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mill charge - an overview | sciencedirect topics

mill charge - an overview | sciencedirect topics

Rod mill charges usually occupy about 45% of the internal volume of the mill. A closely packed charge of single sized rods will have a porosity of 9.3%. With a mixed charge of small and large diameter rods, the porosity of a static load could be reduced even further. However, close packing of the charge rarely occurs and an operating bed porosity of 40% is common. Overcharging results in poor grinding and losses due to abrasion of rods and liners. Undercharging also promotes more abrasion of the rods. The height (or depth) of charge is measured in the same manner as for ball mill. The size of feed particles to a rod mill is coarser than for a ball mill. The usual feed size ranges from 6 to 25mm.

For the efficient use of rods it is necessary that they operate parallel to the central axis and the body of the mill. This is not always possible as in practice, parallel alignment is usually hampered by the accumulation of ore at the feed end where the charge tends to swell. Abrasion of rods occurs more in this area resulting in rods becoming pointed at one end. With this continuous change in shape of the grinding charge, the grinding characteristics are impaired.

The bulk density of a new rod charge is about 6.25t/m3. With time due to wear the bulk density drops. The larger the mill diameter the greater is the lowering of the bulk density. For example, the bulk density of worn rods after a specific time of grinding would be 5.8t/m3 for a 0.91m diameter mill. Under the same conditions of operation, the bulk density would be 5.4t/m3 for a 4.6m diameter mill.

During normal operation the mill speed tends to vary with mill charge. According to available literature, the operating speeds of AG mills are much higher than conventional tumbling mills and are in the range of 8085% of the critical speed. SAG mills of comparable size but containing say 10% ball charge (in addition to the rocks), normally, operate between 70 and 75% of the critical speed. Dry Aerofall mills are run at about 85% of the critical speed.

The breakage of particles depends on the speed of rotation. Working with a 7.32m diameter and 3.66m long mill, Napier-Munn etal. [4] observed that the breakage rate for the finer size fractions of ore (say 0.1mm) at lower speeds (e.g., 55% of the critical speed) was higher than that observed at higher speeds (e.g., 70% of the critical speed). For larger sizes of ore (in excess of 10mm), the breakage rate was lower for mills rotating at 55% of the critical speed than for mills running at 70% of the critical speed. For a particular intermediate particle sizerange, indications are that the breakage rate was independent of speed. The breakage ratesize relation at two different speeds is reproduced in Figure9.7.

The blending of different ore types is a common practice to provide a consistent feed to a process in terms of uniform hardness or assay. When several different ore deposits of varying grindabilities are blended prior to closed circuit grinding, the work index of the ore is not an average or even a weighted average of the work indices of the components. The reason for this is that the circulating load will consist predominantly of the harder component and if the circulating load is high then the mill charge will also consist of mostly the harder components. Thus, the work index of the blend will be weighted towards the harder components [39]. Figure3.16 shows the Bond work index of a blend of hard and soft ores as a function of the volume fraction of the softer ore in the blend. The dotted line between the two extremes indicates the weighted average work index based on volume fraction. The work index values of the Magdalinovic method agree with this average Bond work index because the method does not simulate the recycling of harder components into the mill charge. On the other hand, the work index obtained using the standard Bond test shows the weighting of the work index towards the harder component as a result of the circulating load.

Yan and Eaton [39] also measured the breakage rates and breakage distribution functions of the different ore blends in order to predict the work index of the blend by simulation of the Bond batch grinding test. Qualitative analysis of the breakage properties suggests that there is an interaction between the components of the blend that affect their individual breakage rates. The breakage properties of the harder material appear to have a greater influence on the overall breakage properties and the Bond work index of the blend than the softer material.

Whereas most of the ball-milled systems usually prepared with using ball-to-powder weight ratio (Wb:Wp) in the range between 10:1 and 20:1, the effect Wb:Wp on the amorphization reaction of Al50Ta50 alloy powders in a low-energy ball mill was investigated in 1991 by El-Eskandarany etal.[42] They have used 90, 30, 20, 10, and 3g of powders to obtain Wb:Wp ratios of 12:1, 36:1, 54:1, 108:1, and 324:1, respectively.

The XRD patterns of mechanically alloyed Al50Ta50 powders as ball-milled for 1440ks (400h) as a function of the Wb:Wp ratio is presented in Fig.4.32. Single phase of amorphous alloys is obtained when ratios 36:1 and 108:1 were used. The Bragg peaks of elemental Al and Ta crystals still appear when the Wb:Wp ratio is 12:1, indicating that the amorphization reaction is not completed. In contrast, when the Wb:Wp ratio is 324:1, the amorphous phase coexists with the crystalline phases of AlTa, AlTa2, and AlTaFe.

Based on their results,[42] it is concluded that the rate of amorphization depends strongly on the kinetic energy of the ball mill charge and this depends on the number of opportunities for the powder particles to be reacted and interdiffused. Increasing the Wb:Wp ratio accelerates the rate of amorphization, which is explained by the increase in the kinetic energy of the ball mill charge per unit mass of powders. It has been shown in this study that the volume fraction of the amorphous phase in the mechanically alloyed ball-milled powders increases during the early stage of milling, 86173ks (48h) with increasing Wb:Wp ratio. It is noted that further increasing this weight ratio leads to the formation of crystalline phases and this might be related to the high kinetic energy of the ball mill charge which is transformed into heat. When the Wb:Wp ratio was reduced to 12:1, however, the amorphization reaction was not completed. This indicates that the kinetic energy of the mill charge is insufficient for complete transition from the crystalline to the amorphous phase.

It is worth noting that powder particles reached the minimum of extreme fineness when using a high Wb:Wp ratio. One disadvantage of using such a high weight ratio is being the high concentration of iron contamination which is introduced to the milled powders during the MA process, as presented in Fig.4.33.

Romankova etal.[43] have applied the vibration ball milling for coating of stainless steel balls during milling of TiAl powders. They examined metallographically the development of the TiAl coating structure after milling for 60min as a function of the ball-to-powder weight ratio for 6mm balls (Fig.4.34).

The results showed that the milling energy increased with increasing the number of balls. When the weight ratio was 3:1, the substrate could be covered with a thin Al layer (Fig.4.34A). For this case, only small Ti particles were embedded into the Al matrix. It should be noted that the substrate underwent plastic deformation under the ball impacts and its surface became slightly bent. When the weight ratio was increased to 4:1, the energy was sufficient to embed larger Ti particles in the Al layer than at ratio 3:1 (Fig.4.34B). Al bound these Ti particles to the substrate. They notified that, at the 4:1 ratio, the growth for the TiAl coating across the substrate was clustered; this resulted in a hillock-like morphology and increased the surface roughness. Upon further increasing the ball-to-powder weight ratio from 6:1 to 14:1, the coating roughness gradually decreased. They also reported that the lamellar structure was refined when the ball-to-powder weight ratio was 14:1, as presented in Fig.4.34E.

More recently, Waje etal.[44] have studied the effect of the ball-to-powder weight ratio (BPR) on the crystallite size of ball-milled CoFe2O4 nanoparticles, using XRD (Fig.4.35). From their results it can be seen that the particle size decreases linearly from 15.3 to 11.4nm when used BPR of 8:1 and 30:1, respectively.

The mass-size balance models as written above are in the time-domain. To be more practical they need to be converted to the energy-domain. One way is by arguing that the specific rate of breakage parameter is proportional to the net specific power input to the mill charge (Herbst and Fuerstenau, 1980; King, 2012). For a batch mill this becomes:

where SiE is the energy-specific rate of breakage parameter, P the net power drawn by the mill, and M the mass of charge in the mill excluding grinding media (i.e., just the ore). The energy-specific breakage rate is commonly given in t kWh1. For a continuous mill, the relationship is:

where is the mean retention time, and F the solids mass flow rate through the mill. Assuming plug flow, Eq. (5.17) can be substituted into Eq. (5.15) to apply to a grinding mill in closed circuit (where t=).

The distinctive feature of tumbling mills is the use of loose crushing bodies, which are large, hard, and heavy in relation to the ore particles, but small in relation to the volume of the mill, and which occupy (including voids) slightly less than half the volume of the mill.

Due to the rotation and friction of the mill shell, the grinding medium is lifted along the rising side of the mill until a position of dynamic equilibrium is reached (the shoulder), when the bodies cascade and cataract down the free surface of the other bodies, about a dead zone where little movement occurs, down to the toe of the mill charge (Figure 7.3).

The driving force of the mill is transmitted via the liner to the charge. The speed at which a mill is run and the liner design governs the motion and thus nature of the product and the amount of wear on the shell liners. For instance, a practical knowledge of the trajectories followed by the steel balls in a mill determines the speed at which it must be run in order that the descending balls shall fall on to the toe of the charge, and not on to the liner, which could lead to liner damage. Simulation of charge motion can be used to identify such potential problems (Powell et al., 2011), and acoustic monitoring can give indication of where ball impact is occurring (Pax, 2012).

