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briquetting plant wikipedia

briquetting | article about briquetting by the free dictionary

briquetting | article about briquetting by the free dictionary

the processing of a material into briquettespieces having a uniform, geometric shape and practically identical weight. Briquetting creates additional raw material resources from fine materials, primarily fuels and ores, the use of which would otherwise be inefficient or difficult; it also makes it possible to use waste products, such as dust, slags, and metal chips. In all cases, the usefulness of briquetting is judged by economic factors.

Depending on the material to be processed, briquetting may be done with binders at medium pressures (1050 meganewtons per m2) or without binders at high pressures (100200 meganewtons per m2). In order to produce briquettes of high quality, the material used must meet specific requirements for fractional composition, moisture content, temperature, and the like.

Briquetting was proposed in Russia in the 1830s by the Russian inventor F. P. Veshniakov, who developed a method of producing hard briquettes from waste wood charcoal and hard coal; Veshniakov called the fuel produced karbolein. The first factory for the briquetting of brown coal was put into operation in Germany in 1858; a briquetting factory for hard coal that used roller presses was set up in 1860. Briquetting was widely used in the second half of the 19th century to nodulize ore fines.

The mechanism of the principal stage of briquettingcompressing of the raw material into the desired shapemay be described as follows. At low pressures there is an external compacting of the material caused by reduction of the spaces between particles. The particles themselves are then compressed and deformed, and a molecular bond is created between the particles. High pressures at the end of the process cause a transition from elastic deformation of the particles to plastic deformation, which strengthens the briquette and enables it to retain a given shape. The physical and chemical properties of the raw material are a major factor affecting the nature of the deformations.

The following fuels are briquetted in factories primarily for power engineering and home and municipal use: residues of hard coals and of nearly hard, old brown coals with a relatively strong mechanical structure; common weak-structured, young brown coals; and peat. The ash content of the briquettes produced may reach 20 percent. The briquettes stand up well to being transported, withstand long storage in the open, air, and do not fall apart until they have finished burning. Briquetting is used in various new coking processes designed to produce metallurgical coke from gas coals and weakly sintering coals. Lean coals, anthracite, old brown coals, and semicoke are briquetted with a bindersolid or liquid pitch from a hard coal, bitumen, or the like.

Hard coal is briquetted with a binder in the following stages: delivery of the raw material (charging of different types of coals); sorting of the coal and pulverizing to dimensions of 6 mm or smaller; drying of the coal to a residual moisture content of 34 percent; preparation of the binder (crushing and liquefaction); batching and mixing of the heated coal with the binder (610 percent) at a temperature of approximately 100C to produce a homogeneous mass, or charge; cooling of the charge to 8090C; compacting in roller presses at pressures of 1530 meganewtons per m2; and cooling of the briquettes to 40C. Egg-shaped briquettes weighing 7075 g are the most commonly used type; they withstand shipment well.

Fundamental disadvantages of briquettes containing a pitch or bitumen binder are the production of soot upon combustion and a low thermal stability, which seriously limit their use. Methods are being introduced for the treatment of such briquettes with hot gases containing a specific quantity of oxygen or with a solid heat-transfer agent. This causes an oxidation polymerization of the binder, as a result of which the briquette becomes stronger and is made to burn with a smokeless flame. Hot briquetting is widely used to produce a high-quality smokeless fuel or coke without a binder. The process consists in compacting sintering coals that have been preheated to a plastic state or a mixture of such coals and nonsintering coals (anthracite and lean and brown coals) and semicoke.

Young brown coals with high moisture contents (4560 percent) ordinarily fall apart during storage and transporting. They may be briquetted without a binder for fluidized-bed combustion in the following manner: delivery of the coal; batching; sorting in rotary or screen sieves and pulverizing in impactors to a grain size under 6 mm; drying in steam-heated or gas-fired tube dryers to an optimum moisture content of 1419 percent; supplementary crushing of large coal particles; cooling of the coal, which emerges from the dryers at a temperature of 8590C, to a temperature of 3545C in cooling installations (omitted in some cases); compacting at pressures of 100200 meganewtons per m2 in auger extruders or, less often, rotary presses; cooling of the briquettes, which leave the presses at a temperature of 7080C, to a temperature of 40C in cooling troughs and on screen conveyors; and delivery of the briquettes to the consumer. The briquettes produced have the shape of a parallelepiped with rounded edges and weigh 500600 g.

Auger extruders are used to fashion semibriquettes from milled peat with a moisture content up to 25 percent. When the moisture content is higher (up to 50 percent), the peat is first dried in dryers to a moisture content of 12 percent. The dryers usedpneumatic steam-heated, steam-heated tube-type, gas-fired steam-heated, or pneumatic gas-firedconstitute the principal component of the briquetting process.

