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gold mining equipment

gold mining equipment

911MPE hassmall gold mining equipment for sale andmore specifically mineral processing equipment. Our equipment is best used in small scale extractive metallurgyoperations operated by small miners or hobbyist prospectors and mining fanatics. 911MPE offers gold mining equipment as well as processing equipment applicable to most any base metals: copper, lead, zinc, nickel, tin, tungsten and more. For the relatively small size of equipment offered, sample preparation and metallurgical laboratories can economically buy good alternatives to the usually unaffordable equipment for sale in the classic market place.

911MPE has for target market what mining professionals consider the pilot-plant scale mining operation or artisanal mining operations with a focus around under 500TPD. Metals you can extract include: gold, silver or other of the precious group as well as the classic base metals; copper, lead, zinc, nickel, molybdenum. Much of our ultra-small scale equipment allows you to process from just a few kilo (pounds) per day and work on your passion for a small budget.

You can buy from us mineral processing equipment starting from crushing, grinding, classification, dredging, gravity separation, flotation, pumps, water treatment and smelting. A line of ovens, furnaces and laboratory equipment is also available.

Making a complete list of gold mining equipment starts with defining the type of gold mining you are doing and the budget you have at your disposal. The type of mining relates to hard rock,eluvial, or placer; alluvial deposits. The capital budget you have to invest in buying your equipment with dictate the scale at which you want to mine and influence the long-term operating costs of your mining operation.

Since most of the information online provides lists of gold mining equipment for amateur level mining with equipment like: gold pans, metal detectors, mini sluice box, blue bowl, geologist rock pick, soil scoop, hand screens/classifiers. The items listed just now fall closer to gold prospecting tools and equipment than actual mining.

I will present here what I consider are major equipment lists for 3 types of mining operations. Remember now, a metallurgist is writing. This will not be flawless and since my speciality is process equipment, that is mostly what will be discussed.

Some amateur level gold prospecting equipment such as metal detectors are often classified as mining equipment by small miners/prospectors operating as a hobby. These items include but are not limited to:

rp-4 gold shaker table sale

rp-4 gold shaker table sale

The RP-4 shaker table is the most widely used and most successful gold gravity shaking concentrating table worldwide, used by small and large mining operations and the hobbyist. The patented RP-4 is designed for separation of heavy mineral and gemstone concentrate. The RP-4 table can process up to 600 (typically 400) lbs. per hour of black sand magnetite or pulverised rock with little to no losses. The RP-4 uses a unique reverse polarity of rare earth magnets, which will cause the magnetite to rise and be washed off into the tails. This allows the micron gold to be released from the magnetite, letting the gold travelling to the catch. The RP-4 is compact and weighs 60 lbs. With a small generator and water tank, no location is too remote for its use. The RP-4 is a complete, ready to go gold recovery machine. THERE ARE NO SCREEN INCLUDED with the small shaking table. Use was reservoirsgreater than 250 gallon and recycle all your water. Only 400 Watt of power drawn by typical pump. The small RP4 gold shaking has a mini deck of 13wide x 36 long = 3.25 square feet of tabling area. The RP-4 is the best and longest selling small miner shaker table still on the market today. With many 1000s of units sold during the last 10 years! Review the RP-4 Operating Manual and Installation Guide lower on this page.

The RP-4 uses a unique reverse polarity of rare earth magnets which will cause the magnetite to rise and be washed off into the tails and allowing the micron gold to be released from the magnetite leaving the gold travelling to the catch.

When assembling the RP-4, it is very important to set it up correctly to get the best recovery. The unit needs to be bolted preferably to a concrete pad or bedrock when in the field. It can be weighted down with seven or eight large sandbags. Wooden stands will set up harmonics and vibrations in the unit. Vibrations will create a negative effect on the concentrating action of the deck and create a scattering effect on the gold. We would strongly advise getting the optional stand to mount it. See a detailed RP4 Shaker Table review.

Once you have the RP-4 mounted or weighted down, you will want to level it, place a level under the machine on the bar running attached to the two mounting legs. Use washers to get a precise level adjustment. Once mounted and leveled, use the adjustment screw to adjust the horizontal slope of the deck. It took me about 10 minutes of playing with the adjustment till you are satisfied the slope angle was where it needed to be. A general rule for good recovery is less grade for the table deck and as much water as possible without scouring off the fine gold particles.

When the table is set, wet down your black sand concentrates with water and a couple drops of Jet-Dry to help keep any fine gold from floating off the table. You are now ready to start feeding the RP-4.

DO NOT dump material into the feed tray. You want a nice steady feed without overloading the table. Use a scoop and feed it steadily. Watch the back where the small gold should concentrate. If you see fine gold towards the middle, adjust your table angle just a bit at a time till it is where it needs to be.

Run a few buckets of black sand tailings that already panned out just in case there might have been some gold left behind. Its a good thing, too, because I pulled almost three pennyweights of gold out of my waste materials. Thats a pennyweight per bucket!

You could run all of you concentrates over this awesome little RP-4 Gravity Shaker Table. Some ran bottles No. 1 and No. 2 over the table a second time and cleaned it up some more, getting out almost all of the sand in No. 1 and removing more than half the sand from No. 2. It was amazing to see a nice line of fine gold just dancin down the table into the bottle. And, to think you were was about to throw away all of that black sand that still had color in it! This machine is small enough for the prospector and small-scale miner who, like me, wants all of the gold for his or her hard work. The 911MPE-RP-4 Gravity Shaker Table is also big enough to clean up bucket after bucket of concentrates from a big operation! The RP4 people came up with the solution for getting all of the gold!

All RP4 shaker tables operate best when firmly secured to a dense solid mounting base. Wooden stands will set up harmonics and vibrations. Dense concrete or solid bedrock is preferred or a heavy braced steel table sitting on concrete. Mount shaker table to solid bed rock if possible when operating in the field. When that is not an option, six or seven sand bags may also be used if concrete or bedrock is not available for mounting.

Place a level on top of the steel bar that extends between the two bolts down mounting feet.Use flat washers installed under either end of the mounting feet for precise level adjustment in the long axis.

At no time should sand or slime be re-circulated back with mill water. Large, calm, surface areas are required to settle slimes. Buckets, barrels or any deep containers with turbulent water will not allow slimes to settle. Tailings should discharge into a tails pond or into a primary holding vessel before entering slime settling ponds. Surface area is more important than depth. A small 10 x 20 ft. settling pond can be installed in about 30 minutes. Shovel a 6 high retainer wall of earth and remove all gravel. Lay a soft bed of sand in the bottom. A small raised wall area (with the top approximately 2 blow water level) should be placed around the pump area. Roll out plastic liner and fill with water. Desert areas require a plastic cover to retard evaporation. Use a 24 wood across pond and lay plastic.

As with ponds, at no time should sand or slime be re-circulated back with mill water. A calm surface is needed in the final two barrels to settle slimes. (In lieu of the last two barrels, the discharge from barrel two may be directed to a settling pond as outlined above.)Turbulent water will not allow slimes to settle. Tailings are discharged into the first container.

A small compact tailings thickener introduces tailings feed at a controlled velocity in a horizontal feed design that eliminates the conventional free settling zone. The feed particles quickly contact previously formed agglomerates. This action promotes further agglomeration and compacting of the solids. Slowly rotating rakes aid in compacting the solids and moving them along to the discharge pipe, these solids are eventually discharged at the bottom of the unit. Under flow from the thickener 60-65% solids are processed through a vacuum filter and a90-95% solids is sent to the tailings area. Tailings thickeners are compact and will replace ponds. A 23 ft. diameter will process flow rates at 800 gpm or 50 tph.

Pine oils and vegetation oils regularly coat the surface of placer gold. Sometimes up to 50% of the smaller gold will float to the surface and into the tails. The pine oil flotation method for floating gold is still in use today. A good wetting agent will aid in the settling and recovery of oil coated gold.

Separation of concentrate from tails Minerals or substances that differ in specific gravity of2.5 or to an appreciable extent, can be separated on shaker tables with substantially complete recovery. A difference in the shape of particles will aid concentration in some instances and losses in others. Generally speaking, flat particles rise to the surface of the feed material while in the presence of rounded particles of the same specific gravity. Particles of the same specific gravity but varying in particle size, can be separated to a certain extent, varying in particle size, can be separated to a certain extent, removing the larger from the smaller, such as washing slime from granular products.

Mill practice has found it advantageous in having the concentrate particles smaller than the tailing product. Small heavy magnetite particles will crowd out larger particles of flat gold making a good concentrate almost impossible with standard gravity concentrating devices. The RP-4 table, using rare earth reverse polarity magnets, overcame this problem by lifting the magnetite out and above the concentrate material thus allowing the magnetite to be washed into the tails. This leaves the non-magnetics in place to separate normally.