At relatively low speeds, or with smooth liners, the medium tends to roll down to the toe of the mill and essentially abrasive comminution occurs. This cascading leads to finer grinding and increased liner wear. At higher speeds the medium is projected clear of the charge to describe a series of parabolas before landing on the toe of the charge. This cataracting leads to comminution by impact and a coarser end product with reduced liner wear. At the critical speed of the mill centrifuging occurs and the medium is carried around in an essentially fixed position against the shell.

In traveling around inside the mill, the medium (and the large ore pieces) follows a path which has two parts: the lifting section near to the shell liners, which is circular, and the drop back to the toe of the mill charge, which is parabolic (Figure 7.4(a)).

Consider a ball (or rod) of radius r meters, which is lifted up the shell of a mill of radius R meters, revolving at N rev min1. The ball abandons its circular path for a parabolic path at point P (Figure 7.4(b)), when the weight of the ball is just balanced by the centrifugal force, that is when:

Mills are driven, in practice, at speeds of 5090% of critical speed. The speed of rotation of the mill influences the power draw through two effects: the value of N and the shift in the center of gravity with speed. The center of gravity first starts to shift away from the center of the mill (to the right in Figure 7.4(a)) as the speed of rotation increases, causing the torque exerted by the charge to increase and draw more power (see Section 7.2.2). But, as critical speed is reached, the center of gravity moves toward the center of the mill as more and more of the material is held against the shell throughout the cycle, causing power draw to decrease. Since grinding effort is related to grinding energy, there is little increase in efficiency (i.e., delivered kWh t1) above about 4050% of the critical speed. It is also essential that the cataracting medium should fall well inside the mill charge and not directly onto the liner, thus excessively increasing steel consumption.

At the toe of the load the descending liner continuously underruns the churning mass, and moves some of it into the main mill charge. The medium and ore particles in contact with the liners are held with more firmness than the rest of the charge due to the extra weight bearing down on them. The larger the ore particle, rod, or ball, the less likely it is to be carried to the breakaway point by the liners. The cataracting effect should thus be applied in terms of the medium of largest diameter.

As already discussed, this control loop is provided to maintain the PA header pressure before the mixing of hot and cold PA duly controlled for temperature. FigureVIII/4-2 is also applicable for this type of mill when the PA is common to all the mills. The control loop is of course different for individual PA fan systems, as the above is applicable for the common PA system only. For control loop description, see Section 4.3.2.3 of this chapter. Common PA fans are provided with suction normally from the atmosphere or it may be from the FD discharge header. Header pressure control is performed through various types of final control elements.

As the fuel/load control is solely done by position adjustments to the PA damper near the mill, this control loop assists smooth and bumpless control of the fuel flow transported by the PA flow to the mill as the upstream PA header pressure control takes responsibility for providing an adequate quantity of air at any environmental condition without sacrificing the required downstream pressure,

FigureVIII/5.3-3 later in the chapter depicts the simple control loop. Any of the mill DP transmitters or level (sound-detector) transmitters is selected and the selected signal is connected to the controller as the process or measured variables against a fixed-level set point. Sufficient redundancy in measurement may vary according to the plants operating philosophy. The controller output is utilized for adjustment of feeder speed with the help of a VFD or SCR control for the gravimetric feeder/feeder speed variator.

At the higher load the charge level inside the drum decreases and the feeder speed should increase accordingly to replenish the material. For a decreasing load, the reverse action takes place. To take care of the sudden load change, the deviation between characterized PA flow and DP acrossthe mill is used to modify the controller output to achieve the desired mill charge level.

Mill load or fuel flow control follows the fuel demand from the boiler master demand control signal and is achieved by regulating the quantity of PA that is transporting agent only. Figures VIII/5.2-4 and VIII/5.2-4 depict the functioning of the control loop, which is similar to that of other mill types. For other mills the fuel demand signal from the boiler master demand is first taken care of by the mill-wise PA flow control system if the demand is less than the prevailing air flow control system. The characterized PA flow is then construed as the feeder speed demand. The ball-and-tube mill control system, on the other hand, uses feeder speed control for maintaining mill level control only and so the fuel flow control is achieved through control of the feeder-wise PA flow to mill itself.

However, the feeder-wise PA flow as measured after redundant transmitters voting selection and density compensated through temperature correction is again determined to get equivalent fuel flow. The total fuel flow is then computed by summing all the fuel (PF) flow of the running feeders and the supporting fuel (oil or gas) if any are being utilized at that time with proper weightage, taking consideration of their thermal or calorific value. The higher selection of this total equivalent fuel flow signal and the air flow demand signal from the boiler master demand (FigureVIII/2.1) is then taken as actual air demand just as in other type of mills.

As already discussed in Section 5.2.1, there is another feeder-wise control system associated with fuel flow control known as a bypass damper control. This feeder-wise damper is provided for each mill end for preheating the raw feed, which is an essential requirement during startup. No process measurement signal is utilized in this subloop. The same fuel demand from the boiler master demand (FigureVIII/ 2-1) is taken as the set point for the position demand of the bypass damper after due characterization, as shown (refer to Figures VIII/5.2-4 and VIII/5.2-5) in the control strategy and the graphical representation of approximate positions of the two final control elements. The previously mentioned two-position demands operate in opposite directions. After being in a fully open position for a certain load, ensuring elimination of initial moisture, this bypass damper begins to close gradually as the load increases.

There are two main types of fuel flow controls achieved through the proportionate PA flow only: (1) common PA fans with individual PA dampers and (2) individual PA fans with vane or speed control. There is also one known as a mill-wise PA flow control that is common to both sides.

FigureVIII/5.2-4 may be referred to for this type of control along with FigureVIII/5.2-2. Here the mill PA flow and bypass PA flows are combined to form the total mill-wise PA flow to the furnace. The boiler master demand acts as a set point here, where the mill-wise PA flow is the measured value as this air flow is only responsible for transporting the fuel to the furnace. The controller output is the demand signal for the individual PA damper. For bypass dampers, the boiler master demand generates the set point while the actual position of this damper acts as the measured value for the controller output, which is the demand signal for the bypass damper.

For any load change, the two flows readjust their positions to deliver the required PA flow. For higher load the bypass damper tends to close to allow less flow for preheating of raw feed and the PA damper to the mill opens more to take care of the load demand.

FigureVIII/5.2-5 may be referred to for this type of control along with FigureVIII/5.2-2(a). Here bypass PA flows need to be subtracted from the total mill-wise PA flow for the fuel flow control, and the total mill-wise PA flow to the furnace is required for air flow control. The reason for this is that the final control element and the flow element are both located in the common primary air path to the individual mill. The boiler master demand acts as a set point here, where the PA flow to the mill is the measured value. The controller output is the demand signal for the individual PA vane or variable speed drive as the case may be.

This type of mill design vis--vis operation is somewhat different from other types, as discussed earlier. FigureVIII/5.2-2(b), which is mainly followed by manufacturers, such as the Foster Wheeler Energy AG corporation, may be referred to for information. Here the boiler combustion control signal regulates the output of the mill by PA flow control dampers placed in the common line to both the ends or sides. The predrying of coal feed is done at the entry of each side before it enters the drum, unlike what is done by the bypass PA damper in many types of tube mills.

Another significant difference is the provision of an auxiliary air and purge air supply line taken from the cold PA for each side of the mill drum. The same is designed to the required minimum velocities of the PA/fuel mixture for maintaining proper flow inside the coal duct and to prevent fuel settling during startup or in extreme low-load operation. This feature extends the individual mill load range without encountering drifting or pulsating fuel flow to the burners. The other purpose is to purge the coal air line automatically when burners are taken out of service.

The feed level control in the drum, classifier outlet temperature control, and seal air DP control are very much similar to those in the other type of mills with the exception of the source of the seal air. Here the seal air supply is taken from the cold PA without any provision of a seal air fan.

Selecting dispersion equipment for a specific application is a complex task. Dispersion of the mixture must be complete and the process and equipment must meet economic constraints. But much more is involved. In practice, such simple criteria are complicated by a variety of parameters related to fillers and to the materials in which they are dispersed. These parameters complicate the problem to the degree that it is not easy to formulate general guidelines. In this discussion we will consider the available equipment types most frequently used for filler dispersion and illustrate their applicability with some examples.

A ball mill is an effective means of dispersing solid materials in solids or liquids.8,9 Ball mills have several advantages which include versatility, low cost of labor and maintenance, the possibility of unsupervised running, no loss of volatiles, and a clean process. The disadvantages are related to discharging viscous and thixotropic mixtures, and considerably lower efficiency when compared with other mixing equipment. The millbase viscosity is usually restricted to about 15-20 Poise, and therefore ball mills are most frequently found in production applications such as paints, flexographic, publication gravure, and letterpress news inks, and carbon paper inks which are dispersed at elevated temperatures.

