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briquetting plant 22

screw press briquette machine | gcbc series screw briquetting machine for briquetting plant

screw press briquette machine | gcbc series screw briquetting machine for briquetting plant

In our briquetting machine production line, screw biomass briquetting machine is the earliest invented briquette machine that can make waste biomass materials into hollow biomass briquettes. The high quality GCBC series screw briquetting machine is the latest model developed by ABC Machinery (thebranch company of AGICO) over 6 years of research and development. Because of the hollow structure of biomass briquettes and carbonized layer, the biomass briquettes manufactured by screw briquetting machine are welcomed in India, Thailand, Malaysia and African countries. The briquettes can further be carbonized into charcoal briquettes.

Screw biomass briquetting machine can process almost all kinds of wood waste, like sawdust, wood shaving and agricultural waste, like peanut shell, coconut shell, palm fiber, stalk, rice husk, and so on.

As biomass briquettes are produced from waste material, such as hardwood, sawdust, corn straw or other biomass feedstock, which makes briquettes sustainable clean energy as substitute of conventional fossil fuel: coal, oil suchlike. In addition, using wood briquettes or biomass briquettes as fuel will not cause pollution at all, meaning that briquettes are sort of preferred solid fuel by countries who have strict demands for environmental protection. When it comes to combustion, biomass briquettes have a longer burning life because of their compactness.

Whats more, biomass briquettes are always produced in regular shapes when equipping with different molding parts, e.g. rectangular, hexagon or round. The well standardized shapes make briquettes easy to store and transport.

While, biomass briquettes, especially wood briquettes that originally extruded from a briquette machine can also be made into charcoal briquettes by a further briquetting process. To get charcoal briquettes, you will have to char the wood briquettes in a kiln, smouldering briquettes in a temperature as high as 1000.

Based on charring temperature, 3 type of charcoal briquettes can be seen on market: low temperature charcoal (under 500), medium temperature charcoal (under 700) and high temperature charcoal (1100-1300). The higher the temperature where the wood briquettes are charred, the heavier they weight and the better burning performance they have. The high temperature charcoal briquettes that you can make by AGICO charcoal briquetting plant is the highest quality charcoal fuel that are used for exportation, sale and BBQ.

leading briquetting machine manufacturer - ruf briquetting systems

leading briquetting machine manufacturer - ruf briquetting systems

From metal scrap to wood waste, these byproducts of construction or manufacturing processes are often considered waste, worth little. But what if they could become cost-saving, money makers instead? A modern briquetting system starts saving you money and reducing waste from day one.

As the global leader in industrial briquetting, we understand the cost and the hassle of dealing with metal scrap, wood chips, and biomass waste. Thats why weve made it our mission to help manufacturers become more efficient, profitable, and sustainable.

briquette plants&free briquetting technical consultation and instruction

briquette plants&free briquetting technical consultation and instruction

Crusher is a machine used on the surface of the metal fracture or compressed into small bits and pieces of pieces or dense mass materials. The vertical complex crusher developed and designed by our team of highly qualified engineers is used to reduce the size of the coal, charcoal, coke, lime, stone and such kind of materials into smaller sizes, so they can be more easily disposed of or recycled, or to reduce the size of a solid mix of raw materials (as in rock ore), so that pieces of different composition can be differentiated.

Feeder is for storaging the crushed raw material like coal dust, charcoal dust, etc. It is just like the silo. After crushing, the material comes into the feeder temporarily which guarantees enough and adequate amount of material going into the mixer.

what is briquetting plant and where to buy the best briquette machine? - ecostan

what is briquetting plant and where to buy the best briquette machine? - ecostan

If we are not wrong then you are here to know about briquetting plant, right? Obviously, thats why you are here. Dont worry here you will know all your answer about briquette plant. Briquetting plant is basically a technology which turns all kind of forestry, industrial and agricultural waste into solid fuel. Briquette machines turn the finished element into cylindrical logs with the help of high mechanical pressure this is done without any help of binder or chemical. You can establish your own briquette plant with the help of Ecostans briquette machine. Our machine is able to make quality briquettes without any chemical or binder. With the help of highly pressurized mechanical punch, it will reduce the size of raw material which is easy to transport and moreover this process will increase the calorific value.

Ecostan briquetting plant produces such briquetting machine which works on the principle of binder less technology. We have more than 22 years of experience in briquetting plant field. Before launching any machine we do a considerable R&D so at the end only fine and quality briquette plant is produced. Our machines are produced under the supervision of experienced engineers who keep an eagle eye on every minor detail with the help of hi-tech Japanese machines.

