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energies | free full-text | impact of attrition ball-mill on characteristics and biochemical methane potential of food waste

energies | free full-text | impact of attrition ball-mill on characteristics and biochemical methane potential of food waste

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Gu, Y.M.; Park, S.Y.; Park, J.Y.; Sang, B.-I.; Jeon, B.S.; Kim, H.; Lee, J.H. Impact of Attrition Ball-Mill on Characteristics and Biochemical Methane Potential of Food Waste. Energies 2021, 14, 2085. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14082085

Gu YM, Park SY, Park JY, Sang B-I, Jeon BS, Kim H, Lee JH. Impact of Attrition Ball-Mill on Characteristics and Biochemical Methane Potential of Food Waste. Energies. 2021; 14(8):2085. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14082085

Gu, Yang M., Seon Y. Park, Ji Y. Park, Byoung-In Sang, Byoung S. Jeon, Hyunook Kim, and Jin H. Lee 2021. "Impact of Attrition Ball-Mill on Characteristics and Biochemical Methane Potential of Food Waste" Energies 14, no. 8: 2085. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14082085

weak-ferromagnetism for room temperature thermoelectric performance enhancement in p-type (bi,sb)2te3 - sciencedirect

weak-ferromagnetism for room temperature thermoelectric performance enhancement in p-type (bi,sb)2te3 - sciencedirect

Magnetic Fe2+/3+ would substitute Bi3+ site and shrink lattice.The observed weak-ferromagnetism could scatter low energy carriers selectively.The maximum PF of 45 Wcm1K2 was achieved as x=0.05 due to weak-ferromagnetism.Peak ZT of 1.2at 323K and its max of 7.6% in 303473K were achieved as x=0.05.

Unceasing efforts have been devoted to performance enhancement of thermoelectric (TE) materials, and recently reports suggested a new approach by utilizing magnetism to increase power factor. This work investigated the doping effect of Fe on the TE properties of Bi2Te3-based materials. A series of Fex(Bi,Sb)2-xTe3 bulk samples were synthesized via mechanical alloying combined with spark plasma sintering. XRD results and DFT calculations indicate that Fe2+ and Fe3+ would coexist and substitute Bi3+ site firstly and shrink lattice. The co-doped Fe2+/Fe3+ in (Bi,Sb)2Te3 is helpful to reduce carrier concentration (nH), band gap (Eg) and increase effective mass (m). With further increase of x, ferromagnetic FeTe2 second phase was precipitated from (Bi,Sb)2Te3 matrix. A weak-ferromagnetism was observed in all Fe-doped samples via M-H curve, which could scatter low energy carriers along with little effect on high-energy carriers, whereby the mobility was enhanced effectively. Owing to the synergistic effect of weak-ferromagnetism and optimized band structure, the maximum power factor reaches up to 45 Wcm1K2 as x=0.05, which is 28.5% higher than that at x=0. The peak ZT value reaches up to 1.2at 323K along with a theoretical max of 7.6% in the range of 303473K were achieved in x=0.05 sample. The results suggest that introducing weak-ferromagnetism is an effective way to enhance room temperature TE performance of BiSbTe based materials.

Fe2+ and Fe3+ would coexist and enter Bi3+ site firstly and shrink lattice after doping Fe into (Bi,Sb)2Te3. With further increase of Fe, ferromagnetic FeTe2 second phase was precipitated from (Bi,Sb)2Te3 matrix. A weak-ferromagnetism was observed in all Fe-doped samples via M-H curve, which could scatter low energy carriers along with little effect on high-energy carriers, whereby the mobility was enhanced effectively. The co-doped Fe2+/Fe3+ in (Bi,Sb)2Te3 is helpful to reduce carrier concentration (nH), band gap (Eg) and increase effective mass (m). Owing to the synergistic effect of weak-ferromagnetism and optimized band structure, the peak ZT value reaches up to 1.2at 323K.Download : Download high-res image (274KB)Download : Download full-size image

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