The mill should rotate at 50-65% of the theoretical centrifugal speed in order to allow balls to cascade, since the cascading balls grind most effectively and do not cause an excessive loss of ball material

Viscosity, the order of filler addition, and the quantity of material should be chosen so as not to cause a viscosity increase above the specified range, since the milling efficiency drastically decreases at that point

The degree of dispersion and jetness achieved when grinding carbon black depends on the wetting properties of the dispersing material and to some degree on the filler form. For instance, pelletized carbon black is easier to disperse than a fluffy type

The sandmill has some drawbacks. It is a two stage process (premixing followed by milling). Milling develops high temperatures in the mixture which causes loss of volatiles and requires cooling. If the millbase is high in viscosity or dilatant, the sandmill process may not work at all. Agglomerated or extremely hard pigments are difficult or impossible to disperse

Both ball and sand mills operate based on a viscous shear principle, thus the viscosity of the millbase is a critical factor in achieving dispersion. The size of filler particles is critical, especially in sandmills. It was found that the shearing force is inversely proportional to the square of the linear size of filler agglomerate. An agglomerate of diameter of 7 m attains 100 times the shear stress of an agglomerate of 70 m diameter. The difference between the ball mill and the sand mill is in the size and density of the grinding media, which is reflected in their performance. Sandmilling uses small particles of low density, and therefore, there is no noticeable reduction in the size of the sand particle, whereas the balls in ballmills are very much larger and may have a high density (steel), which results in a more complex mechanism of grinding including shattering and impacting which cause this mill to be more effective in disintegrating hard particles and agglomerates containing sintered particles.

There is another mill type called an attritor, which is similar to both the ball mill and the sandmill. In construction, it is similar to a sandmill. It also has a vertical shaft, but in the attritor the agitator bars replace the milling discs of the sandmill. It is also similar to a ball mill because it uses balls, usually ceramic ones having 5-15 mm in diameter. Because the motion of the balls is independent of gravity, an attritor can handle thixotropic materials and slightly higher viscosity of millbases, but the principle of action and type of forces operating are similar to those of the ball mill. An attritor applied to pigment dispersion gives several advantages. These include rapid dispersion, the possibility of either a continuous or batch process, low power consumption, small floor space, and easy cleaning and maintenance. Their main disadvantage is high heat generation. Attritors are equipped with a cooling water jacket which can control the heat flow to some extent, but conditions are often too severe for some resins, which may degrade during the process.

Three-roll, one-roll, and stone mills constitute a more mature dispersion technology still in use with medium viscosity millbases. A three-roll mill consists of the feed, center, and apron rolls. In roll mill operation:

The speeds of feed and apron rolls are adjustable, and each roll rotates with a different speed in order to induce shear in the material at the nip and facilitate the material transfer from one roll to the other

For mechanical reasons the gap between rolls cannot be less than 10 m and it usually ranges from 40 to 50 m.7 Small particles will not be affected as they pass through the nip, but agglomerates smaller than the distance between rolls will be disintegrated due to the shear stress imposed on the material

The one-roll mill works on a similar principle but the nip is regulated by a pressure bar. Shearing takes place between the roller and the shearing bar. Stone mills have similar principles of operation. The rotor turns on a stator to achieve shearing

With current raw materials, both the primary particles and agglomerates are very small, and if any positive action can be achieved during the milling process, it can only be done by affecting these small particles. It is thus necessary to operate these machines at very tight gaps which causes abrasion of the mechanical elements, rapid deterioration of equipment, and contamination of the product by the abraded material. This affects the properties of the millbase and the color of the product

The high-speed impeller or shear mixer is the most common equipment to prepare dispersions of solids in liquid. High speed shear mills and kinetic shear mills have retained their usefulness because of their ability to deagglomerate material that is not adequately dispersed in the premixing step. A high-speed shear mill is composed of two elements a container and an impeller. These factors are important in the design:

In the first stage, the viscosity changes from low to high as fillers are incorporated; in the second stage, viscosity remains constantly high because of the disintegration of particles which occurs during the application of the highest shear stress

Long mixing increases temperature and decreases viscosity. This does not provide the conditions for the best filler dispersion. By extending mixing over, for example, a 15 min period, the degree of dispersion is not improved, but the resin may actually be degraded

If the quality of dispersion is not satisfactory, the parameters of mixing should be changed. If the expected result cannot be attained, the range of conditions available is not adequate in this particular mill

In the third stage, the viscosity changes from high to low due to the addition of diluent. The viscosity range which can be handled by high speed mixers is similar to the range of a three-roll mill, i.e., up to about 200 Poise

The range of shear rates available in high-speed mixers is not broad. The flow rate of fluid in motion decreases as viscosity increases and is inversely proportional to the width of the flow passage which, in this case, is the distance between the disperser and the container which is very large in a high speed mixer. It is not so much due to an improvement in mixing equipment that high-speed mixers have become so popular, it is mostly because of the high quality raw materials (pigments, fillers) which are available now. High structure carbon blacks can be more easily dispersed. But with the increased structure, the size of the primary particles decreases, inhibiting dispersion. Because of the interrelation between both parameters, only the medium structure, coarser particles of carbon blacks can be dispersed by high-speed mixers. Other carbon black types demand further treatment. It should be noted that this is only true of a few fillers which are known to possess strongly bonded, small sized particles. In most cases, fillers can be successfully dispersed in high-speed mixers. However, care should be taken that the filler is selected with an appropriate particle size.

High-speed mixers have several important advantages over other existing equipment including the possibility of processing a batch in the same vessel, easy cleaning, and flexibility in color changes. The main disadvantage is that the final dispersion depends greatly on the chosen composition and technology, and these are sometimes limiting factors. Frequently, the proper conditions for quality dispersion cannot be achieved at all.

The basic construction of a high-speed mixer can easily be modified to one's special requirements. For example, a change from impeller to turbine rotor changes both the principle of dispersion and the range of application. The tangential velocities of filler particles can be as high as 500 m/sec. Such particles have a very high kinetic energy, sufficient to cause size reduction. Size reduction is due to particle-particle or particle-wall collisions, and this in turn, is related in efficiency to the relative velocities at the moment of collision. Relative velocity can be increased by decreasing the viscosity of the millbase. The upper limit of millbase viscosity is somewhere around 3 to 4 Poise. It is not viscosity alone which is important but the entire rheological character of the millbase. The best results are obtained when the millbase is nearly Newtonian. For this reason, the dispersion process is best performed in a diluted millbase. As is the case with high-speed mixers, a proper dispersion should be achieved in a matter of 10-20 min. If such is not the case, the conditions of processing should be modified. Once dispersion has been achieved, it should be stabilized, with the mixer continuously running, by the addition of more resin to increase the viscosity in order to prevent sedimentation or flocculation of the pigment.

The other possible modification to such a mixer can be achieved by a substantial lowering of the speed and a change in the motion of the mixing element to planetary. This configuration can process material of a much higher viscosity, up to several thousand Poise. The high speed mixer can be modified in various ways to match its capabilities to the process requirements. Stationary baffles may be added to increase the shear rate. The distance between the rotating and stationary elements can be decreased again increasing the shear rate. The mixer may be designed to work under both pressure and vacuum and with inert gas blanketing which permits deaeration and processing of volatile or moisture sensitive materials.

The other group includes heavy-duty mixers, such as the Banbury mixer and double-arm kneading mixers. The Banbury mixer with a power input of up to 6000 kW/m3 is the strongest and the most powerful mixing unit used by industry. Nearly solid materials are mixed by a rotor which is a heavy shaft with stubby blades rotating at up to 40 rpm. The clearance between the walls and rotor is very small, which induces a very high shear in the material. The high shear generates a great amount of heat which melts the polymer rapidly and allows for quick incorporation of filler. After the filler is incorporated, the dispersion process begins, with rapid distributive mixing along and between two rotors and between the chamber walls and rotor tips. Within 2-3 min, mixing is normally completed and the compound discharged into a pelletizing extruder or a two-roll mill which converts it to a sheet form.8 Carbon black, which is most frequently processed in a Banbury mixer, is usually placed between two layers of polymeric material in order to reduce dusting.

Double-arm kneading mixers are very popular in some industries. They consist of two counter-rotating blades in a rectangular trough carved at the bottom to form two longitudinal half cylinders and a saddle section. A variety of blade shapes are used, with a clearance between them and the blades and the side walls of up to 1 mm. The most popular blade shapes include: sigma, dispersion, multiwiping overlapping, single-curve, and double-naben blades. It is important for filler dispersion in this mixer that the viscosity of the millbase be kept high enough to create the required shearing force to disperse the material. The strong construction of the mixer and its high power allow one to work with concentrated compositions of pigments which could not be processed by any other method.