Furthermore, other vernacular names of briquette plant are screw briquetting machine, briquette press, screw briquetting, mud press, tuda machine, getting the machine, saw dust machine, jumbo machine, rice husk briquette machine and more. We prefer to call them PRIME 40, CLASSIC 60, STANDARD 70, BULL 80, SUPREME 90, and EVEREST 100.

These are also the models too which are able to produce 2500 KG/H, 2000 KG/H, 1500 KG/H, 1300 KG/H, 1000 KG/H, and 325 KG/H respectively. These machines need power requirements in between 89 HP to 18 HP. Hope you get your answer if still want to ask any question then feel free to ask in the comment section.

plant 22-nt sirnas mediate translational repression and stress adaptation | nature

plant 22-nt sirnas mediate translational repression and stress adaptation | nature

Thank you for visiting nature.com. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are essential for proper development and immunity in eukaryotes1. Plants produce siRNAs with lengths of 21, 22 or 24 nucleotides. The 21- and 24-nucleotide species mediate cleavage of messenger RNAs and DNA methylation2,3, respectively, but the biological functions of the 22-nucleotide siRNAs remain unknown. Here we report the identification and characterization of a group of endogenous 22-nucleotide siRNAs that are generated by the DICER-LIKE 2 (DCL2) protein in plants. When cytoplasmic RNA decay and DCL4 are deficient, the resulting massive accumulation of 22-nucleotide siRNAs causes pleiotropic growth disorders, including severe dwarfism, meristem defects and pigmentation. Notably, two genes that encode nitrate reductasesNIA1 and NIA2produce nearly half of the 22-nucleotide siRNAs. Production of 22-nucleotide siRNAs triggers the amplification of gene silencing and induces translational repression both gene specifically and globally. Moreover, these 22-nucleotide siRNAs preferentially accumulate upon environmental stress, especially those siRNAs derived from NIA1/2, which act to restrain translation, inhibit plant growth and enhance stress responses. Thus, our research uncovers the unique properties of 22-nucleotide siRNAs, and reveals their importance in plant adaptation to environmental stresses.

Sequencing data are available at the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/) under accession number GSE136164. Source gel data for immunoblots and radiograms (Figs. 24 and Extended Data Figs. 2, 4, 6, 10) are provided in Supplementary Fig. 1; source data for all graphs (Figs. 14 and Extended Data Figs. 13, 5, 710) are also provided and are available with the online version of the paper.

Xie, Z., Allen, E., Wilken, A. & Carrington, J. C. DICER-LIKE 4 functions in trans-acting small interfering RNA biogenesis and vegetative phase change in Arabidopsis thaliana. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 102, 1298412989 (2005).

Bouch, N., Lauressergues, D., Gasciolli, V. & Vaucheret, H. An antagonistic function for Arabidopsis DCL2 in development and a new function for DCL4 in generating viral siRNAs. EMBO J. 25, 33473356 (2006).

Wilkinson, J. Q. & Crawford, N. M. Identification and characterization of a chlorate-resistant mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana with mutations in both nitrate reductase structural genes NIA1 and NIA2. Mol. Gen. Genet. 239, 289297 (1993).

Wu, Y. Y. et al. DCL2- and RDR6-dependent transitive silencing of SMXL4 and SMXL5 in Arabidopsis dcl4 mutants causes defective phloem transport and carbohydrate over-accumulation. Plant J. 90, 10641078 (2017).

Rubin, G., Tohge, T., Matsuda, F., Saito, K. & Scheible, W. R. Members of the LBD family of transcription factors repress anthocyanin synthesis and affect additional nitrogen responses in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 21, 35673584 (2009).

Peragine, A., Yoshikawa, M., Wu, G., Albrecht, H. L. & Poethig, R. S. SGS3 and SGS2/SDE1/RDR6 are required for juvenile development and the production of trans-acting siRNAs in Arabidopsis. Genes Dev. 18, 23682379 (2004).