No established mathematical relationship exists for the determination of the smallest size of concentrate particle and the largest size of tailing particle that can be treated together. Other factors, such as character of feed material, shape of particles, difference in specific gravity, slope or grade of table dock and volume of cross flow wash water will alter the final concentrate.

Size of feed material will determine the table settings. Pulverized rod mill pulps for gravity recovery tables should not exceed 65-minus to 100-minus 95% except where specific gravity, size, and shape will allow good recovery. Recovery of precious metals can be made when processing slime size particles down to 500-minus, if the accompanying gangue is not so coarse as to require excessive wash water or excessive grade to remove the gangue, (pronounced gang), to the tails. Wetting agents must be used for settling small micron sized gold particles. Once settled, 400-minus to 500 minus gold particles are readily moved and saved by the RP-4shaker table head motion. Oversized feed material will require excess grade to remove the large sized gangue,thus forcing large pieces of gold further down slope and into the middling. Too much grade and the fine gold will lift off the deck and wash into the tailings. Close screening of the concentrate into several sizes requires less grade to remove the gangue and will produce a cleaner product. A more economical method is to screen the head ore to window screen size (16-minus) or smaller and re-run the middling and cons to recover the larger gold. This concept can be used on the RP-4 shaker tables and will recover all the gold with no extra screens. A general rule for good recovery is less grade for the table deck and as much was water as possible without scouring off the fine gold. Re-processing on two tables will yield a clean concentrate without excess screening. Oversized gold that will not pass through window screen size mounted on RP-4 shaker tables, will be saved in the nugget trap. Bending a small 1/4 screen lip at the discharge end of the screen will trap and save the large gold on the screen for hand removal.

On the first run, at least one inch or more of the black concentrate line should be split out and saved into the #2 concentrate bin. This concentrate will be re-run and the clean gold saved into the #1 concentrate pocket. Argentite silver will be gray to dull black in color and many times this product would be lost in the middling if too close of a split is made.

The riffled portion of the RP-4 shaker table separates coarse non-sized feed material better than the un-riffled cleaning portion. Upon entering the non-riffled cleaning plane, small gangue material will crowd out and force the larger pieces of gold further down slope into the middling. Screen or to classify.

The largest feed particles should not exceed 1/16 in size. It is recommended that a 16-minus or smaller screen be used before concentrating on the RP-4 shaker table, eliminating the need for separate screening devices. Perfect screen sizing of feed material is un-economical, almost impossible, and is not recommended below 65-minus.

A classified feed is recommended for maximum recovery, (dredge concentrates, jig concentrates, etc.) The weight of mill opinion is overwhelmingly in favor of classified feed material for close work. Dredge concentrates are rough classified and limiting the upper size of table feed by means of a submerged deck screen or amechanical classifier is all that is necessary. A separate screen for the sand underflow is used for improved recovery when using tables.

Head feed capacity on the RP-4 tables will differ depending on the feed size, pulp mixture and other conditions. Generally speaking, more head feed material may be processed when feeding unclassified, larger screened sized material and correspondingly, less material may be processed when feeding smaller sized classified rod or ball mill pulps. Smaller classified feed material will yield a cleaner concentrate. Ultimately, the shape of the feed material particles and a quick trial test will determine the maximum upper size.

The width between the riffles of the RP-4 table is small and any particle over 1/8 may cause clogging of the bedding material. A few placer operators will pass 1/8 or larger feed material across the RP-4 table, without a screen, with the intent of making a rough concentrate for final clean up at a later date. This method will work, but excess horizontal slope/grade of the table deck must not be used as some losses of the precious metals will occur. Magnetite black sands feed material, passing a 16-minus screen (window screen size if 16-minus + or -) will separate without losses and make a good concentrate at approximately 500 to 600lbs feed per hour for the RP-4. Head feed material must flow onto the RP-4 screen, at a constant even feed rate. An excess of head feed material placed onthe table and screen at a given time will cause some gold to discharge into the tailings nugget trap. Head feed material should be fed at the end of the water bar into the pre-treatment feed sluice. Do not allow dry head feed material to form thick solids. The wash water will not wash and dilate the head feed material properly, thus allowing fine gold to wash into the tails.

Feed material should disperse quickly and wash down slope at a steady rate, covering all the riffles at the head end,washing and spilling over into the tails trough. A mechanical or wet slurry pump feeder (75% water slurry) is recommended for providing a good steady flow of feed material. This will relieve the mill operator of a tedious chore of a constantly changing concentrate line when hand feeding.

Eight gallons of water per minute is considered minimum for black sands separation/concentration on the RP-4 shaker table. 15 gallons of water per minute is consideredoptimum and will change according to feed material size, feed volume and table grade. A 1 inch hose will pass up to 15 gpm, for good recovery, wash water must completely cover the feed material 1/4 or more on the screen.

The PVC water distribution bar is pre-drilled with individual water volume outlets, supplying a precision water flow. Water volume adjustment can be accomplished by installing a 1 mechanical PVC ball valve for restricting the flow of water to the water distributing holes. Said valve may be attached between the garden hose attachment and water distributing bar.

More water at the head end and less water at the concentrate end is the general rule for precise water flow. More feed material will occupy the head end of the RP-4 shaker table deck in deep troughs and less material will occupy the concentrate end on the cleaning plane. A normal water flow will completely cover the feed material over the entire table and flow with no water turbulence.

A rubber wave cloth is installed to create a water interface and to smooth out all water turbulence. This cloth is installed with holes. Holes allow water to run underneath and over the top of the cloth and upon exiting will create a water interface smoothing out all the water turbulence. Bottom of water cloth must contact the deck.

Avoid excessive slope and shallow turbulent water.For new installations, all horizontal grade/slope adjustments should be calculated measuring from the concentrate end of the steel frame to the mounting base. For fine gold, the deck should be adjusted almost flat.

All head feed must be fed as a 75% water pulp. Clean classified sand size magnetite will feed without too much problem when fed dry. Ground rod or ball mill feed material 65-minus or smaller must be fed wet, (75% water slurry by weight or more) and evenly at a constant rate, spilling over into the tails drain troughat the head end of the table. Feed material without sufficient water will not dilute quickly andwill carry concentrate too far down slope or into the tails. A good wet pulp with a deflocculant and a wetting agent will aid the precious metals to sink and trap within the first riffles, thus moving onto the cleaning plane for film sizing. Round particles of gold will sink instantly and trap within the first riffles. The smaller flat gold particles will be carried further down slope to be trapped in the mid riffles. Potential losses of gold can occur if the table deck is overloaded by force feeding at a faster rate than the smaller flat gold can settle out. Under-feeding will result in the magnetites inability to wash out of the riffles, thus leaving a small amount of magnetiteconcentrated with the gold. A small addition of clean quartz sand added to a black sand concentrate will force the magnetite to the surface and will aid in its removal. Slimes require a separate table operation.

In flotation, surface active substances which have the active constituent in the positive ion. Used to flocculate and to collect minerals that are not flocculated by the reagents, such as oleic acid or soaps, in which the surface active ingredient is the negative ion. Reagents used are chiefly the quaternary ammonium compounds, for example, cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide.

A substance composed of extremely small particles, ranging from 0.2 micron to 0.005 micron, which when mixed with a liquid will not gravity separate or settle, but remain permanently suspended in solution.

A crusher is a machine designed to reduce large rocks into smaller rocks, gravel, or rock dust. Crushers may be used to reduce the size, or change the form, of waste materials so they can be more easily disposed of or recycled, or to reduce the size of a solid mix of raw materials (as in rock ore), so that pieces of different composition can be differentiated. Crushing is the process of transferring a force amplified by mechanical advantage through a material made of molecules that bond together more strongly, and resist deformation more, than those in the material being crushed do. Crushing devices hold material between two parallel ortangent solid surfaces, and apply sufficient force to bring the surfaces together togenerate enough energy within the material being crushed so that its molecules separate from (fracturing), or change alignment in relation to (deformation), each other. The earliest crushers were hand-held stones, where the weight of the stone provided a boost to muscle power, used against a stone anvil. Querns and mortars are types of these crushing devices.

A basic alkali material, such as sodium carbonate or sodium silicate, used as an electrolyte to disperse and separate non-metallic or metallic particles. Added to Slip to increase fluidity. Used to aid in the beneficiation of ores, to convert into individual very fine particles, creating a state of colloidal suspension in which the individual particles of gold will separate from clay or other particles. This condition being maintained by the attraction of the particles for the dispersing medium, water, purchase at any chemical house.