High volume production is done by mixing in an extruder.11 This method offers several advantages such as a continuous process, material uniformity, a clean environment, high output, and low labor. The biggest disadvantage of this method is a high investment cost. The twin-screw extruder is the most flexible type of extruder and most appropriate for compounding. Their screw designs can be varied as can the method of dosing and the output rate. The abrasiveness of the filler may affect the life-span of the equipment, and particle size and its distribution may influence the quality of filler dispersion and material uniformity. But in general, there is adequate machinery available for almost all requirements. For instance, glass-fiber reinforced materials can be produced by this technique with little change to the initial structure and dimensions of the glass fibers, which shows the versatility of the technology. The production rate of this method is comparable to the Banbury mixer, and an additional advantage comes from the fact that the material can be completely processed in one pass through the machinery.

The importance of the proper dispersion of fillers and the complexity of techniques for measuring the degree of dispersion are reflected in numerous publications. Further information on the mixing of fillers is included in Chapter 18.

The renewable power sources are being explored due to possibility of lack in availability of conventional resources in future. The major drawback of Renewable energy resources are dependency on geographical locations and environmental conditions however, the high initial cost, increased maintenance cost, and different rates of depreciation are the main challenges associated with these hybrid systems[18]. The irregular pattern of natural resources necessitates developing a hybrid system which can generate maximum conceivable energy for continuous and reliable operations [17]. The design of hybrid system is influenced by various factors such as condition of sites, energy availability, efficiency of energy sources as well as technical and social limitation In this specific situation, a combination of optimal sizing method is an indispensable factor to accomplish higher reliability quality with least expense [21,79,87,149]. The fundamental parts of the hybrid energy systems are renewable power source, nonrenewable generators, control unit, storage system, load or grid some times, sources and load may be AC/DC [102].

An arrangement of the renewable power generation with appropriate storage and feasible amalgamation with conventional generation system is considered as hybrid energy system or some time referred as a micro grid [155]. This system may be any probable combination of Photovoltaic, wind, micro turbines, micro hydro, conventional diesel generation, battery storage, hydrogen storage and Fuel Cell in grid-connected or off grid arrangement,

An assembly of interconnected loads, conventional distributed energy resources like distributed generators (DG), renewable resources and energy storage systems in a specified boundary as a controllable single entity referred as micro grid. It may be eternally connected to grid, or isolated by grid. There are worldwide numerous remote communities those are not directly connected to grid, and fulfill electricity demand from distributed generators based on fossil fuel in isolated Microgrids[97,165]. In this paper a assimilated arrangement of solar PV and wind renewable energy resources is discussed which is slightly different from the concept of microgrid.

Solar Photovoltaic /Wind based Hybrid Energy System shows its adequacy to provide the essential electrical demand for off grid utilization. The at most imperative feature of a Solar Photovoltaic (PV) and Wind based Hybrid Energy System is that it uses at least two sustainable power sources which enhances reliability, efficiency and financial restrictions emerges from single energy resources of renewable nature [18,89,133]. Solar Photovoltaic and Wind based Hybrid Energy System is considered as amalgamation of solar PV panel, Wind mills, charge controller, storage system, power conditioning units, diesel based generator set and load [19]. The assessment of performance of Hybrid system can be done by recreating their models at Simulink platform for the accessible insulation, speed of wind, electrical load and various components [20].

The essential objective for evaluation of Hybrid System are building up the suitable models for various components and their simulation in a sequential manner as firstly availability of speed wind, accessibility of sunlight and the demand of load models are simulated after that model of battery storage and diesel generator can be Simulated. Last strides in the entire procedure of assessment is deciding the coveted criteria and exploring the optimum structure of system. [21]. The optimal hybrid system arrangement should satisfy and compromise the objectives of power reliability and cost of system. The load demand frequently considered as limitation of the optimization issue and ought to be totally satisfied [22]. The solar PV/wind hybrid system is mostly reliant on execution of individual segments. To estimate the performance of solar PV/wind hybrid system, individual components are modeled initially after that entire system evaluated to meet the demand [23]. In general key aspects to analyze a hybrid system are hybrid system configuration with respect to the available resources, the optimization of the available renewable resources exploitation and the optimization of the output power quality [24].

Solar energy and wind energy are analogous to each other in nature and both are well appropriate to develop a hybrid system [26]. Availability of solar radiations are relatively greater in summer, winds are more accessible in the evening times of winters. This hybrid renewable energy systems give a more reliable output throughout the year can be planned to fulfill craved qualities on more decreased possible cost [27]. The constraints of Photo voltaic system, the assessed energy of wind energy system and the battery storage are the majorly considered parameters for evaluation of solar and wind based hybrid energy system. In addition, the precise angular attitude of Photo voltaic panels and the tower height of wind turbines are considered for achieving the minimum levelised cost of energy. Ribeiro [31] proposed multi-criteria based analytical decision scheme abbreviated as MCDA which consider several issues like economic, quality of life, technical and environmental issues of local populations.

Metrological data based on technological, economical, socio-political and environmental factors having major impact for estimation and selection of various components of Solar Photovoltaic and Wind based Hybrid Energy System [32]. Hourly climate information as sun oriented radiation, wind speed and temperature are raw information illustrates the inconstancy of the parameter input. Place to place data is hard to obtain for designing purpose at remote location [3,73]. Statistical metrological climatic information can be delivered by the average of month to month meteorological information. The information of climate can be anticipated from an adjacent site or synthetically can be produced [32]. Simulation for performance of Solar PV/Wind Hybrid Energy System required climate data including solar radiation, speed of wind and temperature which can be find from web sources and also from local meteorological station, it is best to find realistic solution preference should be given to the specified location based weather data [28]. To optimize solar photovoltaic and wind based hybrid energy system are hourly or day by day climate information of solar and wind energy are considered as required significant inputs [29]. Meteorological data determined the receptiveness and amount of sunlight based radiation and wind energy sources at a particular region. An investigation of characteristics of sun based emission and availability of wind at a specific location ought to be concluded before starting [28]. Bianchini A et al. gives stress on the metrological data in the form of solar irradiance and wind distribution and considered hybrid renewable energy system as a amalgamation of PV panel of rated power, horizontal axis wind turbine of rated power, a diesel generator of precise nominal power able to manage peak load and a battery bank of specific storage capacity [33]. Hall et al. [34] proposed the well-known engineered climate information term Typical meteorological year (TMY) utilized in simulation of solar energy model is first time. It is observational technique picking particular months from different years using the Fleckenstein Schafer accurate system [35].

load demand play a very important role in establishment of solar PV/wind hybrid renewable energy system provides more reliable power for off-grid and standalone applications compared to individual systems [21] The most of the reviewed studies are about the alone Solar Photovoltaic /Wind based Hybrid Energy System and few studies are available for grid connected system. The unsatisfied load request is procured from the grid. Along this way the hybrid system became noticeably trustworthy. The stand-alone systems with storage infused surplus energy to the grid at a prime cost. Along these lines, the grid connected system becomes more financially acceptable.

kinross provides update on tasiast mill fire

kinross provides update on tasiast mill fire

TORONTO, June 21, 2021 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Kinross Gold Corporation (TSX:K; NYSE:KGC) (Kinross and the Company) today provided an update regarding the temporary suspension of milling operations at its Tasiast mine due to a fire that occurred on June 15, 2021.

Kinross confirms there were no injuries as a result of the fire. Mining activities have resumed at Tasiast, including stripping to access higher grade ore. Construction work on the Tasiast 24k expansion project has also resumed and the Company is evaluating opportunities to optimize the project while milling operations are suspended.

Kinross is drawing on resources from across the Company to expedite actions to reduce the SAG mills downtime and to review all potential strategies to mitigate the expected production deferral. With mining activities continuing at Tasiast, Kinross expects to process stockpiles of higher grade ore when the mill restarts.

Based on the initial estimate of the mills downtime and with ongoing work on the 24k project, Tasiasts throughput capacity is now expected to reach 21,000 tonnes per day during Q1 2022, compared with the previous estimate of year-end 2021. Throughput capacity is expected to increase to 24,000 tonnes per day by mid-2023, which is unchanged from the original 24k project estimate.

Despite the mill incident at Tasiast, the Company remains in a strong financial position and is committed to evaluating options to further enhance shareholder returns, which is supported by Kinross Board of Directors.

All of our people are safe and accounted for at Tasiast, which is our most important priority. Our site team responded quickly to the fire, which limited the main impacts to the mill discharge area. While we are continuing to assess the impact and are investigating the cause of the incident, we are pleased to report that mining and project work have now resumed at site. We are now focused on restarting milling operations at Tasiast and are mobilizing technical resources from across the Company to expedite actions and achieve this goal.

Although this unfortunate incident is expected to impact our annual production guidance, our financial position and longer-term outlook remain very strong. We continue to expect production to increase to 2.7 and 2.9 million ounces in 2022 and 2023, respectively, and drive our robust free cash flow profile. The strength of our investment grade balance sheet, free cash flow position and growing production from our global portfolio underpin our commitment to further enhancing shareholder returns, including a potential share buyback program.

