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briquetting plants,briquette plant manufacturers,suppliers, briquetting plant machine,briquettes plant for sale - fote briquetting machine manufacturer

briquetting plants,briquette plant manufacturers,suppliers, briquetting plant machine,briquettes plant for sale - fote briquetting machine manufacturer

Fote briquetting plants or briquette plants have a wide practical application, and it can produce briquetting and agglomeration from various materials and powders, such as lime powder, cryolite, aluminum oxide, chemical fertilizer, metal magnesium, bauxite, aluminum ash and so on; and non-ferrous metal industry powder, accessories, the powder of refractory industry and those materials with high additional value are more suitable for the use of briquetting plant machine.

Fote briquettes plant for sale is aim to reduce the dust pollution, control volume, waste recycling and convenient transportation. In the steel mill, lime plants, metallurgy, refractory material and metal magnesium plant, pressing calcined powder into balls is also of wide use.

1. Mineral powder/coal powder: powder raw materials. 2. Feeder: control the capacity of the whole production line, ensure the even feeding and the uniform feeding for the forming machine. 3. Liquid mixing tank: to mix the products thoroughly so as to achieve the actual mixing effect. Certain equipment shape can be made according to the client's requirements. 4. Agitator: make sure the materials can be fully stirred with adhesive, control the capacity of the whole production line and ensure the uniform feeding for the forming machine. 5. Ball press machine: press the materials that processed and sealed into balls, ensure the strength and density of the balls made from the mineral powder, namely obtain the finished products. 6. Vertical dryer: as the most ideal drying equipment, it makes use of the characteristics of the mineral powder/pulverized coal etc. and its own gravity and adopts cold winds to dry the pellets to the standard for the blast furnace smelting.

Thanks to the decades of experience for the production of briquetting plant machine, our company has summarized and designed briquetting plants and auxiliary equipment specially for metallurgical industry to produce hard cold-pressed pellets. Briquetting plants have the advantages of strong adaptability, high strength, wear-resisting and durability. Fote is one of the most famous briquetting plant manufacturers and briquetting plant suppliers, provides production line of the single operation and complete set. Leave us a message for more product information and price list?

Along with the gradual development of manufacturing level and market competition, we more and more focus on the improvement of management level.

about - briquette plant, briquette machine, msw briquette machine, pellet line manufacturer

about - briquette plant, briquette machine, msw briquette machine, pellet line manufacturer

As our business expanded, we build more production facilities, and now we have three manufacturing bases special for manufacturing crushing/shredding equipment, screening and drying equipment, and pellet/briquette machine. We also cooperated with brother companies when providing turnkey projects.

As the development of society, various kinds of garbage become a heavy burden on nature, however, non-renewable energy reserves are getting lower and lower, we urgently need to turn waste energy into renewable resources that can be used. And thats what our equipment is focused on.

briquette - an overview | sciencedirect topics

briquette - an overview | sciencedirect topics

In BBCP, a maximum of 30% of coal is formed into briquettes, which are blended with coal powder and charged into the coking chamber (Yoshinaga etal., 1976). The apparent density of the briquette is 1100 dry-kg/m3, and the packing density is increased from 680-700 to 740750kg/m3 by a process of briquette blending. A process in which a part of the blended coal was briquetted was developed by Jo and Ida (1956). They reported that the JIS drum strength index (DI15015) increased by 24 points, and that hard coking coals could be reduced by 10% (Ida etal., 1973). Later, this process was improved by increasing the blending ratio of semisoft coking coals in the briquette, as shown in Fig.12.10 (Minamisawa etal., 1980; Nire etal., 1977).

BBCP was first commercialized at the Yawata Works in Japan and then spread to many other steel works. Now coal drying facilities have replaced the briquetting process while BBCP continues to be used at the Fukuyama, Keihin, and Wakayama Works in Japan.

Biomass briquette fuel technology is one of the main directions of biomass conversion and application technologies. Studies showed that the combustion properties were increased by 20% after the biomass was molded into solid briquettes. Moreover, the emissions of greenhouse gas, NOx, and SO2 were only one-ninth, one-fifth, and one-tenth that of coal, respectively. Biomass briquettes have the advantages of an abundant supply of raw materials, simple technology, convenient operation and low cost. Due to high thermal efficiency, excellent combustion properties, convenient delivery properties, and ease of industrialization of biomass briquettes production, they are fit for utilization on a large scale. Biomass briquettes are also suitable substitutes for coal in the fields of rural cooking, heating, providing clean fuels for cities, providing energy for greenhouses, and providing fuels for industrial boilers and power stations. The productivity and demand for biomass briquettes have recently increased rapidly. For example, the total production of biomass briquettes was 766,000 tons in 2009, in China alone, which will have reached 20 million tons by 2015. China is a vast agricultural country whose biomass resources are very rich, which provides a guarantee for the development of biomass briquettes.

