wide variety of other tasks. Manufacturers of magnetic separation equipment may have a range of products available for sale for different applications, including an assortment of sizes with strong and weak magnetic fields to attract different kinds of magnetic material.

The magnetic separator consists of a large rotating drum that creates a magnetic field. Materials enter the separator and fall out through mesh at the base if they are not magnetic. Sensitive particles respond to the magnetism and cling to the sides of the container. The drums can be used in continuous processing of materials as they move along the assembly line, or in batch jobs, where a single batch is run through all at once.

One common use for magnetic separation is to remove unwanted metal from a shipment of goods. Magnetic separation can help companies keep materials pure, as well as remove things like nails and staples that may have crept into a shipment. The equipment can also purify ores, separate components for recycling, and perform a variety of other tasks where metals need to be separated or isolated. Equipment can range in size from a desktop unit for a lab that needs to process small amounts of material to huge drums used in scrap metal recycling centers.

Manufacturers of magnetic separation equipment typically provide specifications for their products for the benefit of prospective customers. Consumers may need equipment that targets a specific range of metals, or could require large size or high speed capacity. It may be possible to rent or lease equipment for some applications, or if a factory wants to try a device before committing to a purchase. Used equipment is also available.

A gentler form of magnetic separation can be used for delicate tasks like removing magnetic materials from cremated remains or finds at an archaeological site. In these situations, a technician carefully moves a magnet over the material to pull out materials like staples and jewelry. At a crematorium, this is necessary before ashes are ground, as metal objects can damage the equipment. For archaeologists, it can provide a mechanism for carefully separating materials at a find and documenting the position and location of various objects as the archaeologist uncovers them on site or in a lab.

Ever since she began contributing to the site several years ago, Mary has embraced the exciting challenge of being a InfoBloom researcher and writer. Mary has a liberal arts degree from Goddard College and spends her free time reading, cooking, and exploring the great outdoors.

Ever since she began contributing to the site several years ago, Mary has embraced the exciting challenge of being a InfoBloom researcher and writer. Mary has a liberal arts degree from Goddard College and spends her free time reading, cooking, and exploring the great outdoors.

@allenJo - I do believe they use these systems in water treatment systems. I dont know the mechanisms used but it is used from what Ive heard. Water should give up its magnetic particles quite easily, I would think, since the metals are just floating about like flotsam and jetsam in the ocean.

@Charred - Those are two very good points, and I am sure that they are accounted for. The uses described in the article suggest scenarios where the metals are rather loosely fitting, so I think the cleanup job would be thorough. What I wonder about is if this process can be adapted to water treatment? Since magnetic separation systems can be used to sift through fluids, could they purify water as well? That seems to be an obvious application. Where I live the tap water has a lot of metals and so we generally dont drink it. I already have three metal fillings; I dont need more metal in my body.

What I wonder about is if this process can be adapted to water treatment? Since magnetic separation systems can be used to sift through fluids, could they purify water as well? That seems to be an obvious application. Where I live the tap water has a lot of metals and so we generally dont drink it. I already have three metal fillings; I dont need more metal in my body.

What I wonder about is if this process can be adapted to water treatment? Since magnetic separation systems can be used to sift through fluids, could they purify water as well? That seems to be an obvious application. Where I live the tap water has a lot of metals and so we generally dont drink it. I already have three metal fillings; I dont need more metal in my body.

That seems to be an obvious application. Where I live the tap water has a lot of metals and so we generally dont drink it. I already have three metal fillings; I dont need more metal in my body.

I see two things here that are necessary for magnetic separation to work well. First, the metals must be easily dislodged from whatever material or goop they happen to be sitting in. Otherwise, theyll just remain stuck, and the separation will be less than effective in pulling out all the metals. Second, the magnetic drum separator itself must be sufficiently strong. I think thats obvious, and the second point is related to the first. If the separating device is not strong it wont dislodge the metals; but there may be situations where the device is strong, but the metals are just stuck and wont budge.