When pneumatic gas-fired dryers are used, the briquetting process for peat consists in the following steps: sorting and (in some cases) pulverizing of the delivered peat to dimensions of no more than 610 mm; drying by means of smoke-producing gases in a pneumatic gas-fired dryer (tube-type or with a grinding fan or hammer mill) with recovery of the dried peat in cyclone separators; compacting at pressures of 720 meganewtons per m2; and cooling of the briquettes to a temperature of 40C in cooling troughs.

The technology of briquetting has progressed through development and introduction of new processes and intermediate stages, new binders, and new equipment, both for the production of a high-quality smokeless fuel for household use and for the manufacture of a fuel for continuous coking processes; the latter is designed to broaden the raw material base and improve the economy of the coke industry.

The world production of coal briquettes amounts to approximately 110 million tons a year, of which briquettes made from brown coal account for 85 percent. In 1968 the USSR produced approximately 8 million tons of coal briquettes (70 percent from brown coal) and approximately 7 million tons of peat briquettes.

In the briquetting of metal ores, the raw materials used include iron ore fines (separate or mixed with a fuel), finely ground and powdered nonferrous ores, charge dust from blast furnaces, and other metallurgical wastes. The binders used include lime, various cements, and liquid glass. The briquetting is done in roller presses or auger extruders according to the following plan: batching and mixing of the ores with binders, compacting of the mixture, and consolidation of the briquettes to provide strength; the last step includes seasoning, roasting, steaming, and drying. Iron ore briquettes are used in open-hearth and blast furnaces; non-ferrous ore briquettes are used in water-jacketed and reverberatory furnaces.

Metal chips and ferrous and nonferrous metal wastes may also be efficiently briquetted. The direct use of a loose, high-volume mass of metal presents several difficulties: oxidation during storage, inconvenience of transportation, the production of carbon monoxide fumes during combustion, and others. The briquetting of metal chips eliminates such problems and makes it possible to manufacture a totally useful metal product from the chips. The briquetting consists in compacting chips that have been finely crushed and freed of such impurities as oil; both hydraulic and mechanical presses are used. In some instances the process is facilitated by heating the material directly during compacting.

All content on this website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other reference data is for informational purposes only. This information should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional.

briquetting - definition of briquetting by the free dictionary

briquetting - definition of briquetting by the free dictionary

All content on this website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other reference data is for informational purposes only. This information should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional.

briquetting: need of the hour

briquetting: need of the hour

As the world population rises there is an increase in consumption and standard of living, eventually energy demand also increases to fulfill it. The net energy demand cannot be satisfied by the conventional energy technology which utilizes only a few local resources.

Every sector of Indian economy like agriculture, industry and transport needs input of energy for the progress and prosperity of nation and societies. Energy is the cornerstone of economic and social development. As a result, consumption of energy in all forms has been steadily rising all over the world.

The use of conventional energy like coal, oil and electricity has increased enormously in the last 25 years in ASEAN economies. India is the world's sixth largest energy consumer, consuming about 3 per cent of world's total energy per year. However, the biomass-based energy meets a major fraction of energy demand in rural areas of the most developing countries, including India. India produces nearly 350 million tonnes of agricultural waste per year (Naidu, 1999). The major residues are cow dung cake, rice husk, coffee husk, coir pith, sugarcane bagasse, sugarcane trash, jute sticks, silk cotton pods, groundnut shells, mustard stalks and cotton stalks.

Biomass as a source of energy is gaining importance as a renewable source that is additionally strengthening as the countrys agriculture is one of the prime sources in the Indian economy. Use of biomass for thermal energy, is age-old but the use of modern biomass (implying clean combustion process) is more recent. In the last three decades, several biomass based projects funded by MNRE in the country were developed for high grade heat or power. In this context, it is necessary that the assessment of biomass availability is made taking account of the present usages in the existing traditional practices and socially essential needs such as fodder, domestic fuel, thatching and manure.

Biomass has been one of the major energy sources for the mankind ever since the dawn of civilization, although its importance dwindled after the expansion in use of oil and coal in the late 19th century. About 120-150 million metric tonnes per annum of biomass produced by agricultural and forestry residues corresponding to a potential of about 16000 MW.

The briquetting plants have been installed in India since the mid 90s, most of them being self-financing briquettors are doing excellent business, especially, in the western and southern regions. A rough estimate says that around 50,000 tonnes of briquettes are consumed annually by the tea industry alone in the state of Tamil Nadu, and 20 000 tonnes by the Indian Tobacco Company in the state of Karnataka. On an average, a typical briquetting plant of die and punch (standard capacity of 750 kg/hr for saw dust) type produces between 250 and 300 tonnes per month which fetches a market price between Rs.1800 per tonne to Rs.2500 (inclusive of transport cost) per tonne. The profit margin is so good that the payback period is well within 12 months. Briquettes when replaced for firewood and coal provide a direct cost savings on the fuel to the tune of 25 per cent to 30 per cent as the combustion efficiency improves remarkably. In addition to such direct savings are the benefits of easy transportation, handling and storing during rainy seasons besides saving labour for cutting the firewood. These die and punch plants have established their viability and quick return (Babu, 2001).