In connection with this news release, Kinross will hold a conference call and audio webcast on Tuesday, June 22, 2021at 8:00 a.m. ET to discuss the update, followed by a question-and-answer session. The call-in numbers are as follows:

Kinross is a Canadian-based senior gold mining company with mines and projects in the United States, Brazil, Russia, Mauritania, Chile and Ghana. Our focus is on delivering value based on the core principles of operational excellence, balance sheet strength, disciplined growth and responsible mining. Kinross maintains listings on the Toronto Stock Exchange (symbol:K) and the New York Stock Exchange (symbol:KGC).

All statements, other than statements of historical fact, contained or incorporated by reference in this news release including, but not limited to, any information as to the future financial or operating performance of Kinross, constitute forward-looking information or forward-looking statements within the meaning of certain securities laws, including the provisions of the Securities Act (Ontario) and the provisions for safe harbor under the United States Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 and are based on expectations, estimates and projections as of the date of this news release. Forward-looking statements include future events and opportunities including, without limitation, statements with respect to: the potential impact of the mill fire on operations at Tasiast; our estimates, expectations, forecasts and updated guidance for production at Tasiast, our revised production guidance across all of our assets, our expectations regarding potential enhancements to shareholder returns, all-in sustaining cost and capital expenditures, cost savings, project economics (including net present value and internal rates of return); the impact of the fire on the mineral reserve and mineral resource estimates at Tasiast, the timing and amount of estimated future production, capital expenditures, the costs and timing of the development of the 21k and 24k projects, and the proposed timing of re-commencing mining and processing activities. The words anticipate, estimate, expect, opportunity, and option or variations of or similar such words and phrases or statements that certain actions, events or results may, could, will or would occur, and similar expressions identify forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements are necessarily based upon a number of estimates and assumptions that, while considered reasonable by Kinross as of the date of such statements, are inherently subject to significant business, economic and competitive uncertainties and contingencies. The estimates, models and assumptions of Kinross referenced, contained or incorporated by reference in this news release, which may prove to be incorrect, include, but are not limited to, the various assumptions set forth herein and in our Annual Information Form dated March 30, 2021 and our full-year 2020 and first-quarter 2021 Managements Discussion and Analysis as well as: (1) the estimated cost and projected timing of repairing and re-starting the SAG mill being consistent with the Companys current expectations; (2) the Companys estimates regarding the timing of completion of the 21k project; (3) the Companys ability to successfully recover under its insurance policies being consistent with managements expectations; (4) the impact of the incident on the Companys current production guidance, mineral reserve and mineral resource estimates, and estimated overall value of Tasiast; (5) the estimated duration of the suspension of the SAG mill being consistent with Kinross current expectations; (6) the construction of the 24k project being unaffected by the suspension or re-start of the SAG mill; (7) the estimated impact on the timing of completion of the 21k project being consistent with the Companys expectations; and (8) the viability of options to enhance shareholders returns and the Companys ability to obtain the necessary consents and approvals related to such options. Known and unknown factors could cause actual results to differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements. These uncertainties and contingencies can directly or indirectly affect, and could cause, Kinross actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied in any forward-looking statements made by, or on behalf of, Kinross. There can be no assurance that forward-looking statements will prove to be accurate, as actual results and future events could differ materially from those anticipated in such statements. Forward-looking statements are provided for the purpose of providing information about managements expectations and plans relating to the future. All of the forward-looking statements made in this news release are qualified by these cautionary statements and those made in our other filings with the securities regulators of Canada and the United States including, but not limited to, the cautionary statements made in the "Risk Factors" section of our Annual Information Form dated March 30, 2021 and the "Risk Analysis" section of our full-year 2020 and first-quarter 2021 Managements Discussion & Analysis. These factors are not intended to represent a complete list of the factors that could affect Kinross. Kinross disclaims any intention or obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements or to explain any material difference between subsequent actual events and such forward looking statements, except to the extent required by applicable law.

Where we say we, us, our, the Company, or Kinross in this news release, we mean Kinross Gold Corporation and/or one or more or all of its subsidiaries, as may be applicable. The technical information about the Companys mineral properties contained in this news release has been prepared under the supervision of Mr. John Sims who is a qualified person within the meaning of National Instrument 43-101. Mr. Sims was an officer of Kinross until December 31, 2020. Mr. Sims remains the Companys qualified person as an external consultant.

copper mountain exceeds 2020 production guidance and provides 2021 guidance

copper mountain exceeds 2020 production guidance and provides 2021 guidance

VANCOUVER, BC, Jan. 7, 2021 /PRNewswire/ - Copper Mountain Mining Corporation (TSX: CMMC) (ASX: C6C) (the "Company" or "Copper Mountain") is pleased to announce that the Copper Mountain Mine exceeded 2020 production guidance and achieved record quarterly production for copper, gold and silver in the fourth quarter. All results are reported on a 100% basis.

"Our operating team executed on our operating plan beating our production guidance for this year," commented Gil Clausen, Copper Mountain's President and CEO. "We finished the year strong with record production in the fourth quarter as a result of higher grades, which we expect to continue in 2021. We are forecasting production to increase by up to 22% to 85 to 95 million pounds of copper in 2021 with higher grades and increased recovery and throughput post commissioning of the 45,000 tonnes per day mill expansion in the third quarter of 2021. Further, we are maintaining a low cost profile in 2021 with all-in cost expected to be between US$1.80 to $2.00 per pound, which is in line with 2020 expectations."

Mr. Clausen added, "We are continuing to build up a healthy cash position while investing in our low risk, high return growth projects at the Copper Mountain Mine. Following the completion of the mill expansion to 45,000 tonnes per day this year, we will focus on a further mill expansion to 65,000 tonnes per day."

Copper production for the fourth quarter of 2020 increased 22% from the third quarter of 2020 and 23% when compared to the fourth quarter of 2019. Production during the quarter was 23.1 million pounds of copper, 8,959 ounces of gold and 144,934 ounces of silver for a total production of 28.7 million copper equivalent pounds. Increased copper production was a result of higher copper grade. Grade is expected to remain strong in 2021.

In 2020, the Copper Mountain Mine produced 77.6 million pounds of copper, exceeding guidance of 70 to 75 million pounds. Gold production was 29,227 ounces and silver production was 392,494 ounces. Copper equivalent production was 98.2 million copper equivalent pounds.

ProductionBased on the updated life of mine production plan announced on November 30, 2020, the Company expects 2021 production to be 85 to 95 million pounds of copper as a result of higher grades and improved recoveries.

Copper Mountain Mine's 45,000 tonnes per day mill expansion project is expected to be complete with commissioning of the third ball mill by the end of the third quarter of 2021. The 45,000 tonnes per day mill expansion will increase throughput and improve copper recovery, resulting in higher production.

The Company expects all-in cost (AIC) to remain low in 2021, estimating AIC to be between US$1.80 to US$2.00 per pound as a result of higher production and improved grade. All Dollars are in US Dollars and assume a CAD to USD exchange rate of 1.33 to 1.

AIC includes sustaining capital, lease payments and applicable administration, in addition to deferred stripping and low-grade stockpile inventory expense. Sustaining capital in 2021 is expected to be approximately US$9 million and deferred stripping is expected to be approximately US$7 million.

Total growth or expansionary capital in 2021 is expected to be approximately US$33 million. The majority of the capital to be spent in 2021 is for the installation of the third ball mill for the 45,000 tonnes per day mill expansion project at the Copper Mountain Mine. Capitalized exploration for 2021 is expected to be approximately US$3 to US$4 million, with the focus on continued reserve expansion at the Copper Mountain Mine.

About Copper Mountain Mining CorporationCopper Mountain's flagship asset is the 75% owned Copper Mountain mine located in southern British Columbia near the town of Princeton. The Copper Mountain mine currently produces approximately 100 million pounds of copper equivalent. Copper Mountain also has the development-stage Eva Copper Project in Queensland, Australia and an extensive 2,100 km2 highly prospective land package in the Mount Isa area. Copper Mountain trades on the Toronto Stock Exchange under the symbol "CMMC" and Australian Stock Exchange under the symbol "C6C".

Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking StatementsThis news release may contain forward-looking statements and forward-looking information (together, "forward-looking statements") within the meaning of applicable securities laws. All statements, other than statements of historical facts, are forward-looking statements. Generally, forward-looking statements can be identified by the use of terminology such as "plans", "expects", "estimates", "intends", "anticipates", "believes" or variations of such words, or statements that certain actions, events or results "may", "could", "would", "might", "occur" or "be achieved". Forward-looking statements involve risks, uncertainties and other factors that could cause actual results, performance and opportunities to differ materially from those implied by such forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from these forward-looking statements include the successful exploration of the Company's properties in Canada and Australia, the reliability of the historical data referenced in this press release and risks set out in Copper Mountain's public documents, including in each management discussion and analysis, filed on SEDAR at www.sedar.com. Although Copper Mountain believes that the information and assumptions used in preparing the forward-looking statements are reasonable, undue reliance should not be placed on these statements, which only apply as of the date of this news release, and no assurance can be given that such events will occur in the disclosed time frames or at all. Except where required by applicable law, Copper Mountain disclaims any intention or obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statement, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.