Second, the magnetic drum separator itself must be sufficiently strong. I think thats obvious, and the second point is related to the first. If the separating device is not strong it wont dislodge the metals; but there may be situations where the device is strong, but the metals are just stuck and wont budge.

Second, the magnetic drum separator itself must be sufficiently strong. I think thats obvious, and the second point is related to the first. If the separating device is not strong it wont dislodge the metals; but there may be situations where the device is strong, but the metals are just stuck and wont budge.

magnetic effects of electric current free essay example

magnetic effects of electric current free essay example

Magnetic effect of electric current is one of the major effects of electric current in use, without the applications of which we cannot have motors in the existing world. A current carrying conductor creates a magnetic field around it, which can be comprehended by using magnetic lines of force or magnetic field lines. The nature of the magnetic field lines around a straight current carrying conductor is concentric circles with centre at the axis of the conductor. The direction of the magnetic field lines of force around a conductor is given by the Maxwells right hand grip rule or the right handed cork screw rule.

The strength of the magnetic field created depends on the current through the conductor. If the conductor is in the form of a circular loop, the loop behaves like a magnet. If the current in the loop is in the anticlockwise direction, a north pole is formed and if the current is in the clockwise direction a south pole is formed.

A current carrying conductor in the form of a rectangular loop behaves like a magnet and when suspended in an external magnetic field experiences force. The direction of the force is given by Flemings left hand rule.

This gives the basis for an electric motor. An electric motor essentially consists of a coil as an armature, a split ring commutator for changing the direction of the current in the coil. There are two brushes linked with the split rings that maintain the contact with the armature for the current flow.

Electric motor converts electrical energy to mechanical energy. A number of such loops form a coil and the coil is termed solenoid. If there is a soft iron core in the solenoid, it behaves like a magnet as long as there is current through the coil. Thus it is an electromagnet.

Electromagnetism created a revolution by leading to the devices called motors which convert electrical energy to mechanical energy. Experiments by scientists like Oersted and Faraday made a long leap by converting mechanical energy to electrical energy. When a straight conductor is moved in a magnetic field an electric current is induced in it and the phenomenon is electromagnetic induction. The emf caused is the induced emf and the current is induced current. Oersted found the same by relative motion of a magnet with respect to a coil.

Faradays experiment proved that the strength of the induced current depends on several factors like the strength of the magnet, the speed of motion of the magnet, its orientation, the number of turns in the coil and the diameter of the coil. The induced current can be detected by a galvanometer. Flemings right hand rule gives the direction of the induced current in a conductor when it is moved in a magnetic field. Transformers are based on this principle, which consist of a primary coil and a secondary coil.

The number of turns in the coils is selected based on the type of the transformer to be made, namely, step-up or step-down. | Electric generators work on the same principle. They have an armature which is free to rotate in a magnetic field. Its terminals are connected to two slip rings, which are further connected to two brushes and they are connected across a load resistance through which the generated electricity can be trapped. The rotation of the armature in the magnetic field changes the magnetic flux in the coil of the armature and an electric current is induced.

For every half rotation, the direction of the induced changes and hence called alternating current. The current at the power plants is distributed through transmission lines at a high voltage and hence the lines are referred to as high tension power lines. At the substations these are stepped down to a lower voltage and supplied to houses at a low voltage. A domestic electric circuit essentially contains mains, a fuse, live or line, neutral and earth wires. From the poles supply cables bring the current to the mains.

Within the house, all the equipments are connected in parallel combination| | Electricity is one of the oldest branches of science without which we cannot just imagine ourselves in the current world. The rate of flow of charge through a conductor is termed the electric current and is measured in ampere. The potential difference across the conductor causes the charge flow between them. The potential difference is measured in volt and is the work done in moving a unit positive charge between two points in an electric field.