Biomass briquettes are molded materials with a certain degree of density, and are produced as follows. Lignocellulosic raw materials are crushed into particles of appropriate size, and then the particles are compressed to rod-like, nubbly, or granulous materials without either heating or adhesive under the conditions of 50200MPa and 150300C (Jin et al., 2013). In recent years, biomass briquettes have developed rapidly as competitive fuels (Yu et al., 2009) (Figure 5.8).

As yet it is only possible to prepare binderless briquettes on a commercial basis with sub-bituminous coals, lignites, or peat. Bituminous coals, carbonaceous coals, and anthracites all require the use of a binder, such as pitch, for the production of satisfactory briquettes. The briquetting of brown coals without binder has been developed extensively in Germany and in Victoria, Australia. In these places large-scale plants have been in operation for some years to upgrade the brown coal deposits.

The optimum moisture is found by determining the moisture in the coal after reaching equilibrium with the air. For German brown coals the optimum moisture content is between 1221% and 15%; for the Victorian coals it is somewhat higher, and for Nigerian lignites and sub-bituminous coals, somewhat lower. The pressure required for self-binding briquettes is relatively high; usually about 40 N m2 for lignites and twice this value for bituminous coals. Two types of press are suitable for the manufacture of self-binding briquettes, namely:

It has been found in Germany that many types of lignite, although not forming cokes on carbonization at ordinary rates in coke-ovens or gas retorts, will form strong, coherent, residues if carbonized rapidly. Lignites that do not form a coherent residue on carbonization can usually be made to form a serviceable coke if carbonized after briquetting. Suitable pressures, varying from 15 N m2 to 40 N m2, may be applied by the reciprocating extrusion press or by the ring-roll press. Lignites that behave satisfactorily in this process are those from Central Germany, in the Helmstedt district, and the brown coal deposits of Victoria.

For the successful carbonization of lignites, the fuel must first be dried and then heated with careful temperature control over the required range. The heating may be carried out indirectly, i.e. by heating the walls of a chamber into which the fuel is charged, or directly, i.e. by circulating the heating gases through the fuel itself.

In low-temperature carbonization plants employing indirect heating, the throughput of the plant is limited by the poor conductivity of the refractory walls of the chamber or retort and of the adjacent layers of fuel. In recent years, the conductivity of the chamber walls has been increased by substituting steel for refractory material.

A briquette (also spelled briquet) is a compressed block of coal dust (Speight, 2013) or other combustible material (such as charcoal, sawdust, wood chips, peat, or paper) used for fuel as well as for kindling to start a fire.

Historically, briquettes (especially coal and coke briquettes) have been used for fuel for approximately 100 years. Traditionally, briquetting technology was established for developing countries to produce briquettes of local residues, for use in household cooking stoves and restaurants. Later, as the capacities of the machines increased, briquettes were used in industrial boilers to create heat, steam, and power for industry and power plants. Within the past three decades, briquetting has also found its way to households in industrialized countries as consumer logs for wood-burning stoves and fireplaces. However, with the advent of modern fuel systems, the use of briquettes use has declined and use for these products is found most often in the operation of barbecue units. While still a marketable product for such use, briquettes as fuel (such as smokeless fuel) are not used often for domestic and industrial heating. In more recent years, as the focus on renewable energy has grown, the applications for briquettes have grown concurrently, as have different technologies and new applications.

Briquette manufacture (briquetting) involves the collection of combustible materials that are not usable as such because of their low density and compressing them into a solid fuel product of any convenient shape that can be burned Using waste materials as a means to produce briquettes are investigated in this section. Briquettes from waste materials are commonly made from a combustible material and binder. Combustible materials include char, low-grade biomass, and bagasse. Low-grade biomass includes grasses, weeds, and thinning branches (i.e., forest waste resulting from logging), agricultural waste, sawdust, wood shavings, and leaves.