Manner in which the intensity and direction of an electrical or magnetic field change as a function of time that results from the superposition of two alternating fields, (+/-) that differ in direction and in phase.

The smelting of metallic ores for the recovery of precious metals, requiring a furnace heat. Each milligram of recovered precious metal is gravimetric weighed and reported as one ounce pershort ton. Atomic Absorption (AA finish) is the preferred method for replacing the gravimetric weighing system.

A reagent added to a dispersion of solids in a liquid to bring together the fine particles to form flocs and which thereby promotes settling, especially in clays and soils. For example, lime alters the soil pH and acts as a flocculent in clay soils. Acid reagents and brine are also used as a flocculent.

The method of mineral separation in which a froth created in water with air and by a variety of reagents floats some finely crushed minerals, whereas other minerals sink. Separate concentrates are made possible by the use of suitable depressors and activators.

An igneous oxide of iron, with a specific gravity of 5.2 and having an iron content of 65-70% or more. Limonite crystals, sometimes mistaken for magnetite, occurs with the magnetite and sometimes may contain gold. Vinegar will remove gold locked in limonite coated magnetite.

In materials processing a grinder is a machine for producing fine particle size reduction through attrition and compressive forces at the grain size level. See also CRUSHER for mechanisms producing larger particles. Since the grinding process needs generally a lot of energy, an original experimental way to measure the energy used locally during milling with different machines was proposed recently.

A typical type of fine grinder is the ball mill. A slightly inclined or horizontal rotating cylinder is partially filled with balls, usually stone or metal, which grinds material to the necessary fineness by friction and impact with the tumbling balls. Ball mills normally operate with an approximate ball charge of 30%. Ball mills are characterized by their smaller (comparatively) diameter and longer length, and often have a length 1.5 to 2.5 times the diameter. The feed is at one end of the cylinder and the discharge is at the other. Ball mills are commonly used in the manufacture of Portland cement and finer grinding stages of mineral processing. Industrial ball mills can be as large as 8.5 m (28 ft) in diameter with a 22 MW motor, drawing approximately 0.0011% of the total worlds power. However, small versions of ball mills can be found in laboratories where they are used for grinding sample material for quality assurance.

A rotating drum causes friction and attrition between steel rods and ore particles. But note that the term rod mill is also used as a synonym for a slitting mill, which makes rods of iron or other metal. Rod mills are less common than ball mills for grinding minerals.

Screening is the separation of solid materials of different sizes by causing one component to remain on a surface provided with apertures through which the other component passes. Screen size is determined by the number of openings per running inch. Wire size will affect size of openings. -500=500 openings per inch is maximum for gravity operations due to having a solid disperse phase.

Long established in concentration of sands or finely crushed ores by gravity. Plane, rhombohedra deck is mounted horizontally and can be sloped about its axis by a tilting screw. Deck is molded of ABS plastic, and has longitudinal riffles dying a discharge end to a smooth cleaning area. An eccentric is used to create a gentle forward motion, compounded to full speed and a rapid return motion of table longitudinally. This instant reverse motion moves the sands along, while they are exposed to the sweeping and scouring action of a film of water flowingdown slope into a launder trough and concentrates are moved along to be discharged at the opposite end of the deck.

A material of extremely fine particle size encountered in ore treatment, containing valuable ore in particles so fine, as to be carried in suspension by water. De-slime in hydrocyclones before concentrating for maximum recovery of precious metals.

A mixture of finely divided, micron/colloidal particles in a liquid. The particles are so small that they do not settle, but are kept in suspension by the motion of molecules of the liquid. Not amenable to gravity separation. (Bureau of Mines)

Flotation process practiced on a shaking table. Pulverized ore is de-slimed, conditioned with flotation reagents and fed to table as a slurry. Air is introduced into the water system and floatable particles become glom rules, held together by minute air bubbles and positive charged edge adhesion. Generated froth can be discharged into the tailings launder trough or concentrates.

The parts, or a part of any incoherent or fluid material separated as refuse, or separately treated as inferior in quality or value. The gangue or valueless refuse material resulting from the washing, concentration or treatment of pulverized head ore. Tailings from metalliferous mines will appear as sandy soil and will contain no large rock, not to be confused with dumps.

A substance that lowers the surface tension of water and thus enables it to mix more readily with head ore. Foreign substances, such as natural occurring pine oils, vegetation oils and mill grease prevent surface wetting and cause gold to float. Addition agents, such as detergents, (dawn), wetting out is a preliminary step in deflocculating for retarding gold losses.

RP4 shaker table for sale mini gold shaker table RP4 shaker table instructions RP4 shaker table dimensions RP4 gold shaker table RP 4 gravity shaker table utech RP4 shaker table RP 4 gravity shaker table price used RP4 shaker table for sale

Global mining solutions warrants that all mining equipment manufactured will be as specified and will be free from defects in material and workmanship for a period of one year for the RP-4. Providing that the buyer heeds the cautions listed herein and does not alter, modify or disassemble the product, gms liability under this warranty shall be limited to the repair or replacement upon return to gms if found to be defective at any time during the warranty. In no event shall the warranty extend later than the date specified in the warranty from the date of shipment of product by GMS. Repair or replacement, less freight, shall be made by gms at the factory in Prineville, Oregon, USA.

All bearings are sealed and no grease maintenance is required. Do not use paint thinners, or ketones to clean your deck. A small amount of grease should be applied to the adjustable handle which is used for the changing the slope of the deck.

Do not allow the RP-4 to stand in direct sunlight without water. Always keep covered and out of the sun when not in use. Heat may cause the deck to warp. Do not lift or pull on the abs plastic top, always lift using the steel frame. Do not attach anything to the abs plastic top. Do not attach PVC pipe to concentrate discharge tubes, constant vibration from the excess weight will cause stress failure of the plastic.

xrf analyzer equipment for sale

xrf analyzer equipment for sale

Were going to do a quick intro to pXRF and pXRD principles and how they work. Then, were going to focus on pXRF, and work through the products, some of the suggested operating procedures, and then spend a bit of time looking at good references, case studies, and applications.

Were have complete geoscience solution; we have diffraction, which can gives us quantitative minerology. So if were looking at this slide, on the top left we can actually derive the amount of minerals so they can quantify them. We have X-ray fluorescence, which is chemistry. We get very good, almost lab grade results if were doing the right job. And then, we also have the ability to look at structural properties of geo sites as well through microscopy, or optical minerology, or petrology, which is again, the backbone of what we learn at university when were looking at minerology. Its the gold standard in a lot of ways.

Breaking it down to the products. And again, today were just going to focus on the portable products. This is our XRF products. Again, chemistry. We have the new VANTA Series handheld, which Ill explain a little bit in the next section. We have the DELTA, which has been the workforce for a good six or seven years now. Many people are familiar with our DELTA Series handheld. And then, Im just going to mention we have some portable bench-tops, some sort of customized smaller systems, as well as our process, and online, and sorting systems as well. If youd like more information about the other products, feel free to get in contact with us after the webinar.

And the one slide which Ive got for microscopy is that we have a bunch of solutions from stereo microscopes to the polarizing microscopes and the metallurgical microscopes, which are all around optical mineralogy. Again, if you need more information, we can point you to the product managers and the specialists in the microscope business.

With XRF and XRD, as you wouldve read in the webinar intro, this talk is essentially targeting people whove got an existent background in the physics. So, Ill keep it quite simple. But again, if you need more information about how the fundamentals work, we can provide you with that. X-ray fluorescence, we shot an X-ray on the sample, we use a technique called EDS, so its Energy Dispersive XRF, where were basically able to get characteristic X-ray back for each element. We measure them in a spectre, we quantify them, and thats what we use to get a quantitative result for each element. Diffractions collect different. Were basically getting the shinning and x-Ray on a sample, were looking at diffraction of the mineral layers within each compound. Theyre all crystal structure. And we end with a diagnostic fingerprint for each mineral. And then, again, we can quantify that using processing techniques.

Many of you know the periodic table continues to give better coverage and better sensitivity. Weve looked at this many times over the years. And essentially, what were looking at in the grain is elements that we can get down to low PPM levels. So with modern X-Ray tubes and with silicon drift detectors, we can now do a really good job across pretty much the whole periodic table. And especially the light elements. The new systems give us the ability to things like magnesium, aluminum, silicon, to labels that weve not been able to do before.