We thank X. Chen for assistance with AGO1-immunoprecipitation experiments; J. Jia for help with sRNA phase analysis; K. Kiyokawa for assistance with plasmid constructions and mRNA preparation; and Y. Tomari, A. Hutchins and P. Pimpl for critical comments on the manuscript and language editing. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant 91740203 to H.G.), the National Key Research and Development Program of China (grant 2018YFA0507101 to H.G.), the Program for Guangdong Introducing Innovative and Entrepreneurial Teams (grants 2016ZT06S172 to J.Z. and B.L.), the Shenzhen Sci-Tech Fund (grant KYTDPT 20181011 104005 to J.Z. and B.L.), Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas (Nascent-chain Biology; grant 26116003 to H.-o.I.) and JST, PRESTO (grant JPMJPR 18K2 to H.-o.I.).

Present address: Lingnan Guangdong Laboratory of Modern Agriculture, Genome Analysis Laboratory of the Ministry of Agriculture, Agricultural Genomics Institute at Shenzhen, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shenzhen, China

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Tree Breeding by Molecular Design, National Engineering Laboratory for Tree Breeding, College of Biological Sciences and Technology, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, China

H.G., H.W. and B.L. conceived the project and designed the experiments; H.W. and X.Z. prepared the genetic materials; H.W. collected genetic phenotypes and carried out western blot assays, qRTPCR assays and AGO1-immunoprecipitation sRNA sequencing with contributions from X.T., X.X. and S.S.; B.L. and Y.P. carried out sRNA-seq and mRNA-seq bioinformatics analyses; L.F., H.Z. and J.Z. performed sRNA phase analysis; Y.P., Z.T. and Q.L.-h. conducted polysome profiling; Y.L. carried out cytoplasmic and nuclear fraction isolation assays; H.-o.I. performed in vitro RNA silencing assays; H.G., H.W. and B.L. wrote the manuscript with input from all authors.

a, Normalized tasiRNA abundance in each genotype of 20-day-old plants. TPM, tags per million. Data are presented as meanss.d.; n=4 biologically independent samples. b, IGV of 21- and 22-nt siRNA abundance at eight TAS gene loci. c, 21- and 22-nt sRNA phasing score of tasiRNAs from representative TAS1a and TAS1c loci in the indicated genotypes. The y-axis shows the sRNA phasing score. SeeMethods for calling of sRNA phasing scores. d, Venn diagram depicting 22-nt-siRNA-generating genes that overlap between ein5-1 dcl4-2 (1,182 genes) and ski2-2 dcl4-2 (182 genes) plants. e, The top 20 gene loci and their FDRs in ein5-1 dcl4-2 (left, ed) and ski2-2 dcl4-2 (right, sd) plants, ranked by 22-nt siRNA abundance in each double mutant. Genes in red produce 22-nt siRNAs in both ein5-1 dcl4-2 and ski2-2 dcl4-2 plants. c, Col-0; ed, ein5-1 dcl4-2; sd, ski2-2 dcl4-2. FDR values are from BenjaminiHochberg analysis; n=4 biologically independent samples.

a, mRNA-seq read abundance of NIA1/2 and SMXL4/5 genes in the indicated genotypes. b, Relative expression levels of NIA1/2 detected by qRTPCR at 15:00 and 18:00 in 20-day-old Col-0, ein5-1 dcl4-2, ski2-2 dcl4-2 and ein5-1 ski2-3 plants. c, Separation of cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions of Col-0, ein5-1 dcl4-2 (ed) and ein5-1 dcl4-2 dcl2-1 (edd) plants. Tubulin and histone H3 proteins were used as cytoplasmic and nuclear markers, respectively. Cyto, cytoplasm; Nuc, nucleus. d, Relative expression level of NIA1 and NIA2 genes detected by qRTPCR at 18:00 in the total and cytoplasmic fractions of 20-day-old plants. e, Verification of anti-NIA1 and anti-NR antibodies (the latter recognizing both NIA1 and NIA2) using nia1-3 and nia2-1 null alleles. HSP90 was used as a loading control. f, Protein levels of NIA1/2 detected by western blot at 15:00 and 18:00 in 20-day-old plants; sd, ski2-2 dcl4-2; sdd, ski2-2 dcl4-2 dcl2-1; ed, ein5-1 dcl4-2; edd, ein5-1 dcl4-2 dcl2-1; es, ein5-1 ski2-3; esdd, ein5-1 ski2-3 dcl4-2 dcl2-1. HSP90 was used as a loading control. g, GTE2/7 mRNA levels were normalized against PP2AA3 levels (locus AT1G13320). GTE2/7 expression in each polysomal fraction was calculated as the percentage of its expression in total RNA. Data are shown as meanss.d. (b, d) or means with individual data points (technical replicates) (g). Numbers to the right of gels in cf indicate the molecular mass (in kDa) of proteins. Numbers of individual biological experiments are: a, n=4; bd, n=3; eg, n=2. For gel source data, see Supplementary Fig. 1.