A binding agent is usually necessary to increase the cohesion of the combustible materials. If the combustible material is not well-bound, the briquette will crumble when removed from the mold. The binding agents can be sourced based upon cost, local sources, and combustion properties. They can include animal manure, treated and dewatered sewage sludge, starch, wax, clay, molasses, cement, wood pitch glue, and local plant resin or synthetic resin. A binder must not cause smoke or gummy deposits, and the creation of excess dust must also be avoided. For this reason, the use of noncombustible binding agents such as clay, cement, and other adhesive minerals is kept to a minimum. Typically, starch is used because it is relatively cheap and easily available. Since bagasse briquetting is often done on site or close to a sugar factory, molasses is usually the binding agent used for bagasse briquettes.

In the briquetting step the mixture is tightly compacted through a manually operated or automatic press or extruder. The press or extruder for briquetting must be well-designed, strongly built and capable of agglomerating the mixture sufficiently for it to be handled through the drying process. The extruder forms a roll of charcoal while the press favors the production of large pieces (chunks) of charcoal. As explained earlier, sawdust briquettes are formed under sufficiently high pressure to produce cohesion between wood particles. Briquettes often need to be further dried after the briquetting step. Briquettes are dried in the sunlight approximately three days before use. Rolls of charcoal formed from extruders will break into chunks during the drying process.

To increase the movement of fuel and therefore increase combustion efficiency, the grate can be designed as a cone (see Figure). The declination of the grate spreads the fuel from the centre to the outer part of the grate, where only ash remains. Some ash will fall through the grate to a box, from where it can be manually extracted.

The fixed sloping grate works by the force of gravity only. The angle of declination can vary along the grate to match the different properties of the fuel throughout the process of combustion, (see Figure). The fuels are fed either mechanically or from continuously filled chutes, according to the heat requirements of the boiler. The ashes are normally extracted at the bottom of the grate by means of a screw or scrapes into a water tank.

The moving sloping grate is a further development of the fixed sloping grate (see Figure). In this design the segments of the grate can move relative to each other and thereby feed the fuel down the grate. Normally, the grate is divided into sections that can be controlled separately according to the actual fuel being used. As the moving grate is more costly to operate and maintain, a compromise can sometimes be made by only making the lower part of the grate mobile.

The travelling grate is a widely applied design for solid fuel combustion (see Figure). A number of segments are connected to each other in the principle of a chain. Running over two axes, the upper part forms a horizontal grate. A bed of fuel is fed at a certain thickness on to the travelling grate at one end of the furnace. One possibility, tried successfully, is to feed coal and wood chips simultaneously in two layers, one over the other.

A briquette fuel source may have special properties that may require a moving grate. Due to the fact that a briquette is compressed during manufacture, the ash sometimes keeps the original shape of the briquette as it burns. This will cause some combustible material to be covered by ash and to not burn properly. The fuel bed should therefore be stirred to make the ash fall apart to allow complete combustion. It is also important to choose a grate that will

Briquettes are produced from Yallourn brown coal for domestic and industrial heating. Although considerable technological development of equipment for these purposes has been undertaken and utilisation factors determined for the briquettes (Varley et al., 1966; Brown, Durie and Shires, 1961), more basic investigation has so far been confined to two studies of downjet combustion (Laing, 1968; Palmer, 1970, 1971).

Downjet combustion is carried out by directing a jet of air at the face of a coal pile resting at its normal angle of repose. The jet is constrained within a furnace to which a coal hopper is attached. In operation, volatiles formed from coal surrounding the combustion zone and any unburnt carbon monoxide rise from the bed and are caught and burned in the vortex system formed by the jet, which then impacts on the coal face. This causes some of the hot jet to enter the bed and the remainder of the jet turns outwards from its axis. Combustion takes place in the vicinity of the impact area and a crater forms in the coal face as the char is burnt. The crater is replenished when the coal above the bed becomes too weak to support the coal in the hopper. Thus the process is intermittent (Evans, 1966).

Following physical modelling tests Palmer, (1970, 1971) set up an experimental combustion system to determine feeding characteristics of the fuel and to visualise flow in the jet and adjacent region. Yallourn briquettes crushed to 19mm x 6.5mm and two sizes of Yallourn briquette char (19mm x 6.5 mm x 3 mm) were used in the experiments. Combustion of the volatile matter was found to be strongly influenced by the length of the jet. Entrainment in a jet depends on its length and with short jets some volatile matter can escape. This shows as a reduced content of carbon dioxide in the flue gas. When the jet is long enough to capture most of the volatile matter issuing from the bed, the carbon dioxide content of the flue gas becomes independent of the length of the jet.