It implies that one joule per coulomb is one volt. In circuits potential difference is measured using a voltmeter and the current by an ammeter. The current flow from a high potential area to a low potential area is termed the conventional current whereas the flow of electrons constitute the electron current and is in a direction opposite to that of the conventional current. | As per electricity, we have two categories of materials, namely conductors and insulators. All of the conductors do not conduct electricity the same way.

Some of them offer a restriction to the flow of charge and are referred to as resistors. The restriction to the flow of charge is electrical resistance and depends on the physical dimensions and temperature of the conductor. The resistance (R) of a conductor varies directly with its length (l) and inversely with its area of cross-section (A). The mathematical expression is where r is the constant called resistivity or specific resistance of the material which depends on the nature and temperature of the material.

Resistivity is measured in ohm-metre. At a given temperature, the current through a conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference across its ends and is known as Ohms law. | An electric circuit is a closed path for flow of electricity through which electricity can be converted into different forms. An electric circuit basically contains a source of electricity, a load resistance, a switch or a key for making the circuit on or off at ones convenience (which makes or breaks the circuit correspondingly).

The diagrammatic representation of an electric circuit is called the circuit diagram. Each electric component in a circuit has a unique symbol through which it is represented in a circuit diagram. If a circuit is switched off, it is called an open circuit and if the circuit is switched on it is called a closed circuit. When two or more resistors are connected such a way that the terminus of one resistance is connected to the starting end of the other, such a combination of resistance is called the series connection and the circuit is called series circuit.

On the other hand, if the starting ends of two resistors are joined to a point and the terminal ends of the two are combined and given connection to a source of electricity, such a combination is called parallel connection and the circuit is called parallel circuit. The potential difference or voltage drop across a resistance is the cause of electric current through it. For a number of resistors connected in parallel, the electric potential drop across them remains the same and the electric current through each of them varies as their resistance.

Heating effect of electricity is one of the widely used effects in the world. When electric current is passed through a conductor, it generates heat due to the resistance it offers to the current flow. The work done in overcoming the resistance is generated as heat. This is studied by James Prescott Joule and he enunciated various factors that affect the heat generated. The heat produced by a heating element is directly proportional to the square of the electric current (I) passing through the conductor, directly proportional to the resistance (R) of the conductor, time (t) for which current passes through the conductor.

It is given by the expression H = I2Rt and is well known as Joules Law. | Applications of the heating effect of electric current include appliances like electric immersion water heater, electric iron box, etc. All of these have a heating element in it. Heating elements are generally made of specific alloys like, nichrome, manganin, constantan etc. A good heating element has high resistivity and high melting point. An electric fuse is an example for the application of heating effect of electric current. The rating of 3 A of an electric fuse implies the maximum current it can sustain is three ampere. |

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magnetic cell separation | cell isolation technology

magnetic cell separation | cell isolation technology

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Magnetic cell separation, also known as immunomagnetic cell separation or magnetic cell sorting, involves targeting cells for selection or depletion using antibodies or ligands directed against specific cell surface antigens. Labeled cells are cross-linked to magnetic particles, also known as magnetic beads, that can be immobilized once an electromagnetic field is applied.

Both positive and negative selection can be performed using magnetic cell isolation methods. When a positive selection is performed, the supernatant can be discarded and the magnetically-labeled cells of interest remain immobilized until removed from the electromagnetic field. When a negative selection is performed, the desired cells are located in the supernatant.

Column-based magnetic cell separation techniques involve passing a sample previously labeled with magnetic particles through a column matrix within a magnetic field. The column is filled with ferromagnetic spheres that become magnetized in the applied magnetic field, creating a localized magnetic field that can immobilize the magnetic particles within the sample. When positive selection is used (Figure 2), non-magnetically-labeled, non-target cells can pass through the column while magnetically-labeled, target cells are retained within the column. Upon removing the external magnetic field, the target cells can be collected by pushing buffer through the column.