And if we start to look at the market now, we play work different parts of industry. We call it the Mining Value Chain. We start with geoscience research, with geological surveys, we then move to mineral exploration, where were developing around existing operations. We then move into the grade control area where weve got systems trying to make real-time decisions around materials and destination of materials. From there, were able to use that to form the processing division of the business around geometallurgy and aspects of decision-making on chemistry and minerology. And then, at the very backend of the business, we can also play a role in mine closure, and in the environmental business around looking at solar irradiation and contaminated land. Theres one separate business, which we have a nice sort of segue way into, which is around maintenance. A lot of our tools we use for NDT, and for Alloy, and PMI, and things like oil. And again, if youd like more information on that, which Im not going to cover today, we can point you in the right direction.

To dial it down a little bit, and to focus on XRF in particular and this is where Id like to just quickly talk about our new offering. In September, weve released our fifth generation handheld called VANTA. Its a complete revolution in the industry. Its ten plus years of, basically, building an instrument thats been specifically designed for our market. And when I say that, the core pillars are around ruggedization. So we now have IP67 rating, dust and water proof, we have very high temperature ratings, up to 50 degrees C for geocycle. And one of the cool things that will detect a shadow, the mechanical eye lid that come down and protect the detector. We also revolutionary XRF technology, which is all about better accuracy, better precision, and higher cap rates, which means we can do more work faster, with higher accuracy and higher precision. And in the productivity space, we have a whole bunch of new cool stuff coming around cloud-enabled data processing, we have things like embedded GPS, new software its a revolution in handheld XRF.

The products aside, where weve really established ourselves as, essentially, the industry leaders is We all know that XRF can do a great job, but theres a bunch of things that we need to do. And its very similar to what the lab has to do when they process our samples, its all around best practice. We put out a blog, and we had a week called Geoscience Week where we put out a guide called A Quickstart Guide for Best Practices in Portable XRF.

So, we look at the start. We need to start with designing an orientation survey. A lot of that is around standard operating procedure, chain of custody, QA/QC, all things that as geologists were very comfortable dealing with our normal lab regime. This paper that was published and I was a co-publisher, it was a cornerstone paper, which goes to each one of these procedures, around each part of the procedure. Selecting a sample. Preparation what do we want to look at around sample preparation? Data handling, data custody. And then, what do we actually want to do with the data when were finished.

And the next slide is all about selecting what sample. What are we working with? Are we working with bio-geochemical samples? Are we working with soils? Are we working around a drill rig where were taking precaution, or where we actually want to look at drill quill? So, we have to make a decision about the way were going to analyze that sample, and then move forward with the process.

And this slide encompasses a few of the really key aspects. Probably the main one, in the top right corner, is grainsize. And we know that if we have homogenous good materials, were going to get a good result. But if were analyzing course grain materials, were going to get very erratic and heterogeneous results. Similarly, if were running through bags, were going to get attenuation thats obviously going to affect the calibration, its going to dilute our results. So were able to do that, but we need to make sure sap specific calibration is built up to take care of all of those things. And on the left, its an example of how to actually select the right type of soil to get out a sample. Were looking at a soil horizon here, with different parts of the stratigraphy to leave different types of metal due to things like redox and chemical reactions going on in the ground itself. Were actually able to use portable XRF to tell us what sample has the accumulation of metals, and which sample is going to get us the best results.

As the manufacturer, we do the best job we can to give you guys a robust calibration out of the box. We do have lots of different standards, and lots of different samples, but at the end of the day, you want to make sure that youll qualify an instrument, and youre doing the right thing around looking at the performance of the XRF versus certified reference materials. Theres an example of a company, very well-known with research in Australia, who have very good standards that we can after. And this shows portable XRF versus them. Its iron, in this particular case. And if were doing the right thing, we get the same result. So, its very encouraging.

And this is XRF instrument which you can go and buy off the shelf. Theres some pricing there. This is the packaging. You get a nice little portable XRF standards package you can take out into the field for any sampling regime.

The next step in the process that were really very comfortable and very used to doing, is coming on site, and developing site-specific standards. Were working with site-specific standards because the final refinement, or the final tuning or tweaking call it what you will is actually tailoring the XRF to do the absolute perfect job for the type of rocks that youre working with. And what we can see in the bottom left hand corner here is a set of 45 or 47 samples for a very low range metal. In this particular example, its copper and iron in an IOCG deposit. And we built a calibration, and basically, tweaked the calibration so wed get a one to one rating and a 99% correlation to make sure that youre very confident that the analyzer is doing the right job.

As I mentioned earlier, one of the critical points with portable XRF is around sample presentation. And again, we have a whole lot of solutions and a whole lot of expertise around providing that guidance, and providing recommendations on what sort of tools and equipment we can use in the field. Again, if youd like more information, we can certainly point you into the right direction with some of these companies, whether itd be drilling a hole in a sample, or taking a sample right through lead-based, you know, a ring mill or a jewel crusher to get 95% of your sample passing 75 micron. The more that we get towards that, the better results we can achieve in the field.

And if we just want to spend a few seconds focusing just of field-based sampling solutions, theres some fairly well-known bits of equipment out there which you can go and purchase, including this rock grinder for sample either across a wall or a phase underground, or theres this small hammer mill up on the right hand side, which we can use for crushing things like RC chips or soil thats not quite homogenous enough in the field. And you can take these out in the field, run them off 12 volt system off a car. And you can quite easily obtain lab grade results in the field.

And then, more of the Complete Solution level. We have a company that we work in tandem with around creating and developing a full solution. And thats crushing and grinding. We have a sample press. A sample press enables to create a puck without a consumable, it doesnt require a window, which means that youre getting a lot better XRF performance without having attenuation. They also have systems, which flows in the laboratory. Its a laboratory information management system, which manages the chain of custody, the standards, it merges the real-time QA/QC actually while youre running the sample. So, it gives you confidence that youre getting good results whilst youre actually running the samples.

And a key part of what were dealing with is how do we deliver our data in real-time. And anybody who uses the portable XRF knows that we can generate a lot of data very, very quickly. Weve got spreadsheets of multi-element data arriving all over the place. I quite often see people with laptops where theyve got 20 or 30 spreadsheets altogether on the one page, and it gets quite difficult. But having solutions, like this one Ive got up on the screen, the data can arrive into a real-time web portal, it can be QA/QC validated, it can be managed remotely, and then we can get an output, which is designed to be doing exactly what the client would like to see. Roll out of bed in the morning before they go and see the drill rig, and they can see the data on their iPhone, and say, Oh, look, were drilled through the contact, now we need to stop the drill, and make that decision, save lots of money, and then move the drills to the next site. Its all about real-time decision-making.

And then, once we have all that data, its what do we do with it. And as geologists, we generally pass that into a 3D model, we use that 3D model for a lot of things, we use it for mine design, we use it for vectoring towards mineralization, were targeting where were going to drill next. And we have tools, where we have our portable XRF data arrive into a classification system, as in the right hand corner there. The rocks get classified, and then passed straight into a 3D model. So its all about expediting the chain of custody of the data that usually can take months, even up to half a year to get this data into a model and start working with it.

And then, the one small part Im going to talk about a little bit is about how we take that data, and how do we report that data to the market. And again, its been quite controversial in the past, myself and a few others involved around pXRF technologies spent some time with this and said, Well, lets include some of these sampling techniques, some of the recommended procedures when people want to report the data so they can go to table one, we can get some information, and we can get some recommendations on what we need to do to report it. Again, for those whod like more information, weve got lots of good examples with companies who do this the right way, and what you should be looking at to put out in the market.

One of the very well-known industry initiatives that happened a couple of years ago, up here, in Canada, ran by a very well-known geochemist, where we had a bunch of industry companies who sponsored, and we worked through the quality control and assessment of portable XRF. It was all about bench marking. What can XRF do? How can we develop standard operating procedures on variable media? And how can we recommend the best use? Again, thats a great reference, its about 500 pages of reports and data there. And you can go to the its actually on the Association of Applied Geochemists website and download the report. Its a great reference.

And as part of that work, an editor of Geo Magazine, we put together a thematic set. So, two complete issues of Geo which were completely dedicated to portable XRF. And that was where companies and institutions submitted papers on best practices and what theyve done. So, its a great reference out there for those who are looking for papers and for direction on where to head.

An example in Finland, was put together in a special report, which has a whole chapter on portable XRF. And for this particular example, it was looking at Geo chemistry, and how theyre effectively using portable XRF to do that. And in light of that, and actually many years ago, about 15 years ago this is an example of geological survey of Canada with using a similar technique, theyre using litho-geochemistry, so using the chemistry to tell us what part of the stratigraphy and what rock types are in. And what were looking at here, on this downhole plot is the blue data is ICP thats lab data and the red data is XRF, and were getting very agreeable results between the two datasets. And from there, theyre able to work out the rock type, determine the stratigraphy, and basically, adapt and design their drill program in real-time.