The other important feature of the jet is its impact velocity at the fuel face. This is a function of the nozzle velocity and the jet length. The impact velocity, together with the particle size of the coal or char, determines the extent to which the jet penetrates the bed. At low impact velocities, the penetration is small and oxygen can escape from the combustion zone without contacting the coal.

Similar results to these were obtained by Laing, (1968) with full sized L briquettes (58mm x 37 mm x 43 mm). These were burned in a larger experimental downjet combustion system designed to give flexibility in changing the variables. Using the impact energy of the jet, suitably corrected for entrainment and temperature on impact, as a correlating parameter for other principal variables Laing found that the larger the impact area on the coal face for a given value of the impact energy the greater was the excess air in the exit gases and therefore the less useful heat available.

Binders are needed when the pressure produced by the compacting equipment is too low for self-bonding, or when materials are compacted that do not self-bond such as straw, rice husk and charcoal. In simple and cheap briquetting equipment, binders could be a solution to producing good quality briquettes. Some raw materials have internal binders and can be compacted with low pressure like bitumen in soft coal, gums in southern pines and tars in partially carbonized wood.

If satisfactory briquettes are to be produced economically, binders must meet a number of stringent requirements. Overall cost is the primary consideration in which cost of material, cost of application and effect on production must be considered. Availability is a second consideration where relative quantity required, transport needed and competitive use of binder material must be considered. Thirdly, the binder must produce a briquette of sufficient toughness to withstand exposure to weather, must not cause crumbling or excessive softening and during combustion exposure to heat must not cause disintegration and consequent loss of fine pieces through the grate. Finally, the briquette should not produce much smoke, gummy deposits, an objectionable odour or dust during burning, storage or handling. Added binders should be combustible and preferably have a heat value at least as high as wood.

The majority of binders most suitable from a physical standpoint are too expensive to use in the proportions necessary for good briquetting. Inorganic materials such as cement, clay and silicate of soda are sometimes used but are objectionable because of increased ash, decreased combustibility, and disintegration during combustion. Organic binders usually increase the heat value, do not add to the ash content and do not disintegrate during combustion. Consequently, these are the ones most commonly used.

Commonly used binding agents include starches from corn, wheat or cassava, sugar cane molasses, tars, pitch, resins, glues, fibre, fish waste and certain plants like algae. Dung is also widely used, but this is unsatisfactory as its combustion is a major cause of lung and eye disease and it has other important uses as a fertilizer.

One of the most interesting opportunities for utilizing waste products like sawdust, bark, agricultural residues of fine structure and grasses, is afforded by carbonizing and briquetting. Many kinds of neglected biomass e.g. lalang grass, water hyacinth, reed, lantan, etc. can be converted into char and char briquettes. Charcoal briquettes may be produced by preparing the charcoal first and then pressing it, by carbonizing wood briquettes after formation, or by heating the material under pressure so that semi-charcoal briquettes are formed.

Generally, briquette manufacture (briquetting) involves the collection of combustible materials that are not usable as such because of their low density, and compressing them into a solid fuel product of any convenient shape that can be burned like wood or charcoal. Thus the material is compressed to form a product of higher bulk density, lower moisture content, and uniform size, shape, and material properties. Briquettes are easier to package and store, cheaper to transport, more convenient to use, and their burning characteristics are better than those of the original organic waste material.

The raw material of a briquette must bind during compression; otherwise, when the briquette is removed from the mold, it will crumble. Improved cohesion can be obtained with a binder but also without, since under high temperature and pressure, some materials such as wood bind naturally. A binder must not cause smoke or gummy deposits, while the creation of excess dust must also be avoided. Two different sorts of binders may be employed. Combustible binders are prepared from natural or synthetic resins, animal manure or treated, dewatered sewage sludge. Noncombustible binders include clay, cement, and other adhesive minerals. Although combustible binders are preferable, noncombustible binders may be suitable if used in sufficiently low concentrations. For example, if organic waste is mixed with too much clay, the briquettes will not easily ignite or burn uniformly. Suitable binders include starch (5%10% w/w) or molasses (15%25% w/w) although their use can prove expensive. It is important to identify additional, inexpensive materials to serve as briquette binders in Kenya and their optimum concentrations. The exact method of preparation depends upon the material being briquetted as illustrated in the following three cases of compressing sugar bagasse, sawdust, and urban waste into cooking briquettes.