a, Representative images of 20-day-old Col-0, ein5-1 ski2-3 and ein5-1 ski2-3 dcl4-2 dcl2-1 plants. Scale bar, 2cm. Experiments were repeated three times with similar results. b, Normalized abundance of 21- and 22-nt siRNAs from all genes, excluding miRNAs and tasiRNAs, in each genotype. Data shown as meanss.d.; n=4 biological independent samples. c, IGV of 21- and 22-nt siRNAs from representative NIA1/2 gene loci in 20-day-old plants of each genotype. d, Polysome profiling of global translation efficiency in 20-day-old ein5-1 ski2-3 plants; 1050% sucrose gradient absorbance (at 260nm) was monitored in different fractions. Experiments were repeated twice with similar results. eg, Polysome distribution of NIA1/2 transcripts, with numbers on x-axis corresponding to fractions shown in d. NIA1/2 mRNA levels were normalized against PP2AA3 (AT1G13320). In e, f, NIA1/2 expression in each polysomal fraction was calculated as the percentage of its expression in total RNA. In g, TUB2 was used as a control. Data in eg are presented as means and individual data points (technical replicates). Experiments were repeated twice with similar results.

a, Western blot showing NIA1/2 protein levels at 15:00 in 20-day-old plants of the indicated genotypes. HSP90 was used as a control. bg, Genetic interaction of ein5-1 dcl4-2 and ski2-2 dcl4-2 with ago2-1 (b, c), ago4-1 (b, c), hen1-8 (d, e) and amp1-30 (f, g). Representative images of 20-day-old plants of the indicated genotypes. Scale bars, 2cm. h, NR protein levels (anti-NR antibody recognizes both NIA1 and NIA2) in 20-day-old plants of the indicated genotypes. HSP90 was used as a control. a, h, Numbers to the right of gels indicate the molecular mass (in kDa) of proteins. The numbers of individual biological experiments are as follows: a, h, n=2; bg, n=3. For gel source data, see Supplementary Fig. 1.

a, Length distribution (1826nt) of AGO1-associated sRNAs in Col-0, ein5-1 dcl4-2 (ed) and ein5-1 dcl4-2 dcl2-1 (edd) plants. b, Classification (miRNAs, tasiRNAs and protein-coding-gene-derived siRNAs) and abundance of AGO1-associated sRNAs in Col-0 (Col-0_IP), ein5-1 dcl4-2 (ed_IP) and ein5-1 dcl4-2 dcl2-1 (edd_IP). The abundance of 21- and 22-nt sRNAs only was calculated. c, d, Sequence conservation analysis of AGO1-associated 21-nt (c) or 22-nt (d) sRNA using Weblogo 3 software. e, Venn diagram shows the overlap between 1,182 22-nt-siRNA-generating genes in ein5-1 dcl4-2 (ed_22DEG) and 642 AGO1-associated 22-nt-siRNA-generating genes in ein5-1 dcl4-2 (AGO1_IP_22). f, Heatmap depicting the sRNA abundance (log2(TPM+1)) of 1,182 22-nt-siRNA-generating genes from ein5-1 dcl4-2 plants in total (Input) and AGO1-immunoprecipitated (AGO1_IP) sRNA sequencing experiments.

a, Scheme underlying the experimental procedure of Fig. 3d. SeeMethods for further details. b, Structures of 21- and 22-nt siNIA2 siRNAs. The guide strands shown in red were radiolabelled. The grey strands show the passenger strand. The 5-ends of siRNAs were phosphorylated and the 3-ends were methylated. c, Schematic of 3FLAG NIA2 mRNA and siNIA2 siRNA target site. d, We incubated 1.5M radiolabelled NIA2-siRNA duplexes (21- and 22-nt) with in vitro translated 3FLAG-AGO1 in BY-2 lysate at 25C for 90min. AGO1RISC was then isolated using anti-FLAG antibody. Input (1/20) and AGO1-associated (IP (FLAG)) 21- and 22-nt siRNAs were then separated on denaturing gels and analysed by autoradiograph. Experiments were repeated twice with similar results. For gel source data, see Supplementary Fig. 1.