While commonly-used, column-based magnetic cell isolation protocols can sometimes be costly, complicated, laborious, and time-consuming, requiring multiple washes to avoid contamination between separations and the use of new columns for each experiment. In addition, its not uncommon for columns to become clogged, risking the loss of precious samples, especially when working with tissue samples that contain a significant amounts of debris.

Column-free magnetic cell separation techniques involve placing a tube filled with a magnetically-labeled sample within a magnetic field. The magnetically-labeled target cells will migrate towards the magnet and will be immobilized at the sides of the tube. The unlabeled cells in suspension can then be poured or pipetted off to separate them from the labeled cells. Upon removing the tube from the magnet, the labeled cells are released from the sides of the tube. If a positive selection protocol is used (Figure 3), the labeled cells are the cells of interest and can be resuspended in buffer for immediate use in downstream applications.

Which method should you choose? In general, column-based and column-free technologies are both well-established methods that result in highly purified cells. Both technologies have been used by life science researchers for more than 20 years in a variety of applications and with thousands of citations in peer-reviewed publications. In an increasingly competitive research environment, we recommend choosing the most efficient technologies available to help you complete your cell separationand, ultimately, your downstream experimentsin less time and with less effort. In our experience, column-free magnetic cell isolation techniques are the most efficient approaches to isolate highly purified cells for research.

Magnetic cell sorting and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) are the two most common ways by which scientists isolate specific cell types. The choice between the two methods depends on what you require for your specific downstream application.

Magnetic cell isolation is a much faster and simpler procedure than FACS, and is often the preferred cell isolation method for common cell types. However, unlike magnetic cell isolation, FACS will allow you to:

To decide which of the two methods to use, start by investigating whether the expected purity of available magnetic cell isolation kits would meet your experimental needs. Product performance data can often be found on a suppliers website. If a vendor does not publicly provide performance data for their cell separation products, contact them directly to ask for this information or ask for a sample of their product to test in your own lab. Due to their speed and simplicity, magnetic cell isolation techniques can often be easier to incorporate into your experimental design than complicated flow sorting instruments and protocols. Magnetic cell separation techniques and FACS can also be used together. Pre-enriching your sample with magnetic cell separation techniques prior to FACS can maximize yield and purity and reduce sort time, especially when working with large sample volumes or rare cell types.

Automating magnetic cell separation can save hands-on time for labs that routinely perform magnetic cell separation procedures. In addition, automation minimizes handling of potentially hazardous samples, which may be important to reduce the risk of exposure to dangerous pathogens.

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separation of mixtures lab essay - 615 words

separation of mixtures lab essay - 615 words

...Sam Chu (Jacob Gorman and Tyler Kui) Lab #1: Separation of a Mixture Mr. Mejia 10/3/14 Separation of a Mixture Lab Report Abstract The purpose of the experiment was to separate an initial heterogeneous mixture composed of 5.00 grams of salt, 2.00 grams of sand, 50.0 mL of water, 15.00 grams of pebbles, and 1.00 gram of iron filings, and leave as much salt as possible remaining. Using separation techniques including magnetizing, evaporation, filtration, etc. the heterogeneous mixture was thoroughly separated into 4.88 grams of salt. There have been some errors regarding the isolation techniques and processes, however, the mass of salt at the end is substantial enough to conclude that results obtained are sufficient compared to the initial mass Introduction and Background The point of this experiment was to separate the different components present in a heterogeneous mixture. In doing so, four goals/checkpoints were expected to be met including learning how to use the lab materials, applying knowledge of different separation techniques, applying the scientific method to a problem, and applying the knowledge of lab safety rules and regulations. The expectations were to take the heterogeneous mixture of sand, salt, pebbles, iron filings, and water and use...