The packed stove is designed to burn sawdust, rice hulls and similar fine grain fuels. They are usually made of ceramics or metal, and filled with fuel which is burned by regulating the air flow with small sticks making holes in e.g. the sawdust. Special stoves are also made for coal, similar to charcoal ones, but with thicker lining due to the higher temperatures. The problems with coal burning are that it is smoky and difficult to ignite. Peat burnt in stoves has similar characteristics.

The possibility of using briquettes made of wood, agricultural residues, peat etc. as a household fuel has aroused some interest recently (see Chapter 5). One advantage would be that briquettemaking would make available fuels that are otherwise normally wasted, such as rice hulls, straw, shells etc. Another advantage would be that briquettes are much more transportable than wood, due to their higher density. The conversion from biomass to briquette does not involve large energy losses, particularly as compared to charcoal. Good briquette stoves are now being developed, for example the Noflie stove in the Gambia. This stove works well with both briquettes made from peanut shells and with fuelwood. Tests with this stove are now underway and results are largely positive, indicating relatively low smoke emissions, and a life lengths of about 2 years.

Victorian brown coal briquettes have been used in a variety of combustion applications since they became available in the early 1920's. The types of equipment in which they have been used range from domestic open fires, convection room heaters and hot water services to large steam boilers. (Finlayson and Varley, 1962). Brick kilns are fired by briquettes in crushed form and clay product dryers can use hot gases for direct drying because the low sulphur content of briquettes does not cause staining of the product (Varley et al., 1966). Briquettes have a high volatile hydrocarbon content and careful design of combustion equipment is needed to ensure complete combustion of the volatiles. As mentioned above, briquettes have a number of advantages in combustion applications, including the low sulphur and nitrogen contents which ensure low pollution emissions. Briquettes are also non-caking during combustion and free burning. The briquette ash is non-clinkering at the temperatures reached in most practical equipment, except for the down-jet fired furnace (Varley et al., 1966; Laing, 1968) which produces much higher temperatures in the briquette bed.

The predominant industrial use for briquettes has been to fuel steam and hot water boilers, in general using dumping grates for ash removal or, underfeed screw stokers. A burning rate of around 200 kg/m2 of grate area/h is the normal design aim for both of the above types of grate (Varley et al., 1966).

Briquettes have been gasified on a small scale for a range of uses including kiln firing. In these applications the heating value of the producer gas ranged from 4 to 7 MJ/m3, (Varley et al., 1966). At the other end of the size spectrum, up to 180 000 tonnes per annum of briquettes were used in a Lurgi gasification plant at Morwell to produce gas for Melbourne, and some country towns, with a heating value of 16.5 MJ/m3, (Chan and Urie, 1985). This application is covered in more detail in Section 6.

A new development for briquette use is as a source of dried brown coal to produce pulverised, or micronised, coal as an industrial fuel. In this form briquettes can be used in boilers and other industrial applications to produce flames with a high radiant output and with the operating flexibility of oil or gas flames (Allardice et al., 1989).

briquetting - an overview | sciencedirect topics

briquetting - an overview | sciencedirect topics

Briquetting is a way to make use of biomass residues that would otherwise go to waste, and replace the use of wood and charcoal (often produced unsustainably) as well as fossil fuels, thus cutting greenhouse gas emissions.

Briquetting is a compaction technology that has been around for many years. Fines are pushed into the nip of two counter-rotating wheels using a screw or gravity feeder. High hydraulic pressure is applied and the rotating wheels compress the feed between the pockets to form briquettes. Unlike pelletization, briquetting does not always require a binder, but generally some amount of molasses, starch, or tar pitch is used. A traditional application for briquetting is the agglomeration of coal.

Most applications of briquetting in the iron and steel industry involve waste materials, such as mill scale and process dusts, sludges, and filter cakes [27]. In the DR industry, a number of facilities briquette their hot DRI product to produce a higher-density product for safer shipping. This material is known as HBI (hot briquetted iron), as discussed in Section 1.2.3.

Briquetting machines, with dies and punches, driven by a single bullock, have been developed by the School of Applied Research in Maharashtra, India. They cost about US$ 2400 each. The machine is very sturdy but the problem is the limited maximum production 25 kg/hr and the price of the equipment.