The U.S.-listed shares of several Chinese electric-vehicle makers were trading down on Wednesday after the Chinese government imposed restrictions on ride-hailing giant DiDi Global (NYSE: DIDI) following its initial public offering in New York. Li Auto (NASDAQ: LI) was down about 4.6%. NIO (NYSE: NIO) was down about 6.9%.

For the third day in a row, Carnival Corp. (NYSE: CCL) stock is sinking -- down 3% as of 1 p.m. EDT. Consider: As my fellow Fool Travis Hoium explained Tuesday, investors are upset with Carnival's decision to buy back $2 billion worth of its 11.5% senior secured notes due 2023. Now, on the one hand, that move will cut into the $9.3 billion in cash Carnival had on hand to carry it through the rest of the pandemic.

Stock investors are watching the dramatic moves in the Treasury market for clues on the fate of one of this years most successful plays - the so-called reflation trade that helped power shares of economically sensitive companies higher after nearly a decade of underperformance. Investors piled in to shares of energy producers, banks and other companies expected to benefit from a powerful economic rebound earlier this year while betting that Treasury yields, which move inversely to prices, would rise. While stock markets appear placid, with the S&P 500 hovering near a record high, a rotation beneath the surface has accelerated in recent weeks, as investors move out of economically sensitive names and back in to the big technology and growth stocks that led markets higher for most of the last decade.

The good news: That pension and your savings are and will be great assets for you in retirement, so congratulations on that! There are many factors that go into knowing how much youll need for retirement, and a few ways to break down these annual estimates. For example, if you were to use the 4% rule, which is a traditional rule of thumb that suggests you take out 4% of your retirement savings every year to live on, youd generate about $30,000 to $35,000 a year, said Morgan Hill, chief executive officer of Hill and Hill Financial.

(Bloomberg) -- U.S. futures slumped with stocks amid growing anxiety that the spread of Covid-19 variants will upend growth expectations, undoing popular reflation trades. Bonds rallied.Contracts on the the S&P 500 and Nasdaq 100 fell 1%, signaling a retreat from new records set Wednesday in the underlying gauges. European equities tumbled more than 1%, with declines led by cyclically-sensitive retailers and commodities firms. Ten-year U.S. Treasury yields continued their descent to the lowest l

The stock market has been choppy this week, and Wednesday brought some new fears to the table. Market participants are looking closely at rising incidence of new COVID-19 variants, which could threaten to bring yet another wave of cases to areas where vaccination rates have been less than ideal. Moderna (NASDAQ: MRNA), BioNTech (NASDAQ: BNTX), and Novavax (NASDAQ: NVAX) were all sharply lower on the day.

Workhorse Group (NASDAQ: WKHS) stock opened at $13.85, dropped to a low of $12.43 during the day and closed at $12.51, a one-day tumble of 9.61% on Wednesday. Shares in Workhorse, a maker of electric trucks, have been a favorite among retail investors and were as high as $17 last week. Workhorse, which lost out to Oshkosh Defense, a division of Oshkosh, on the contract to make the next-generation vehicles for the U.S. Postal Service, has lodged a formal complaint with the Federal Claims Court regarding the bid process.

Shares of Tesla (NASDAQ: TSLA) stock slipped 2.5% in morning trading on the NASDAQ Wednesday, apparently hurt by a pair of bad news items -- and a Barron's report -- just the day before. As Barron's reports, "safety appears to be the main reason" Tesla stock is struggling this week, as investors worry over news that one Tesla investor's new Model S Plaid electric car burst into flames last week -- while a separate family has launched a wrongful death suit against the company, blaming the performance of its "Autopilot" driver-assistance software. Regarding the Plaid fire, The New York Post reported late last week that "a brand-new Tesla Model S Plaid ... burst into flames in Pennsylvania" Tuesday in "a harrowing unexplained inferno."

Shares in so-called meme stocks with a following among retail investors lost ground on Wednesday, with AMC Entertainment shares down 8.1%, on track for their fourth straight day of declines, and GameStop Corp falling 4.9%. AMC, which fell almost 12% in the previous three sessions, hit a record high of $72.62 in early June as members of social media platforms including Twitter and Reddit's WallStreetBets urged each other to buy the stock. The cinema operator, which on Tuesday scrapped a shareholder approval request for an increase in the number of shares outstanding, was trading at $45.91 after breaching its 30-day moving average.

Shares of Novavax (NASDAQ: NVAX) jumped 44% last month according to S&P Global Market Intelligence. The move followed a 38% drop in May. The wild ride has been driven by news about the anticipated timing for the company's vaccine, NVX-CoV2373. Novavax has experienced repeated delays in getting the vaccine to market, first with regulatory filings and later with production.

Say green economy, and what is the first thing you think of? Renewable fuels, electric cars, solar power farms, wind turbines, hydrogen fuel cells, recycling plants these are all components of the green economy. The economic sector is currently small, compared to the US near-$20 trillion annual economic output, but its politically potent and gaining in importance year by year. And as they expand, green industries bring more and more opportunities to investors. Those opportunities, however,

copper mountain mining announces strong q3 2020 financial results, reduces all-in cost guidance

copper mountain mining announces strong q3 2020 financial results, reduces all-in cost guidance

VANCOUVER, BC, Nov. 2, 2020 /PRNewswire/ -Copper Mountain Mining Corporation (TSX: CMMC) (ASX: C6C) (the "Company" or "Copper Mountain")announces strong third quarter 2020 financial and operating results. All currency is in Canadian dollars, unless otherwise stated. All results are reported on a 100% basis. The Company's Financial Statements and Management Discussion & Analysis ("MD&A") are available at www.CuMtn.com and www.sedar.com.

"We posted another strong quarter and continued to exceed our revised operating plan with solid operating and financial results," commented Gil Clausen, Copper Mountain's President and CEO. "We expect production to continue to increase in the fourth quarter with higher grades and recoveries, at low cost. As a result, we are reducing our 2020 all-in cost guidance to a range of US$1.85 to US$2.00 per pound of copper. We are also maintaining our 2020 production guidance but expect to end the year at the top end of the range."

"Our plan is to continue to build upon our healthy cash position in anticipation of restarting construction of the third ball mill in early 2021, which is the last stage to complete our 45,000 tonnes per day mill expansion project. We have commenced activities to prepare for construction and forecast commissioning by the end of Q3 2021. The installation of the third ball mill is expected to increase production by 15 to 18% as a result of higher throughput and improved metal recoveries while maintaining the mill head grade. This is the first step of our multi-tier growth plan. This growth pipeline includes a further mill expansion to 65,000 tonnes per day at the Copper Mountain Mine. We expect to publish a technical report in Q4 on this expansion plan. In addition, the Eva Copper Project is being advanced and we are currently developing project financing options and evaluating potential project partners. Our seasoned team continues to steadily de-risk and advance our organic growth plans."

During the third quarter of 2020, the Company continued to operate under the revised operating plan announced in March of 2020. In Q3 2020, the Copper Mountain Mine produced 18.9 million pounds of copper, 6,630 ounces of gold, and 81,418 ounces of silver, as compared to 16.3million pounds of copper, 6,498 ounces of gold, and 57,225 ounces of silver for Q3 2019.

The mine processed a total of 3.7 million tonnes of ore during the quarter as compared to 3.6 million tonnes in Q3 2019. Average feed grade increased to 0.29% Cu and copper recovery improved to 80.4% in Q3 2020, as compared to average feed grade of 0.26% Cu and copper recovery of 78.2% in Q3 2019, which are the primary reasons for higher production in Q3 2020. Copper grade is expected to continue to improve in Q4 2020, as the Company has completed mining in the Pit#1 area and has restarted mining in the higher grade Pit #3 area. Mining costs are expected to remain at lower levels as the waste haul remains short as Pit#1 is being backfilled with waste rock from Pit#3. Mill availability averaged 90.8% for Q3 2020 as compared to 91.9% in Q3 2019. The slight decrease in mill availability was a result of scheduled preventative maintenance shutdowns in Q3 2020. With expected higher grades and higher recoveries driving increased production in the fourth quarter of 2020, Copper Mountain expects to achieve the higher end of its guidance range for the year.

C1 cash cost per pound of copper produced for Q3 2020 decreased 40% to US$1.27, as compared to US$2.12 in Q3 2019. The decrease in cost per pound in Q3 2020 was the result of higher production, reduced mining costs and higher by-product credits for the gold and silver produced in Q3 2020 as compared to Q3 2019.

All-in sustaining cost per pound of copper produced (AISC) in Q3 2020 decreased 37% to US$1.43, as compared to US$2.28 in Q3 2019. The low AISC carries forward from the low C1 cost per pound with addition of $3.9 million in sustaining capital, lease and applicable administration expenditures in Q3 2020 as compared to $3.4 million in Q3 2019.