Moving forward, an organization that weve worked with a lot in Australia, kind of the coalface and the cutting edge of pXRF technology is that we know the data is very, very good. And when we look at these plots, we can see extremely good agreement between elements. In geoscience, we use certain elements to tell us certain things. We use arsenic as a very string proxy for gold mineralization, we use things like titanium, zirconium, and chrome. They are mobile to mobile element ratios to tell us what are rock types are. And if take that dotted board, were actually able to use that to start to predict and work out what rock types are, and take the subjectivity and some of the fuzziness out of logging rocks. And what were looking at here, its an advanced algorithm its actually called wavelet tessellation where were using iron through a project that was developed through a group which was a large research initiative in Australia. And we can use iron through a wave of tessellation to, basically, break out the rocks and start to break it down into different scales of features that were seeing, you know, first order versus second order versus third order features, and to help that and assist us in breaking up the rock types, which may not be visually obvious for people to pick out in the field.

Moving from the R&D and the geo survey applications, its the first place that we tested XRF and our businesses, generally around soil sampling. So soil sampling works very, very well if fine-grained samples are able to move about on the surface of the earth. And that geochemistry very, very rapidly. And in this particular example, we managed to cover this area, and basically, build up a real-time geochemical map very rapidly. From there, we could move around, we could decide where were we going to go next, and we can use that as a decision-making tool on how were going to change our sample program on the site. One of the really cool things about having assay data right from the field is that you dont just get one element. In the last example we were just saying copper, but now, in this particular example, which is the same dataset, we can see every element side by side. So we have copper, lead, zinc, and we get to see the way the different metals are moving around in the system, and we can see whats mobile and whats not. We can see contamination overprint. For working in an area around the mine, we can see where theres sulfur and sulphides that have been delivered around roads and things like that.

And if we start to talk about the return on investment, and what we ca actually get out of portable XRF, well, the value proposition, the current example I have up on the screen was one of the users in Australia, and it shows what can be achieved with one month with one instrument. And in this particular example, they were able to go out and do very detailed, very fine geochemical sampling over a known area of mineralization its South Australia, around the Burra Copper deposits, which is one of the biggest copper deposits in the world and delineate exactly where they were going to go and drill next. And again, this is several years ago as the technology was emerging. It got the company into the place that they needed to to make those decisions.

As we go further down the value chain, once we have an anomaly, once we have a target, the first thing were going to do is start drilling it. And some of the early drill procedures we might use XRF. In this particular example, were using auger drilling in West Africa. We can see the samples are being brought into a bench-top system. Weve got a small little XRF added in the hood. The samples are being run in a very good chain of custody with great validation. And then, were using that data to classify the rock types, because in that area we cant actually tell what the geology is. Were in an area of residual surface. In this example, we can actually map out the grainstone built amongst the sediments, and then we know where to go and target, because were looking for orogenic gold. So its a very, very powerful tool for delimitating the stratigraphy through what would usually be very difficult to look at.

And sticking on the gold theme, the next example I have up on the screen gives us an example of what the geochemical signatures and what the common pathfinders are that were going to use for going out and looking for gold. And one of the things that Ill state up front and we have for many years is that portable XRF is not very good for gold, but theres a whole host of elements which we can use to go and look for gold, which we call pathfinders. And in this example, at the top here, we can see one of those elements, with ICP versus the same element with portable XRF. And were getting exactly the same map, which means that were very confident that portable XRF is doing the same job.

A little bit of a gold theme here. And thats because the gold business, to us, has been a very effective place where weve, obviously, put a lot of instruments into. And its also an application, weve developed a lot of tools and techniques. This particular paper which I have now on the screen was an example several years ago. A fellow who put together a program at Plutonic Gold Mine to, basically, define stratigraphy and use it for geometallurgical work, which were going to have a look in a couple of slides on the next page.

He was able to, basically, reconstruct the stratigraphic model around Plutonic. Basically, its a sequence of bath salts where the bath salts flow in the basis, so in-between flows the gold deposits along those surfaces and substrates, which in the top corner, the red circles, were looking at chrome versus gold. So, as we step down the stratigraphy, the gold accumulates on the stratigraphic boundaries. Now, when theyre able to do 3D surfaces of that, where they can actually model that, and then use that as a tool for vectoring and for modeling where they think the next gold occurrence is going to be, or look for extensions of the orebody. He was also able to take that data and domain it out in a deposit thats quite difficult. Its a refractory gold deposit, its got high arsenic, its got free milling gold versus refractory gold. Essentially, as the arsenic grade goes up, the recovery drops. So what they were able to do was blend and change the process and technologies so they could optimize recovery based on the material that was being delivered to the mill. And again, its an excellent example of having a dataset which they didnt have the past to drive better recoveries, and to get better results in the mill.

The other cool things weve added in the last few years is the camera and collimator feature. And what they give you the ability to do is actually use the XRF with a focusing mechanism. So, with using the camera, we can collimate down so we can change the size of the zoom to look at a bit smaller things. We can actually use that microstructural assessment. Were looking at grain particular or phase particular work. We have some gold grains in those particular examples, which would be quite difficult to observe by the eye, but with an XRF and a camera, we can do a great job.

Moving on to grade control now, we have an example here of iron ore in Australia where our neo systems have the ability to take something that amounts to a 90-second test, and do it within 15 seconds. So what weve got here is iron, essentially in 90 seconds versus 15 seconds, and against Silicon. This is an example where a lot of elements perform extremely well. And its hard to believe even for myself that we can deliver such good data in such rapid time, which means that you can put a lot of samples through that you may not have been able before, and you can make decisions much faster than youve ever been able to before.

On the second slide, were looking at aluminum and phosphorus. In looking at the deleterious settlements in iron ores. So the last example I have here, its a very hot topic at the moment, the whole lithium factories business is, obviously, very energized at the moment pardon my pun. And its technique where we can actually use portable XRF and XRD together. Because if were looking for lithium, theres a bunch of very cool elements in the periodic table, one being rubidium. It fractions into lithium within the same sort of ratios that we see in lithium. And the other thing that we need to do is look at the minerology. So, we might have a lithium deposit, but it doesnt necessarily mean we can mine it. The XRD is a fantastic tool. Were looking at what phase is it in, were looking at if its spodumene, or if its petalite.

Its been one of the applications weve had a lot of success with. And for those geologists that have worked particularly in various gold deposits, its the hydrothermal fluids, I mean particularly orogenic and epithermal or high solvation systems. They generally have different elements that come along with them. Arsenic is probably the silver bullet. We get very strong association in some orebodies obviously, not all where we can use arsenic in a ratio to give us a ballpark relatively, not always absolute of the gold grade. We have many examples, and many published examples that show how well that can work.

What is X-ray fluorescence and what is XRF? XRF is X-ray fluorescence; thats what it stands for and its a method to get fast, non-destructive elemental information about the sample that you have in front of the analyzer.

What type of samples or applications would you be using XRF? The most common application is for scrap sorting. A scrap dealer gets more money if he knows that his stuff is all the same thing. So when they go to melt it off, they can make new stuff out of that. So, thats really what we do as we say okay, its this grade of metal or that particular grade of metal. And they can sort it into light piles and sell it for more money, and so thats where the value gets added, by knowing what you have.

What other type of applications is XRF being used for? Theres some other metal applications which are for positive material identification which are in oil refineries. You need to know that the pipes that you install there are what theyre supposed to be, so they dont corrode too fast and leak and create a health hazard. But theres a lot more than just metals it can go on to soils for mining or for environmental, if youre looking at like lead in soil and a number of other things like that. Theres consumer products looking to make sure about lead in toys, its even used in archaeometry to look at what paintings are made of, because its non-destructive you can use it on pretty much anything.

Do you have to be highly trained to understand how to use this equipment? No, all the difficult mathematics and all that stuff goes on kind of behind the scenes, so weve made it pretty straightforward to use. With a quick safety training in most regions of the world you can be up and running in a couple of minutes.

Are there any other alternatives to XRF? XRF has kind of a unique space in that it gives you quick answers out in the field because you can take the portable instruments out to your sample. And there are a bunch of laboratory techniques that can be a lot more precise, but those usually involve bringing the sample back to the lab, they require like a lot of digestion and work and sample preparation in the lab, and they also destroy a little bit of the sample. So they have some limitations. Some people would send things into a lab, youre doing this more on location.