Charcoal is traditional fuel widely used in many developing countries to meet basic household needs which needs to be stopped to conserve forest and wildlife. It is considered as best fuel for most of the traditional cook stoves in many areas and is preferred in the urban areas because of its smoke free burning. India has 247 billion tonnes of fossils coal reserves, out of which only 52.24 billion tonnes are extractable reserves. During the 10th plan, coal demand was of 332 million tonnes, while 301 million tonnes were available and 31 million tonnes was the shortage. This shortage is going to be 87 million tonnes during the 12th plan Maharashtra. Energy Development Agency has sanctioned 36 biomass based energy projects with 336 MW capacity so far and the power generated from these projects is expected to be made available in phases in a period of three years.

It has been estimated that 110-150 million tonnes crop residues is surplus to its present utilization as a cattle feed, constructional and industrial raw material and as industrial fuel. Due to their heterogeneous nature, biomass material possesses inherently low bulk densities and thus it is difficult to efficiently and economically handle large quantities of biomass. Therefore, large expenses are incurred during material handling, transportation, storage etc. Transportation had the 2nd highest cost by considering all factors, when the biomass power plant was run at full capacity (Kumar et al.2003). It is noted that transportation cost will increase with increasing power plant size. In order to combat the negative handling aspects of bulk biomass, densification is essentially required. If such crop residues are converted into briquettes they can provide huge and reliable source of feedstock for thermo chemical conversion (Anonymous, 2002).

Many developing countries produce huge quantities of agro residues, but they are used inefficiently causing extensive pollution to the environment. The major residues are rice husk, coffee husk, coir pith, jute sticks, bagasse, groundnut shells, mustard stalks and cotton stalks. Sawdust, a milling residue is also available in huge quantity. Apart from the problems of transportation, storage and handling, the direct burning of loose biomass in conventional grates is associated with very low thermal efficiency and widespread air pollution (Grover and Mishra, 1996).

According to a survey, conducted by the Central government, the potential of power generation from agricultural waste is 16,000 MW in the country and 781 MW in Maharashtra. A high quality densified product is essential to ensure that the positive effects of densification are not mitigated; therefore artificial binding agents are often added to the pre-densified biomass to improve briquette quality. Studies have demonstrated that different biomass grinds bind well without the use of the artificial binding agent. Such feedstock possess natural binding agent that allow them to exhibit preferential qualities after densification. Hence the efficient design and cost effective densification system improving the feasibility of biomass densification for feed, chemical and energy production is required. Intensive information is available on wood fuels, but comprehensive data on other kind of biomass or biomass briquettes fuel have not been developed. As such available biomass conversion into densification is a difficult task and extensive research is needed to develop cost effective and simple technology which is easily accessible to farmers to convert the waste biomass into valuable energy for earning additional returns to make agriculture an energy producing enterprise.

The screw press extruder type briquetting machine consists of driving motor, screw, die, and hopper and power transmission system. Pulley and belt are used to transmit power from motor to the screw. The raw material is fed to the hoppers, which convey it to screw by gravity. The material is pushed forward due to geometry of screw. As the material is pushed, it is compressed and compressed material comes out of die in the form of briquettes.

The principle of operation is basically the same as the mechanical piston press. The difference is that the energy to the piston is transmitted from an electric motor via a high pressure hydraulic oil system. In this way, the machine can be made very compact and light, since the forces are balanced-out in the press-cylinder and not through the frame. The material is fed in front of the press cylinder by a feeding cylinder which often pre-compacts the material with several strokes before the main cylinder is pressurized. The whole operation is controlled by a programme which can be altered depending on the input material and desired product quality. The speed of the press cylinder is much slower with hydraulic press action than with mechanical which results in markedly lower outputs.

A reciprocating piston pushes the material into a tapered die where it is compacted and adheres against the material remaining in the die from the previous stroke. A controlled expansion and cooling of the continuous briquette is allowed in a section following the actual die. The briquette leaving this section is still relatively warm and fragile and needs a further length of cooling track before it can be broken into pieces of the desired length.

Compacting biomass waste into briquettes reduces the volume by 10 times, making it much easier to store and transport than loose biomass waste The size and shape of briquettes make them easily be stored.

Such units of briquetting could be established in cluster of villages on mission basis for reducing transport cost of bulky biomass viz. crop residues, sugarcane trash, cotton stalks, saw dust, rice husk, pruned branches and leaves of fruit trees etc. This will enable to give additional income to farmers and at the same time convert the otherwise wasted/carbonized biomass into valuable energy briquettes to mitigate to same extent the energy crisis.

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