...SEPARATION OF MIXTURE OBJECTIVE: To separate the components of a mixture based upon physical characteristics of each component within the mixture. Secondly, to determine the mass of each component by using the knowledge of separation techniques. SAFETY REQUIREMENTS: Do Not Pipette By Mouth Read the Chemical Safety Information Dress Appropriately Identify the Safety Equipment Don't Taste or Sniff Chemicals Don't Casually Dispose of Chemicals Down the Drain MATERIALS: electronic balance, rubber policemen, stirring rod, beakers, watch glasses, magnet, filter paper, funnel, weight boats, wash bottle, sieve, mixture sample. PROCEDURE: Separated gravel from the mixture. The masses of weight boat and mixture were determined by using electronic balance. Poured the mixture into the sieve. Held the sieve over a weight boat. The sand and salt past through the holes into the weight boat. The gravel remained behind in the sieve. Shook the sieve back and forth made sure all the sand and salt particles past through the sieve into the weight boat. The masses of gravel with weight boat and left mixture were determined by using electronic balance Separated iron from the mixture. The masses of a magnet and a watch glass were determined by using electronic balance....

...Separation Techniques If one component of the mixture has magnetic properties, you can use a magnet to separate the mixture. Cobalt, iron and nickel all have magnetic properties. Note that not all metals are magnetic and magnetism is not a method to separate metals from non-metals. Gold, silver and mercury are examples of non-metal substances. Magnetism is however a way to separate magnetic substances from non-magnetic substances is. Magnetism as a separation method is done by taking any magnetic force (Electro magnets included) and moving it above an insoluble substance. Magnetism is only effective in insoluble substances. Examples of magnetic separation include the extraction of iron ore from surrounding silicate. Magnetic separation is also used to separate magnetic substances from waste water. Filtration is a technique that will separate a solid that has not yet dissolved in a liquid. Take a mixture of a solid and liquid and run it through a filter, the liquid will pass through the filter and you will be left with the sold. The filter has little holes in it that are small enough to only let liquid through. Filtration is not a technique to separate solids, separating solids like that is called sifting. Example of filtration includes your kidney. Kidneys use the same principals but with blood. Another example of filtration is when you make coffee. Making coffee includes...

... Title: Lab #3 Separation of a Mixture of Solids Purpose: To understand the different separation methods and techniques that depend on the chemical properties of a specific substance. Also to become more comfortable with performing those actions of separation so I have them in the future. For this experiment, I will separate a mixture of four distinct substances: sodium chloride, benzoic acid, silicon dioxide, and iron fillings into pure beings. Procedure: Materials: distilled water coffee cups (2) plastic wrap sheet of paper(2) small saucer paper towels crushed ice 100mL beaker, glass Burner fuel Burner-stand Cylinder, 25mL Funnel Goggles Digital scale Magnet bar Stirring rod Filter paper Mixture of solids(salt, sand, benzoic acid, iron fillings) Plastic weighing boat Procedure: 1. Separating out the Iron this method uses irons property of being magnetic to single it out from the other substances which do not respond to a magnet. a) Use scale to find the mass of your weighing boat. Then pour the mixture of solids into the boat and weigh it again. Then find the net mass of the mixture by taking the weight of the weighing boat and mixture and subtracting the mass of just the weighing boat. b) Spread mixture into a thin layer on a sheet of paper. Cut the second piece of paper into a...

... Lab #2 Separation of a Mixture of Solids Abstract The mixed solution contained benzoic acid, iron, table salt, and sand. When separated using water, fuel, or a magnet, their characteristics and properties changed. The mass of the entire mixed solids was 6.6 grams. When the magnet was used, the iron was immediately picked up. The mass for that was 1.7 grams. The table salt was 1.2 grams. Benzoic acid mass was 0.8 grams and the sand was 1.4 grams after being separated. Introduction The objective of this lab was to separate and examine different solutions within a solution. In order to separate each element different methods and techniques were used. Separating the iron filings wasn't difficult or lengthy; however it did require patience and a steady hand. Separating the benzoic acid and the table salt took the longest because it needed to air dry causing the water to evaporate. Methods While the water was boiling with the table salt, sand, and benzoic acid, the water got thick. It was difficult to separate the solids because they would get stuck to the bottom of the Styrofoam cup. In order to separate the iron filings a magnet was used. The solution first needed to be spread out on a piece of paper. As the magnet was ran over the solution, the iron filings were picked up. It took several tries to get all of the iron picked up. To separate the sand, the burner and distilled water was used. As it...