How long does it take to do a sample? That really depends on what kind of answer you want to get. For a lot of the scrap sorting, we can get an answer in a second or two in terms of what type of metal it is. Some of the metals are more challenging, it might take 15-20 seconds. In the mining kind of space, theyre looking for usually some very detailed information and the test can take a minute or two. But its again relatively quick compared to the hours of digestion you might have to do in the lab or when you send it off to a lab out, waiting for them to get to it. If you expedite it and pay the extra fees, cause youve got that much time in transit time alone sending it off to a lab. So the immediacy of XRF is really one of the big selling points for it.

All XRF instruments are designed around two major components: a X-ray source, commonly an X-ray tube and a detector. Primary X-rays are generated by the source and directed at the sample surface sometimes passing through a filter to modify the X-ray beam.

When the beam hits the atoms in the sample, they react by generating secondary X-rays that are collected and processed by a detector. Now, lets look at what happens to the atoms in the sample during the analysis. A stable atom is made out of a nucleus and electrons orbiting it. The electrons are arranged in energy levels or shells, and different energy levels can hold different numbers of electrons.

When the high energy primary X-ray collides with an atom, it disturbs its equilibrium. An electron is ejected from a low-energy level and a vacancy is created, making the atom instable. To restore stability, an electron from a higher energy level falls into this vacancy. The excess energy released as the electron moves between the two levels is emitted in the form of a secondary X-ray. The energy of the emitted X-ray is characteristic of the element.

This means that XRF provides qualitative information about the sample measured. However, XRF is also a quantitative technique. The X-rays emitted by the atoms in the sample are collected by a detector and processed in the analyzer to generate a spectrum, showing the X-rays intensity peaks versus their energy. As we have seen, the peak energy identifies the element. Its peak area or intensity gives an indication of its amount in the sample.

The analyzer then uses this information to calculate a samples elemental composition. The whole process from pressing the Start button or trigger, to getting the analysis results can be as quick as two seconds, or it can take several minutes.

Compared to other analytical techniques, XRF has many advantages. Its fast, it measures a wide range of elements and concentrations in many different types of materials, its non-destructive and requires no or very little sample preparation and its very low-cost compared to other techniques. Thats why so many people around the world are using XRF on a daily basis to analyze materials. If you want to find out more about our range of XRF analyzers, please visit our website.

Gold, silver, platinum and their alloys, the gold XRF analyzer can measure them all. The gold analyzer quickly and accurately determines the karatage of gold items, the purity of silver items and any other metals that are in the piece. The gold analyzer was designed with the jewelry industry in mind. Its small footprint wont take up valuable counter space and it can test any piece of jewelry in seconds.

Testing couldnt be easier. Just place, close and tap. The gold XRF analyzer is safe for any user. It can only test samples when the lid is shut, and the flashing light on the top lets you know when the test is actually taking place. Compact, accurate, fast.

Gold XRF testing is completely nondestructive. The sample is not affected or harmed in any way. The gold analyzers viewing window and well-lit chamber allows both operator and customer to see the sample as it is being analyzed.

Karat Mode or the more comprehensive Chemistry Analysis Mode can be selected. The gold analyzer uses X-ray fluorescence, a nondestructive and fast analytical method to test samples. Its easy to use and adapts to nearly any sample size or shape. An integrated camera allows the gold analyzer to focus on and get results from individual components. This is useful when testing pieces that include gemstones.

The gold XRF analyzer offers the convenience of portability as well. An optional battery pack allows testing on the go. The gold analyzer weight only 22 pounds, about 10kg and combined with its custom carrying case can go anywhere you need it to.

small ball mills for sale

small ball mills for sale

Our small-scale miners Ball Mills use horizontal rotating cylinders that contain the grinding media and the particles to be broken. The mass moves up the wall of the cylinder as it rotates and falls back into the toe of the mill when the force of gravity exceeds friction and centrifugal forces. Particles are broken in the toe of the mill when caught in the collisions between the grinding media themselves and the grinding media and the mill wall. In ball mills, the grinding media and particles acquire potential energy that becomes kinetic energy as the mass falls from the rotating shell. Ball mills are customarily divided into categories that are mainly defined by the size of the feed particles and the type of grinding media.

Intermediate and fine size reduction by grinding is frequently achieved in a ball mill in which the length of the cylindrical shell is usually 1 to 1.5 times the shell diameter. Ball mills of greater length are termed tube mills, and when hard pebbles rather than steel balls are used for the grinding media, the mills are known as pebble mills. In general, ball mills can be operated either wet or dry and are capable of producing products on the order of 100 um. This duty represents reduction ratios as great as 100.

The ball mill, an intermediate and fine-grinding device, is a tumbling drum with a 40% to 50% filling of balls. The material that is to be ground fills the voids between the balls. The tumbling balls capture the particles in ball/ball or ball/liner events and load them to the point of fracture. Very large tonnages can be ground with these devices because they are very effective material handling devices. The feed can be dry, with less than 3% moisture to minimize ball coating, or a slurry can be used containing 20% to 40% water by weight. Ball mills are employed in either primary or secondary grinding applications. In primary applications, they receive their feed from crushers, and in secondary applications, they receive their feed from rod mills, autogenous mills, or semi-autogenous mills. Regrind mills in mineral processing operations are usually ball mills, because the feed for these applications is typically quite fine. Ball mills are sometimes used in single-stage grinding, receiving crusher product. The circuits of these mills are often closed with classifiers at high-circulating loads.

All ball mills operate on the same principles. One of these principles is that the total weight of the charge in the mill-the sum of the weight of the grinding media, the weight of the material to be ground, and any water in the millis a function of the percentage of the volume of the mill it occupies.

The power the mill draws is a function of the weight of the charge in the mill, the %of volumetric loading of the mill, the %of critical speed, which is the speed in RPM at which the outer layer of the charge in the mill will centrifuge.

For closed grinding circuits producing typical ball mill products, indirect and direct on-line measurements of the product size are available. The indirect means are those which assume that the product size is relatively constant when the feed condition to the classifying unit and the operating conditions in the classifying unit are constant. One example is maintaining a constant mass flow, pulp density and pressure in the feed to the cyclone classifier.

By using math modeling, it is possible to calculate the product size from measured cyclone classifier feed conditions and circuit operating data, thus establishing the effect on the particle size distribution in the product for changes in the variables.

Direct on-line means to measure either particle size or surface area are available for typical ball mill circuit products. These require the means to obtain representative or at least consistent samples from the grinding circuit product stream. These direct means and the calculated product particle size distributions can be used to:

Small variations in the feed size to ball mill circuits generally is not critical to the calculation of operating work index because they make a very small change in the 10F factor. Thus, a computer program can be developed to calculate operating work indices from on-line data with the feed size a constant and with the program designed to permit manually changing this value, as required to take into account changes in feed size resulting from such things as drawing down feed bins, crusher maintenance, work screen surfaces in the crushing plant, etc. which are generally known in advance, or can be established quickly. Developments underway for on-line measurement of particle size in coarser material which when completed will permit measuring the feed size used to calculate operating work indices.

recorded by a data logger, gives continuous means to report comminution circuit performance and evaluate in-plant testing. Changes in Wio indicated on data loggers alert operating and supervisory personnel that a change has occurred in either the ore or in circuit performance. If sufficient instrumentation is available, the cause for a problem can often be located from other recorded or logged data covering circuit and equipment operation, however, generally the problem calls for operator attention to be corrected.

Wio can be used to determine the efficiency of power utilization for the entire comminution section of a mill, and for the individual circuits making up the comminution section. The efficiency of a comminution circuit is determined by the following equation.

Wi is obtained by running the appropriate laboratory tests on a composite sample of circuit feed. Wio is calculated from plant operating data covering the period when the feed sample was taken. Since Wi from laboratory tests refers to specific conditions for accurate efficiency determinations, it is necessary to apply correction factors as discussed in The Tools of Power Power to Wio to put the laboratory and operating data on the same basis.

To-date, there is no known way to obtain standard work index data from on-line tests. Continuous measurement of comminution circuit efficiency is not possible and thus efficiency is not available for circuit control. Using laboratory data and operating data, efficiency can be determined for overall section and individual circuit for evaluation and reporting. Just monitoring Wio and correcting operating problems as they occur will improve the utilization of the power delivered to the comminution circuits.

Samples taken from the chips around blast hole drillings and from broken ore in the pit or mine for laboratory work index and other ore characteristic determinations before the ore is delivered to the mill, can be used to predict in advance comminution circuit performance. Test results can also be used for ore blending to obtain a more uniform feed, particularly to primary autogenous and semi-autogenous circuits.