Total all-in cost per pound of copper produced (AIC), net of credits, for Q3 2020 decreased 37% to US$1.68, as compared to US$2.67 in Q3 2019. The low AIC carries forward from the low AISC with the addition of $6.4 million in deferred stripping and $nil of low-grade stockpile mining costs incurred in Q3 2020 as compared to $8.3 million of deferred stripping and $0.3 million of low-grade stockpile costs in Q3 2019.

The significant decrease in C1, AISC, and AIC recognized in Q3 2020 as compared to past quarters was a result of the Company's strong copper production, cost savings initiatives and operating efficiencies at the Copper Mountain mine, supplemented by an increase in precious metals prices and production for Q3 2020.

In Q3 2020, revenue was $95 million, net of pricing adjustments and treatment charges, compared to $62.7 million in Q3 2019. Q3 2020 revenue is based on the sale of 17.8 million pounds of copper, 6,232 ounces of gold, and 67,901 ounces of silver. This compares to 17.0 million pounds of copper, 6,400 ounces of gold and 57,426 ounces of silver sold in Q3 2019. Revenue increased significantly as a result of increased sales and higher metal prices, including a positive mark to market and final adjustment on concentrate sales of $11.3 million. This compares to a negative mark to market and final adjustment of $2.4 million for Q3 2019, a differential of approximately $13.7 million. Q3 2020 revenue before the mark to market adjustment was $83.7 million as compared to $63.6 million for Q3 2019.

Cost of sales in Q3 2020 was $53.0 million as compared to $64.1 million for Q3 2019. A substantial part of the decrease in cost of sales is a result of the Company's cost savings initiatives resulting from the revised operating plan which included utilizing less equipment. Q3 2020 cost of sales did not include any mining costs being allocated to the low-grade stockpile and the Company allocated $6.4 million to deferred stripping. This is compared to Q3 2019 cost of sales which was net of $8.3 million of deferred stripping and low-grade stockpile costs.

The Company reported net income of $33.2 million for the three-month period ended September 30, 2020 as compared to a net loss of $10.6million for the same period of 2019. The variance in the higher net income for 2020, as compared to 2019, was a result of several items including:

In July 2020, the Company completed the first stage of the Ball Mill Expansion project which included installation of the Direct Flotation Reactors (DFRs). The Ball Mill Expansion is designed to increase throughput to 45,000 tonnes per day from 40,000 tonnes per day and improve copper recovery as a result of being able to achieve a finer grind of ore. The DFRs have increased the efficiency and the capacity of the current cleaner circuit, and as planned increased copper concentrate grade from about 24 to 28%, resulting in lower concentrate transportation, smelting and refining costs during Q3 2020. The installation of the DFRs was completed on schedule and on budget.

As noted in Q1 2020, as a result of COVID-19, the Company deferred all major capital spend and therefore halted work on the second stage of the Ball Mill Expansion project, which deferred the actual installation of a third ball mill that the Company had already purchased and had delivered to site. Work was reduced to completing commitments on long lead items, which would allow the project to restart in an efficient and expeditious manner. The Company has re-commenced activities for the installation of the third ball mill for a construction start in early 2021. Copper Mountain is planning for commissioning of the Ball Mill Expansion project by the end of Q3 2021.

The Company is reducing its 2020 AIC guidance to a range of US$1.85 to US$2.00 per pound of copper from a range of US$2.20 to US$2.35 per pound of copper. The Company reaffirms its 2020 production guidance of 70 to 75 million pounds of copper and expects to be at the higher end of the range. Copper production is expected to be stronger in the fourth quarter of 2020 as a result of higher grades and improved recoveries.

Dial-in information: Toronto and international: 647-427-7450 North America (toll-free): 1-888-231-8191 To participate in the webcast live via computer go to: https://produceredition.webcasts.com/starthere.jsp?ei=1379598&tp_key=9549f68559

About Copper Mountain Mining Corporation Copper Mountain's flagship asset is the 75% owned Copper Mountain mine located in southern British Columbia near the town of Princeton. The Copper Mountain mine currently produces approximately 90 million pounds of copper equivalent, with average annual production expected to increase to approximately 120 million pounds of copper equivalent. Copper Mountain also has the development-stage Eva Copper Project in Queensland, Australia and an extensive 2,443 km2 highly prospective land package in the Mount Isa area. Copper Mountain trades on the Toronto Stock Exchange under the symbol "CMMC" and Australian Stock Exchange under the symbol "C6C".

Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements This news release may contain forward-looking statements and forward-looking information (together, "forward-looking statements") within the meaning of applicable securities laws. All statements, other than statements of historical facts, are forward-looking statements. Generally, forward-looking statements can be identified by the use of terminology such as "plans", "expects", "estimates", "intends", "anticipates", "believes" or variations of such words, or statements that certain actions, events or results "may", "could", "would", "might", "occur" or "be achieved". Forward-looking statements involve risks, uncertainties and other factors that could cause actual results, performance and opportunities to differ materially from those implied by such forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from these forward-looking statements include the successful exploration of the Company's properties in Canada and Australia, the reliability of the historical data referenced in this press release and risks set out in Copper Mountain's public documents, including in each management discussion and analysis, filed on SEDAR at www.sedar.com. Although Copper Mountain believes that the information and assumptions used in preparing the forward-looking statements are reasonable, undue reliance should not be placed on these statements, which only apply as of the date of this news release, and no assurance can be given that such events will occur in the disclosed time frames or at all. Except where required by applicable law, Copper Mountain disclaims any intention or obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statement, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.