a, b, Representative images of 20-day-old plants. Scale bars, 2cm. Experiments were repeated three times with similar results. c, IGV of 22-nt siRNAs derived from NIA1/2 and SMXL4/5 gene loci in each genotype of 20-day-old plants. d, e, Heatmap showing the abundance of 22-nt siRNAs (log2(TPM+1)) from 1,182 (from ein5-1 dcl4-2 plants) and 182 (from ski2-2 dcl4-2 plants) genes that produce 22-nt siRNAs in the indicated genotypes.

a, Root length of 8-day-old plants of indicated genotypes. Data are meanss.d.; n=20 biologically independent roots. b, Number of meristematic cortex cells in 9-day-old plants. Data are meanss.d.; n=14 (for Col-0 and ski2-2) and 15 (for dcl4-2, ski2-2 dcl4-2 and ski2-2 dcl4-2 dcl2-1) biologically independent roots. c, Cotyledons from 18-day-old plants shown under bright field or with aniline-based callose visualization. Scale bars, 500m. n=5 biologically independent cotyledons with similar results. SeeMethods for further details. d, Relative expression of phloem-related genes (CALS7 and NEN4) in the indicated genotypes of 20-day-old plants. Data are meanss.d.; n=3 biologically independent experiments. e, Measurement of relative anthocyanin content (A/g.FW: absorbance at 525nm minus absorbance at 650nm per gram of fresh weight) in 20-day-old plants of the indicated genotypes. Data are meanss.d.; n=5 biologically independent samples. P-values in a, b, d are from two-tailed Students t-tests.

a, c, Venn diagrams depicting numbers of DCL2-dependent differentially expressed genes (at least twofold changes, FDR<0.01) in ein5-1 dcl4-2 (a) and ski2-2 dcl4-2 (c) plants. b, d, Pie charts representing the numbers of upregulated and downregulated genes in ein5-1 dcl4-2 (b) and ski2-2 dcl4-2 (d) plants. eh, Representative gene-ontology enrichment analysis of upregulated (red) and downregulated (blue) genes in ein5-1 dcl4-2 (e, f) and ski2-2 dcl4-2 (g, h) plants. Circle sizes represent gene numbers and colour gradients indicate enrichment significance. Numbers at the bottom are the ratios of genes for each indicated biological process in the total differentially expressed genes. i, Heatmap depicting the log2(fold change) of representative genes involved in ABA biogenesis and response in 20-day-old Col-0 (c) versus ein5-1 dcl4-2 (ed), ein5-1 dcl4-2 dcl2-1 (edd), ski2-2 dcl4-2 (sd) and ski2-2 dcl4-2 (sdd) plants. j, qRTPCR analysis of an ABA-responsive gene (RD29B) in 20-day-old plants of the indicated genotypes; data shown are meanss.d. FDR values used to filter the differentially expressed genes in ah were obtained by BenjaminiHochberg analysis; n=3 biologically independent samples.

a, Normalized abundance of 21- and 22-nt siRNAs from all genes, excluding miRNAs and tasiRNAs, in each condition. b, Accumulation of 22-nt siRNAs from NIA1/2 gene loci in 14-day-old plants under 1M ABA treatment. c, Pie chart showing percentages of loci generating 22-nt siRNAs under 1M ABA treatment. d, Relative NIA1/2 mRNA expression level at 15:00 in 14-day-old plants on MS medium or 1M ABA medium. e, NIA1/2 protein levels at 15:00 in 14-day-old plants on MS medium or 1M ABA medium. HSP90 was used as a control to normalize the protein level. f, Representative images of 14-day-old seedlings grown on the indicated medium. Scale bar, 5mm. g, Normalized abundance of 21- and 22-nt siRNAs from all genes, excluding miRNAs and tasiRNAs, in 15-day-old Col-0 plants under 250mM NaCl treatment (data retrieved from GEO, accession number GSE66599). All P-values are from two-tailed Students t-tests. h, Normalized abundance of 22-nt siRNAs from NIA1 and NIA2 genes under the same conditions as in g). i, NIA1/2 protein level detected by western blot in 8-day-old wild-type seedlings upon 250mM NaCl treatment for 24h. HSP90 was used as a control. e, i, Numbers to the right of gels indicate the molecular mass (in kDa) of proteins. Data are presented as meanss.d. in a, d, g, h. The numbers of individual biological experiments are as follows: a, d, f, n=3; e, n=2; i, n=4. For gel source data, see Supplementary Fig. 1.

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