We sell Small Ball Mills from 2 to 6 (600 mm X 1800 mm) in diameter and as long as 10 (3000 mm) in length. The mills are manufactured using a flanged mild steel shell, cast heads, overflow discharge, removable man door, spur type ring gear, pinion gear assembly with spherical roller bearings, replaceable roller bronze trunnion bearings, oil lubrication, replaceable trunnion liners with internal spirals, rubber liners and lifters, feed spout with wash port, discharge trommel with internal spiral, motor and gear reducer drive, direct coupled to pinion gear, gear guard and modular steel support frame. All ball mills always come withOSHA-type gear guard.

A PULP level sufficiently high to interpose a bed of pulp, partly to cushion the impact of the balls, permits a maximum crushing effect with a minimum wear of steel. The pulp level of theseSmall Ball Millscan be varied from discharging at the periphery to discharging at a point about halfway between the trunnion and the periphery.The mill shell is of welded plate steel with integral end flanges turned for perfect alignment, and the heads are semi-steel, with hand holes in the discharge end through which the diaphragm regulation is arranged with plugs.The trunnion bearings are babbitted, spherical, cast iron, and of ample size to insure low bearing pressure; while the shell and saddle are machined to gauge so that the shells are interchangeable.

Data based on:Wet grinding, single stage, closed circuit operation: feed:( one way dimension); Class III ore. All mills:free discharge, grated type, rapid pulp flow. N. B.for overflow type mills: capacity 80%power 83%. Dimensions :diameters inside shell without linerslengths working length shell between end liners.

The CIW is a Small Ball Mill thats belt driven, rigid bearing, wet grinding, trunnion or grate discharge type mill with friction clutch pulley and welded steel shell. The 7 and 8 foot diameter mills are of flange ring construction with cut gears while all other sizes have cast tooth gears. All these mills are standard with white iron bar wave type shell liners except the 8 foot diameter mill which is equipped with manganese steel liners. The horsepowers shown in the table are under running conditions so that high torque or wound rotor (slip ring) motors must be used. Manganese or alloy steel shell or head liners and grates can be supplied with all sizes of mills if required. Alloy steel shell liners are recommended where 4 or larger balls are used and particularly for the larger sized mills.

Small (Muleback Type) Ball Mill is built for muleback transportation in 30 and 3 diameters (inside liners). A 4 (Muleback Type) Ball Mill is of special design and will be carefully considered upon request. Mankinds search for valuable minerals often leads him far away from modern transportation facilities. The potential sources of gold, silver and strategic minerals are often found by the prospector, not close by our modern highways, but far back in the mountains and deserts all over the world. The Equipment Company has realized this fact, and therefore has designed a Ball Mill that can be transported to these faraway and relatively inaccessible properties, either by the age old muleback transportation system, or by the modern airplane. As a result these properties may now obtain a well-designed ball mill with the heaviest individual piece weighing only 350 pounds.

The prime factor considered in this design was to furnish equipment having a maximum strength with a minimum weight. For this reason, these mills are made of steel, giving a high tensile strength and light weight to the mills. The muleback design consists of the sturdy cast iron head construction on the 30 size and cast steel head construction on the larger sizes. The flanges on the heads are arranged to bolt to the rolled steel shell provided with flanged rings. When required, the total length of the shell may consist of several shell lengths flanged together to provide the desired mill length. Liners, bearings, gears and drives are similar to those standard on all Ball Mills.

This (Convertible) and Small Ball Mill is unique in design and is particularly adapted to small milling plants. The shell is cast in one piece with a flange for bolting to the head. In converting the mill from a 30x 18 to a 30x 36 unit with double the capacity, it is only necessary to secure a second cast shell (a duplicate of the first) and bolt it to the original section.

30 Convertible Ball Mills are furnished with scoop feeders with replaceable lips. Standard mills are furnished with liners to avoid replacement of the shell; however, themill can be obtained less liners. This ball mill is oftendriven by belts placed around the center, although gear drive units with cast gears can be furnished. A Spiral Screen can be attached to the discharge.

This mill may be used for batch or intermittent grinding, or mixing of dry or wet materials in the ore dressing industry, metallurgical, chemical, ceramic, or paint industries. The material is ground and mixed in one operation by rotating it together with balls, or pebbles in a hermetically sealed cylinder.

The cast iron shell which is bolted to the heads is made with an extra thick wall to give long wearing life. Two grate cleanout doors are provided on opposite sides of the shell by means of which the mill can be either gradually discharged and washed, while running, or easily and rapidly emptied and flushedout while shut down. Wash-water is introduced into the interior of the mill through a tapped opening in the trunnion. The mill may be lined with rubber, silex (buhrstone) or wood if desired.

The Hardinge Conical Ball Mill has been widely used with outstanding success in grinding many materials in a wide variety of fields. The conical mill operates on the principle of an ordinary ball mill with a certain amount of classification within the mill itself, due to its shape.

Sizes of conical mills are given in diameter of the cylindrical section in feet and the length of the cylindrical section in inches. Liners can be had of hard iron, manganese steel or Belgian Silex. Forged steel balls or Danish Flint Pebbles are used for the grinding media, depending upon the material being milled.

The Steel Head Ball-Rod Mill gives the ore dressing engineer a wide choice in grinding design so that he can easily secure a Ball-Rod Mill suited to his particular problem. The successful operation of any grinding unit is largely dependent on the method of removing the ground pulp. The Ball-Rod Mill is available with five types of discharge trunnions, each type obtainable in small, medium or large diameters. The types of discharge trunnions are:

The superiority of the Steel Head Ball-Rod Mill is due to the all steel construction. The trunnions are an integral part of the cast steel heads and are machined with the axis of the mill. The mill heads are assured against breakage due to the high tensile strength of cast steel as compared to that of the cast iron head found on the ordinary ball mill. Trunnion Bearings are made of high- grade nickel babbitt.

Steel Head Ball-Rod Mills can be converted intolarger capacity mills by bolting an additional shell lengthonto the flange of the original shell. This is possible because all Steel Head Ball or Rod Mills have bearings suitable for mills with length twice the diameter.

Head and shell liners for Steel Head Ball-Rod Mills are available in Decolloy (a chrome-nickel alloy), hard iron, electric steel, molychrome steel, and manganese steel. Drive gears are furnished either in cast tooth spur gear and pinion or cut tooth spur gear and pinion. The gears are furnished as standard on the discharge end of the mill, out of the way of the classifier return feed, but can be furnished at the mill feed end by request. Drives may be obtained according to the customers specifications.

Thats one characteristic of Traylor Ball Millsliked by ownersthey are built not only to do a first class job at low cost but to keep on doing it, year after year. Of course, that means we do not build as many mills as if they wore out quicklyor would we? but much as welike order, we value more the fine reputationTraylor Ball Mills have had for nearly threedecades.

Thats one characteristic of Traylor Ball Mills We dont aim to write specifications into thisliked by ownersthey are built not only to do advertisementlet it suffice to say that theresa first class job at low cost but to keep on do- a Traylor Ball Mills that will exactly fit anyanything it, year after year. Of course, that means requirement that anyone may have.

If this is true, there is significance in the factthat international Nicked and Climax Molybdenum, theworlds largest producers of two important steel alloys, areboth users of MARCY Mills exclusively. With international interest centered on increasingproduction of gold, it is even more significant that MARCYMills are the predominant choice of operators in everyimportants gold mining camp in the world.

Ball Mill. Intermediate and fine size reduction by grinding is frequently achieved in a ball mill in which the length of the cylindrical shell is usually 1 to 1.5 times the shell diameter. Ball mills of greater length are termed tube mills, and when hard pebbles rather than steel balls are used for the grinding media, the mills are known as pebble mills. In general, ball mills can be operated either wet or dry and are capable of producing products on the order of 100 pm. This duty represents reduction ratios as great as 100.

The ball mill, an intermediate and fine-grinding device, is a tumbling drum with a 40% to 50% filling of balls (usually steel or steel alloys). The material that is to be ground fills the voids between the balls. The tumbling balls capture the particles in ball/ball or ball/liner events and load them to the point of fracture. Very large tonnages can be ground with these devices because they are very effective material handling devices. The feed can be dry, with less than 3% moisture to minimize ball coating, or a slurry can be used containing 20% to 40% water by weight. Ball mills are employed in either primary or secondary grinding applications. In primary applications, they receive their feed from crushers, and in secondary applications, they receive their feed from rod mills, autogenous mills, or semiautogenous mills. Regrind mills in mineral processing operations are usually ball mills, because the feed for these applications is typically quite fine. Ball mills are sometimes used in single-stage grinding, receiving crusher product. The circuits of these mills are often closed with classifiers at high-circulating loads.