The same school has also developed a briquetting machine with two plungers driven by a 3 horse powermotor. The maximum capacity is 100 kg/hr and the price about US$ 4000. However, the pressure on the briquettes is not very high and it is necessary either to use a binder or to handle the briquettes with great care.

GAKO-Spezialmaschenen in West Germany produces briquetting equipment that uses the piston extruder compacting method and produces good quality briquettes because of the high pressure although this results in higher prices and power consumption. A 150 kg/hr machine costs about US$ 12 900 and a 60 kg/hr machine about US$ 8800 and requires a power load of 8.5 kW.

T & P Intertrade Corporation Ltd in Thailand markets a press-screw system briquetter that heats the agro-waste before compression. This means that good briquettes can be produced without needing a binder and at lower pressure, resulting in cheaper equipment. Their Ecofumac has a capacity of about 150 kg/hr, needs a 15 hp motor and three 2000 watt heaters and costs about US$ 5850. The grinder needs a 5 hp motor. Unfortunately a lot of energy is used by the heaters and there have also been some problems with other components.

It can be seen, therefore, that even if equipment does exist, the problems are not totally solved. Either equipment is too expensive with little capacity and too high an energy use, or poor quality briquettes result. There is still a need for a medium-size briquetting machine that is inexpensive, easy to operate, repairable using local tools and commonsense, energy efficient, reliable and which can handle different types of raw material. The advantage of medium-sized equipment is that capital investment is low and mechanized drying and special storage space is not required. In addition it would be practical for use in villages and in places with small wood industries or small agro-industries like groundnut oil mills, sugar mills, saw mills and paper mills. The briquettes could be used locally in bakeries, brickworks, potteries, curing houses, breweries, drieries or simply for cooking.

Briquetting is like pelletising a process in which the raw material is compressed under high pressure, which causes the lignin in the wood or biomass to be liberated so that it binds the material into a firm briquette.

The most appropriate water content in the raw material for briquetting varies and depends on the raw material. However, the normal water content is between 6% and 16%. If the water content is over 16% the quality of the briquettes will be reduced, or the process will not be possible.

There are hydraulic presses for small capacities from 50 to 400kg/hour. The raw material is fed into the press by a time-controlled dosing screw, which means that it is the volume of the raw material and not the weight, which is controlled. Briquettes have a fairly good uniform length (square briquettes) and they are mainly used by domestic consumers.

Mechanical presses are available with capacities from 200kg/hour up to 1800kg/hour. Briquettes from these presses are normally round and short and they are used in heating plants for larger industries and for district heating plants. A mechanical press is built like an eccentric press. A constantly rotating eccentric connected to a press piston presses the raw material through a conic nozzle. The required counter pressure can be adjusted only by using a nozzle with a different conicity. A mechanical press receives raw material from a speed-controlled dosing screw. The speed of the dosing screw determines the production rate of the press. A change in the specific gravity of the raw material will change the hardness of the briquettes. A mechanical briquetting press will produce a long length of material a briquette string which, however, breaks into random lengths depending on the binding capacity of the raw material. A saw or cutter is used to cut the briquette string into briquettes of uniform length.

The briquette string pushed out of the press is very hot because of the friction in the nozzle. The quality of the briquettes depends mainly on the cooling and transport line mounted on the press. A cooling/transport line of at least 15m is recommended for wood briquettes. The longer the time a briquette remains in the cooling line the harder it will become. Cooling lines up to 50m long are common.

Biomass briquetting technology can compress some biomass raw materials, such as wood shavings, sawdust, crop straw, and other solid waste biomass fuel through pressurizing and heating. It is conducive to the transportation, storage and combustion and can largely improve the efficiency of combustion and fuel utilization. At present, there are three main types of solid shaping, including screw extrusion, piston punch, and roller forming.

Thermochemical conversion involves biomass structure degradation with oxygenic or anoxygenic atmosphere at high temperature [100]. It includes three kinds of technology, namely biomass gasification, biomass pyrolysis, and direct liquefaction.

Biomass gasification is a chemical reaction process that reacts with gasifying agent (air, oxygen, and water) at high temperatures in gasifiers. The main problem of biomass gasification technology is that the tar obtained in the gasification of gas is difficult to purify, which has become the main factor restricting the biomass gasification technology.