...Submitted: February 3, 2014 Title: Separation of a mixture of solids Purpose: Purpose: To determine and execute the separation of mixture of solids through different means. Examples are magnetisms, evaporation, and filtration Procedure: I used a measuring device such as a scale, funnel, beaker, magnet, saucer, and graduated cylinder to determine the values for each measurement. Data Table: Experiment data Grams Percent of Mixture Iron filings 1.4g 1.4/4.5*100 = 31.1% Sand 1.3g 1.3/4.5*100 = 28.9% Table salt 1.0g 1.0/4.5*100 = 22.2% Benzoic Acid 0.8g 0.8/4.5*100 = 17.8% Total 4.5g 100% A. I would have used the magnet to separate iron fillings as suggested in the lab. But I would have used the filter paper second to separate sand from rest of the solution rather than evaporation. B. Major disadvantages would have been not all the benzoic acid would pass through the filter paper which would make our procedure more difficult. C. Contamination of the other substances left in the sand.D. I feel there are four errors;1. Not thoroughly moving iron out with magnet.2. When pouring acid salt mixture into funnel some of the acid crystals stuck to the cup which made it difficult to get all sample out.3. Some of the benzoic acid might have passed through the filter paper into the salt water mixture. 4. Not proper dissolving the salt when separating it from the...

...LS Separation of Mixtures and Solids Purpose: To become familiar with the separation of mixtures of solids Hypothesis: I will be able to separate the materials using a variety of different methods. First, separate the iron fillings using a magnet. Second, I will put the rest of the solution into water and separate the insoluble sand from the soluble salt and benzoic acid. Third, I will filter out the benzoic acid when crystalized. Lastly, I will evaporate the water away leaving crystallized salt. Procedure: Separating Iron; 1) Use your digital scale to determine the mass of your weighing dish. 2) Empty the entire mixture from the plastic bag into the weighing dish and determine the gross mass of the total mixture and weighing dish. Compute the net mass of the mixture 3) Spread the mixture into a thin layer over a sheet of paper. 4) Cut a second piece of paper into a 10-cm square. Weigh and record its mass and set it aside. 5) Wrap some plastic over the magnet. Remove the iron powder/filings by passing the magnet over the surface of the mixture. Repeat several times to make sure youve collected all the iron. 6) Holding the magnet over the square of paper, remove the plastic and release all the iron to fall onto the paper. Weigh and determine the net mass of the iron powder Separating Sand; 1) Put the remaining...

...Separation of Mixtures 9/11/11 * Introduction: A compound is a pure chemical substance consisting of two or more different chemical elements that can be separated into simpler substances by chemical reactions. Unlike a compound, a mixture is a material system made up by two or more different substances which are mixed together but are not combined chemically. There are two kinds of mixtures, homogeneous and heterogeneous. Homogeneous mixtures have the same composition and appearance throughout, while heterogeneous mixtures consist of visibly different parts. The purpose of this experiment is to create and separate a heterogeneous mixture consisting of sawdust, sand, beads, salt, and water. The hypothesis of this experiment is that the materials can be separated back into their original forms with the same masses. * Materials: - 3.0 grams of salt(NaCl) -3.0 grams of sand, -3.5 grams of beads, - 2.0 grams of sawdust, - 300mL of water (H20), - Beakers -a funnel -scale -a hot plate -dishes -tweezers * Procedure: 1) Gather and weigh materials. 2) Pour water into beaker. 3) Measure amount of water. 4) Mix salt, sand, sawdust and beads into water. 5) Use tweezers to separate beads from water and put them in a dish. 6) Put funnel in separate beaker and a filter in the funnel. 7) Pour mixture into the funnel to filter the sand...

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