These loads maximize throughput at a desired product size. The characteristics of ball mills are summarized in the Table, which lists typical feed and product sizes. The size of the mill required to achieve a given task-that is, the diameter (D) inside the liners-can be calculated from the design relationships given. The design parameters must be specified.

The liner- and ball-wear equations are typically written in terms of an abrasion index (Bond 1963). The calculated liner and ball wear is expressed in kilograms per kilowatt-hour (kg/kWh), and when multiplied by the specific power (kWh/t), the wear rates are given in kilograms per ton of feed. The wear in dry ball mills is approximately one-tenth of that in wet ball mills because of the inhibition of corrosion. The efficiency of ball mills as measured relative to single-particle slow-compression loading is about 5%. Abrasion indices for five materials are also listed in the Table.

The L/D ratios of ball mills range from slightly less than 1:1 to something greater than 2:1. The tube and compartment ball mills commonly used in the cement industry have L/D ratios 2.75:1 or more. The fraction of critical speed that the mill turns depends on the application, and most mills operate at around 75% of critical speed. Increased speed generally means increased power, but as the simulations presented in Figure 3.26 show, it can also produce more wasted ball impacts on the liners above the toe. causing more wear and less breakage.

There are three principal forms of discharge mechanism. In the overflow ball mill, the ground product overflows through the discharge end trunnion. A diaphragm ball mill has a grate at thedischarge end. The product flows through the slots in the grate. Pulp lifters may be used to discharge the product through the trunnion, or peripheral ports may be used to discharge the product.

The majority of grinding balls are forged carbon or alloy steels. Generally, they are spherical, but other shapes have been used. The choice of the top (or recharge) ball size can be made using empirical equations developed by Bond or Azzaroni or by using special batch-grinding tests interpreted in the content of population balance models. The effect of changes in ball size on specific selection functions has been found to be different for different materials. A ball size-correction method can be used along with the specific selection function scale-up method to determine the best ball size. To do this, a set of ball size tests are performed in a batch mill from which the specific selection function dependence on ball size can be determined. Then, the mill capacities used to produce desired product size can be predicted by simulation using the kinetic parameter corresponding to the different ball sizes.

The mill liners used are constructed from cast alloy steels, wear-resistant cast irons, or polymer (rubber) and polymer metal combinations. The mill liner shapes often recommended in new mills are double-wave liners when balls less than 2.5 in. are used and single-wave liners when larger balls are used. Replaceable metal lifter bars are sometimes used. End liners are usually ribbed or employ replaceable lifters.

The typical mill-motor coupling is a pinion and gear. On larger mills two motors may be used, and in that arrangement two pinions drive one gear on the mill. Synchronous motors are well suited to the ball mill, because the power draw is almost constant. Induction, squirrel cage, and slip ring motors are also used. A high-speed motor running 600 to 1,000 rpm requires a speed reducer between the motor and pinion shaft. The gearless drive has been installed at a number of locations around the world.

bico inc. - lab crushers, pulverizers, oil centrifuges, ball mills, furnaces, 
asphalt extractors, laboratory mining equipment

bico inc. - lab crushers, pulverizers, oil centrifuges, ball mills, furnaces, asphalt extractors, laboratory mining equipment

We are pleased to announce that BICO, Inc. is back and fully operational as a COVID-19 essential business. We thank you for your support during these unprecedented times and know that you have our full support in making sure your extended essential services to this great country remain steadfast.

new and used trommels for sale | gold trommel design & manufacturing by savona equipment

new and used trommels for sale | gold trommel design & manufacturing by savona equipment

New and Used Gold Recovery Trommels for SaleSavona Equipment is your source for New, Used, and Reconditioned Trommels for recovering gold and other precious metals from placer mining operations. We supply 18 inch, 30 inch, 48 inch, 60 inch, & 7 foot Trommels for Placer Mining. Refurbished trommel parts will be fully repaired or replaced as required.Our Trommels and Gold Recovery Equipment are for sale worldwide. We sellPortable GoldTrommels, MiniWash Plants, andGoldTrommel Wash Plant.You Can Buy Various High Quality Gold Trommel Wash PlantProducts from various GoldTrommel Wash Plant manufacturers like Telsmith, McCloskey, Northern Placer, Aureco, Extrac-Tec as well as order a custom made gold recovery wash plant designed, manufactured, and distributedby Savona Equipment.

ball mill for sale | grinding machine - jxsc mining

ball mill for sale | grinding machine - jxsc mining

Ball mill is the key equipment for grinding materials. those grinding mills are widely used in the mining process, and it has a wide range of usage in grinding mineral or material into fine powder, such as gold, ironzinc ore, copper, etc.

JXSC Mining produce reliable effective ball mill for long life and minimum maintenance, incorporate many of the qualities which have made us being professional in the mineral processing industry since 1985. Various types of ball mill designs are available to suit different applications. These could include but not be restricted to coal mining grate discharge, dry type grinding, wet mineral grinding, high-temperature milling operations, stone & pebble milling.

A ball mill grinds ores to an end product size of thirty-five mesh or finer. The feeding material to a ball mill is treated by: Single or multistage crushing and screening Crushing, screening, and/or rod milling Primary crushing and autogenous/semi-autogenous grinding.

Normal feed sizes: eighty percent of six millimeters or finer for hard rocker eighty percent of twenty-five millimeters or finer for fragile rocks (Larger feed sizes can be tolerated depending on the requirements).

The ratio of machine length to the cylinder diameter of cylindrical type ball mills range from one to three through three to one. When the length to diameter ratio is two to one or even bigger, we should better choose the mill of a Tube Mill.

Grinding circuit design Grinding circuit design is available, we experienced engineers expect the chance to help you with ore material grinding mill plant of grinding circuit design, installation, operation, and optimization. The automatic operation has the advantage of saving energy consumption, grinding media, and reducing body liner wear while increasing grinding capacity. In addition, by using a software system to control the ore grinding process meet the requirements of different ore milling task.

The ball mill is a typical material grinder machine which widely used in the mineral processing plant, ball mill performs well in different material conditions either wet type grinding or dry type, and to grind the ores to a fine size.

Main ball mill components: cylinder, motor drive, grinding medium, shaft. The cylinder cavity is partial filling with the material to be ground and the metal grinding balls. When the large cylinder rotating and creating centrifugal force, the inner metal grinding mediums will be lifted to the predetermined height and then fall, the rock material will be ground under the gravity force and squeeze force of moving mediums. Feed material to be ground enters the cylinder through a hopper feeder on one end and after being crushed by the grinding medium is discharged at the other end.

Mining Equipment Manufacturers, Our Main Products: Gold Trommel, Gold Wash Plant, Dense Media Separation System, CIP, CIL, Ball Mill, Trommel Scrubber, Shaker Table, Jig Concentrator, Spiral Separator, Slurry Pump, Trommel Screen.

chef's deal | foodservice & restaurant equipment supply store near me

chef's deal | foodservice & restaurant equipment supply store near me

Chefs Deal is your high-quality equipment supplier with the most affordable prices on products. But thats not the only reason you should consider us your number one choice for restaurant supply. Were also fully committed to providing you with an exceptional customer experience.

We arent just salesmen we are knowledgeable experts that understand your business and the restaurant equipment we offer. Our employees arent just here to make a sale; theyre here to help you make the best choice for your needs.

We want your customer experience to be painless. More so, we want it to be pleasant. If you have a restaurant supply question about product, shipping procedures, a brand, or financing, were standing by to answer your questions fully. Youre not just a sale; youre a partner. Our success depends on helping you succeed.

We understand how the restaurant and food retail business works. We know that your daily operations hinge on having a partner with equipment choices that work well and consistently. You have to depend just as much on your walk-in freezer, for example, as you do on your food delivery company.

The management, customer service and sales team at Chefs Deal are committed to enhance customers experience by making sure theyre available to handle and provide all solutions continuously to clients. Our main objective is to provide the best quality of sales and the upmost professionalism in what we can bring to the industry.

Chefs Deal is a leading restaurant equipment sale and service company in Nashville. Our fast and reliable shipping service and extensive inventory of top quality commercial kitchen equipment supplies makes us a top choice among restaurant owners.

We are a one-stop restaurant supply store with over 200 equipment manufacturers on our portfolio. Our wholesale restaurant equipment includes everything from countertop equipment and concession display, work tables and stands to discounted restaurant furniture for your restaurant.

At Chefs Deal, we are committed to offering comprehensive kitchen supplies to enable you to serve better quality food in a better environment. With our rich market experience and kitchen equipment knowledge, we aim to build long-term customer relationships.

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