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production of natural and recycled aggregates: the environmental impacts of energy consumption and co 2 emissions | springerlink

production of natural and recycled aggregates: the environmental impacts of energy consumption and co 2 emissions | springerlink

Natural aggregates (NA) are crushed and processed in crushing plants after the extraction stage in quarries. In the present study, the aggregates are divided into three scenarios, depending on the production methods. The first scenario considers the production of NA, the second scenario deals with the production of recycled aggregates (RA) with respect to construction and demolition waste, and the third scenario, which is a hybrid scenario, handles the combination of NA and RA by assuming a 50% mixing percentage. In this research, we assess the environmental impacts on the production of aggregates via each scenario, using life cycle assessment; in addition, energy consumption and CO2 emissions are considered as the environmental variables. We conclude that Irans current policy with an annual energy consumption of 1.48 million tons of oil equivalent (toe) can have a footprint of 2.88 million tons of CO2 eq emissions per year (the first scenario). Achieving 30 and 36% reduction in annual energy consumption and CO2 emissions, respectively, by the third scenario compared to the first scenario indicates the destructive effect of the first scenario from the environmental outlook.

Arulrajah A, Piratheepan J, Disfani MM, Bo MW (2012) Geotechnical and geoenvironmental properties of recycled construction and demolition materials in pavement subbase applications. J Mater Civ Eng 25(8):10771088

Huang T, Shi F, Tanikawa H, Fei J, Han J (2013) Materials demand and environmental impact of buildings construction and demolition in China based on dynamic material flow analysis. Resour Conserv Recycl 72:91101

TUPRC (2013) City Knowledge Booklets, No. 199: Evalution the status of legal and organizational structure of waste management in the country. Tehran Urban Planning & Research Center, Tehran, Iran. http://pasmand.tehran.ir/Portals/0/Document/maghale/takhasosi/waste%20structure.pdf/. Accessed 10 May 2017

Hotta Y, Visvanathan C, Kojima M, Pariatamby A (2016) Developing 3R policy indicators for Asia and the Pacific region: experience from Regional 3R Forum in Asia and the Pacific. J Mater Cycles Waste Manage 18(1):2237

Petkovic G, Engelsen CJ, Hya AO, Breedveld G (2004) Environmental impact from the use of recycled materials in road construction: method for decision-making in Norway. Resour Conserv Recycl 42(3):249264

Woon KS, Lo IM (2016) An integrated life cycle costing and human health impact analysis of municipal solid waste management options in Hong Kong using modified eco-efficiency indicator. Resour Conserv Recycl 107:104114

Arulrajah A, Disfani MM, Horpibulsuk S, Suksiripattanapong C, Prongmanee N (2014) Physical properties and shear strength responses of recycled construction and demolition materials in unbound pavement base/subbase applications. Constr Build Mater 58:245257

PMO (2013) Road general technical specification no. 101. Second revision, Management and Planning Organization of Iran, Technical and administrative system, Tehran, Iran. http://bpms.mporg.ir/Portal/View/Viewer.aspx?ObjectType=SearchForm&ObjectId=6d488941-3b4d-407c-a16d-e90861c1f7f9&DashboardId=cf271f81-bb08-4b64-89b0-ac690b57bc93/. Accessed 18 May 2017

SCI (2016) Summary the results of census of mines operating in the country of 2015. Office of Industry, Mining and Infrastructure, Statistical Center of Iran, Tehran, Iran. https://amar.org.ir/Portals/0/Files/abstract/1394/ch_ntaamdhbbk_93.pdf/. Accessed 18 May 2017

This research project was a part of doctoral dissertation of the first author which is supported by Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran. Armin Monir Abbasi is the supervisor and Mehdi Ravanshadnia is the Advisor of Milad Ghanbaris doctoral dissertation. The authors gratefully acknowledge to the both companies for giving required data of study, and the anonymous reviewers.

Ghanbari, M., Abbasi, A.M. & Ravanshadnia, M. Production of natural and recycled aggregates: the environmental impacts of energy consumption and CO2 emissions. J Mater Cycles Waste Manag 20, 810822 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10163-017-0640-2

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