global ball mill industry report 2014 - forecasts and analysis 2010-2020

global ball mill industry report 2014 - forecasts and analysis 2010-2020

The Global Ball Mill Industry Report 2014 is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the ball mill industry. The report provides a basic overview of the industry including definitions, classifications, applications and industry chain structure. The ball mill market analysis is provided for the international markets including development trends, competitive landscape analysis, and key regions development status. Development policies and plans are also discussed and manufacturing processes and cost structures analyzed. Ball mill industry import/export consumption, supply and demand figures and cost price and production value gross margins are also provided. The report focuses on fifteen industry players providing information such as company profiles, product picture and specification, capacity production, price, cost, production value and contact information. Upstream raw materials and equipment and downstream demand analysis is also carried out. The ball mill industry development trends and marketing channels are analyzed. Finally the feasibility of new investment projects are assessed and overall research conclusions offered. With 170 tables and figures the report provides key statistics on the state of the industry and is a valuable source of guidance and direction for companies and individuals interested in the market. Key Topics Covered: Chapter One Ball Mill Industry Overview 1.1 Ball Mill Definition 1.2 Ball Mill Classification and Application 1.3 Ball Mill Industry Chain Structure 1.4 Ball Mill Industry Overview Chapter Two Global Ball Mill Market Status Analysis 2.1 Global Ball Mill Productions Supply Sales and Price Demand Market Analysis 2.1.1 2009-2014 Ball Mill Production and Capacity Status 2.1.2 2009-2014 Ball Mill Sales and Price Market Status 2.1.3 2009-2014 Ball Mill Supply Demand and Shortage 2.1.4 2009-2014 Ball Mill Cost Price Production Value Gross Margin 2.1.5 2009-2014 Ball Mill Industry Segment Market Status 2.1.6 Global market research conclusion Chapter Three Major Regions Ball Mill Market Status Analysis 3.1 Asia Ball Mill Productions Supply Sales and Price Demand Market Analysis 3.1.1 2009-2014 Ball Mill Production and Capacity Status 3.1.2 2009-2014 Ball Mill Sales and Price Market Status 3.1.3 2009-2014 Ball Mill Supply Demand and Shortage 3.1.4 2009-2014 Ball Mill Cost Price Production Value Gross Margin 3.1.5 2009-2014 Ball Mill Industry Segment Market Status 3.1.6 Asia market research conclusion 3.2 Europe Ball Mill Productions Supply Sales and Price Demand Market Analysis 3.2.1 2009-2014 Ball Mill Production and Capacity Status 3.2.2 2009-2014 Ball Mill Sales and Price Market Status 3.2.3 2009-2014 Ball Mill Supply Demand and Shortage 3.2.4 2009-2014 Ball Mill Cost Price Production Value Gross Margin 3.2.5 2009-2014 Ball Mill Industry Segment Market Status 3.2.6 Europe market research conclusion 3.3 North America Ball Mill Productions Supply Sales and Price Demand Market Analysis 3.3.1 2009-2014 Ball Mill Production and Capacity Status 3.3.2 2009-2014 Ball Mill Sales and Price Market Status 3.3.3 2009-2014 Ball Mill Supply Demand and Shortage 3.3.4 2009-2014 Ball Mill Cost Price Production Value Gross Margin 3.3.5 2009-2014 Ball Mill Industry Segment Market Status 3.3.6 North America market research conclusion 3.4 Rest of World Ball Mill Productions Supply Sales and Price Demand Market Analysis 3.4.1 2009-2014 Ball Mill Production and Capacity Status 3.4.2 2009-2014 Ball Mill Sales and Price Market Status 3.4.3 2009-2014 Ball Mill Supply Demand and Shortage 3.4.4 2009-2014 Ball Mill Cost Price Production Value Gross Margin 3.4.5 2009-2014 Ball Mill Industry Segment Market Status 3.4.6 Rest of World market research conclusion Chapter Four Major Countries Ball Mill Market Status and Analysis 4.1 China Ball Mill Productions Supply Sales and Price Demand Market Analysis 4.1.1 2009-2014 Ball Mill Production and Capacity Status 4.1.2 2009-2014 Ball Mill Sales and Price Market Status 4.1.3 2009-2014 China Ball Mill Import and Export Status 4.1.4 2009-2014 China Ball Mill Supply and Sales Analysis 4.1.5 2009-2014 China Ball Mill Cost Price Production Value Gross Margin Analysis 4.1.6 China market research conclusion (Yesterday Today Tomorrow) 4.2 Japan Ball Mill Productions Supply Sales and Price Demand Market Analysis 4.2.1 2009-2014 Ball Mill Production and Capacity Status 4.2.2 2009-2014 Ball Mill Sales and Price Market Status 4.2.3 2009-2014 Japan Ball Mill Import and Export Status 4.2.4 2009-2014 Japan Ball Mill Supply and Sales Analysis 4.2.5 2009-2014 Japan Ball Mill Cost Price Production Value Gross Margin Analysis 4.2.6 Japan market research conclusion (Yesterday Today Tomorrow) 4.3 USA Ball Mill Productions Supply Sales and Price Demand Market Analysis 4.3.1 2009-2014 Ball Mill Production and Capacity Status 4.3.2 2009-2014 Ball Mill Sales and Price Market Status 4.3.3 2009-2014 USA Ball Mill Import and Export Status 4.3.4 2009-2014 USA Ball Mill Supply and Sales Analysis 4.3.5 2009-2014 USA Ball Mill Cost Price Production Value Gross Margin Analysis 4.3.6 USA market research conclusion (Yesterday Today Tomorrow) 4.4 German Ball Mill Productions Supply Sales and Price Demand Market Analysis 4.4.1 2009-2014 Ball Mill Production and Capacity Status 4.4.2 2009-2014 Ball Mill Sales and Price Market Status 4.4.3 2009-2014 German Ball Mill Import and Export Status 4.4.4 2009-2014 German Ball Mill Supply and Sales Analysis 4.4.5 2009-2014 German Ball Mill Cost Price Production Value Gross Margin Analysis 4.4.6 German market research conclusion (Yesterday Today Tomorrow) 4.5.6 UK market research conclusion (Yesterday Today Tomorrow) 4.6.6 Korea market research conclusion (Yesterday Today Tomorrow) 4.5 Finland Ball Mill Productions Supply Sales and Price Demand Market Analysis 4.5.1 2009-2014 Ball Mill Production and Capacity Status 4.5.2 2009-2014 Ball Mill Sales and Price Market Status 4.5.3 2009-2014 Finland Ball Mill Import and Export Status 4.5.4 2009-2014 Finland Ball Mill Supply and Sales Analysis 4.5.5 2009-2014 Finland Ball Mill Cost Price Production Value Gross Margin Analysis 4.5.6 Finland market research conclusion (Yesterday Today Tomorrow) 4.6 Denmark Ball Mill Productions Supply Sales and Price Demand Market Analysis 4.6.1 2009-2014 Ball Mill Production and Capacity Status 4.6.2 2009-2014 Ball Mill Sales and Price Market Status 4.6.3 2009-2014 Denmark Ball Mill Import and Export Status 4.6.4 2009-2014 Denmark Ball Mill Supply and Sales Analysis 4.6.5 2009-2014 Denmark Ball Mill Cost Price Production Value Gross Margin Analysis 4.6.6 Denmark market research conclusion (Yesterday Today Tomorrow) Chapter Five Major Companies Ball Mill Market Status and Analysis 5.1 Metso Minerals 5.1.1 Company Profile 5.1.2 Product Picture and Specification 5.1.3 Capacity Production Price Cost Production Value 5.1.4 Contact Information 5.2 HB Fuller 5.2.1 Company Profile 5.2.2 Product Picture and Specification 5.2.3 Capacity Production Price Cost Production Value 5.2.4 Contact Information 5.3 Outokumpu 5.3.1 Company Profile 5.3.2 Product Picture and Specification 5.3.3 Capacity Production Price Cost Production Value 5.3.4 Contact Information 5.4 Loesche 5.4.1 Company Profile 5.4.2 Product Picture and Specification 5.4.3 Capacity Production Price Cost Production Value 5.4.4 Contact Information 5.5 UBE INDUSTRIES,LTD. 5.5.1 Company Profile 5.5.2 Product Picture and Specification 5.5.3 Capacity Production Price Cost Production Value 5.5.4 Contact Information 5.6 F. L. Smidth 5.6.1 Company Profile 5.6.2 Product Picture and Specification 5.6.3 Capacity Production Price Cost Production Value 5.6.4 Contact Information 5.7 Raymond 5.7.1 Company Profile 5.7.2 Product Picture and Specification 5.7.3 Capacity Production Price Cost Production Value 5.7.4 Contact Information 5.8 MTSUBISHI HEAVY INDUSTRIES, LTD. 5.8.1 Company Profile 5.8.2 Product Picture and Specification 5.8.3 Capacity Production Price Cost Production Value 5.8.4 Contact Information 5.9 GEBR. PFEIFFER 5.9.1 Company Profile 5.9.2 Product Picture and Specification 5.9.3 Capacity Production Price Cost Production Value 5.9.4 Contact Information 5.10 Kawasaki 5.10.1 Company Profile 5.10.2 Product Picture and Specification 5.10.3 Capacity Production Price Cost Production Value 5.10.4 Contact Information 5.11 CITIC HEAVY INDUSTRIES CO., LTD 5.11.1 Company Profile 5.11.2 Product Picture and Specification 5.11.3 Capacity Production Price Cost Production Value 5.11.4 Contact Information 5.12 ThyssenKrupp AG 5.12.1 Company Profile 5.12.2 Product Picture and Specification 5.12.3 Capacity Production Price Cost Production Value 5.12.4 Contact Information 5.13 Shenyang Mining Machinery Group Co., Ltd. 5.13.1 Company Profile 5.13.2 Product Picture and Specification 5.13.3 Capacity Production Price Cost Production Value 5.13.4 Contact Information 5.14 LIMING HEAVY INDUSTRY 5.14.1 Company Profile 5.14.2 Product Picture and Specification 5.14.3 Capacity Production Price Cost Production Value 5.14.4 Contact Information 5.15 KHD 5.15.1 Company Profile 5.15.2 Product Picture and Specification 5.15.3 Capacity Production Price Cost Production Value 5.15.4 Contact Information Chapter Six Ball Mill Industry Chain and Marketing Channels Analysis 6.1 Ball Mill Industry chain structure Analysis 6.2 Upstream Major Raw Materials Price 2009-2014 6.3 Upstream Key Suppliers Analysis 6.4 Down Steam Applications Scale 2009-2014 6.5 Down Stream Key Clients Analysis 6.6 Ball Mill Marketing Channels Status 6.7 Ball Mill Marketing Channels Characteristic 6.8 Ball Mill Marketing Channels Development Trend Chapter Seven Ball Mill Industry Segment Market Analysis 7.1 Ball Mill Industry Sub-Product Market Structure 7.2 2009-2014 Ball Mill Industry Segment Dry Ball Mill Market Sales and Price Status 7.3 2009-2014 Ball Mill Industry Segment Wet Ball Mill Market Sales and Price Status Chapter Eight Ball Mill Industry Development Trend 8.1 2015-2020 Ball Mill Demand Forecast 8.2 2015-2020 Ball Mill Production and Capacity Forecast 8.3 2015-2020 Ball Mill Cost Price Production Value Gross Margin Forecast 8.4 2015-2020 Ball Mill Industry Segment Market Status Chapter Nine Ball Mill New Project Investment Feasibility Analysis 9.1 Ball Mill Project SWOT Analysis 9.2 Ball Mill New Project Investment Feasibility Analysis Chapter Ten Global Ball Mill Industry Research Conclusions Companies Mentioned - CITIC HEAVY INDUSTRIES CO., LTD - F. L. Smidth - GEBR. PFEIFFER - HB Fuller - KHD - Kawasaki - LIMING HEAVY INDUSTRY - Loesche - MTSUBISHI HEAVY INDUSTRIES, LTD. - Metso Minerals - Outokumpu - Raymond - Shenyang Mining Machinery Group Co., Ltd. - ThyssenKrupp AG - UBE INDUSTRIES,LTD. For more information visit http://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/tnwmbw/global_ball_mill

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