Pyrolysis is a thermal process in which the organic polymer molecules in the biomass are quickly broken into short chain molecules, coke, bio-oil and noncondensable gas in the absence of oxygen or a small amount of oxygen under high temperatures. Biomass liquid fuel could provide an alternative to petroleum up to a certain extent. After some modification, industrial oil fired boilers and internal combustion engines can use bio-oil as fuel directly.

Burning biomass to obtain heat energy, as a direct utilization mode, has been more and more widely employed based on the mature experiences during development of fossil fuel power plants. When biomass is used as the boiler fuel, its thermal efficiency is close to the level of fossil fuels. Compared with fossil fuels, for example, coal, biomass fuel contains more hydrogen element, is more volatile, and has less carbon and sulfur content.

Bioconversion technology of biomass refers to the process by which microorganisms produce high-grade energy through biochemical action with agricultural and forestry wastes. Anaerobic fermentation and ethanol fermentation are the two main conversion types. With the help of anaerobic bacteria, organic matter can be converted to combustible gas, for example, methane under a certain temperature, humidity, pH, and anoxygenic conditions. The ethanol is produced by microzyme with the carbohydrate hydrolyzed by enzymes.

Renewed interest in briquetting coal has arisen because of (i) the increasing amounts of fine coal being generated in mining and preparation which are stockpiled or disposed of in tailings dams and lead to uneconomic land use and environmental problems; (ii) the need for easily handled and convenient coal products; and (iii) the demand for smokeless solid fuels.

Briquette quality depends on composition (type of coal and binder), particle sizes and processing conditions. In this study various data are presented on the influences of such factors on mechanical strength and water resistance of briquettes formed from high rank coals using a molasses/lime binder alone and also including bagasse. These data relate to Hardgrove grindability index (HGI), coal size, moisture and curing time.

White Energy developed the BCB technology at pilot scale in Australia, after initial work by CSIRO. In partnership with Bayan Group, White Energy formed PT Kaltim Supa Coal, and constructed a commercial scale 1 Mtpa plant at Tabang in East Kalimantan. The BCB process takes 4200 kcal/kg GAR feed and produces a 6100 GAR product. Its difference from Kobelcos UBC process is that BCB does not use any binder to reconstitute the dried product.

This project has been terminated due to commercial differences between the partners. The financial model used a sub-20 coal price delivered from mine mouth to plant. Bayan Group changed the price to follow the Indonesian Reference Price which more than doubles the feedstock cost. The parties are in negotiations to settle the dispute (White Energy, 2011).

Generally, briquette manufacture (briquetting) involves the collection of combustible materials that are not usable as such because of their low density, and compressing them into a solid fuel product of any convenient shape that can be burned like wood or charcoal. Thus the material is compressed to form a product of higher bulk density, lower moisture content, and uniform size, shape, and material properties. Briquettes are easier to package and store, cheaper to transport, more convenient to use, and their burning characteristics are better than those of the original organic waste material.

The raw material of a briquette must bind during compression; otherwise, when the briquette is removed from the mold, it will crumble. Improved cohesion can be obtained with a binder but also without, since under high temperature and pressure, some materials such as wood bind naturally. A binder must not cause smoke or gummy deposits, while the creation of excess dust must also be avoided. Two different sorts of binders may be employed. Combustible binders are prepared from natural or synthetic resins, animal manure or treated, dewatered sewage sludge. Noncombustible binders include clay, cement, and other adhesive minerals. Although combustible binders are preferable, noncombustible binders may be suitable if used in sufficiently low concentrations. For example, if organic waste is mixed with too much clay, the briquettes will not easily ignite or burn uniformly. Suitable binders include starch (5%10% w/w) or molasses (15%25% w/w) although their use can prove expensive. It is important to identify additional, inexpensive materials to serve as briquette binders in Kenya and their optimum concentrations. The exact method of preparation depends upon the material being briquetted as illustrated in the following three cases of compressing sugar bagasse, sawdust, and urban waste into cooking briquettes.

Rural villages in developing countries are connected to the drinking water supply without a sewer system. Other places in urban and semi-urban communities have no sewage treatment networks. Instead under each dwelling there is a constructed septic tank where sewage is collected or connected directly to the nearest canal through a PVC pipe. Some dwellings pump their sewage from the septic tank to a sewer car once or twice a week and dump it elsewhere, usually at a remote location.

In general, a huge amount of sewage and solid waste, both municipal and agricultural are generated in these villages. Because of the lack of a sewer system and municipal solid waste collection system, sewage as well as garbage are discharged in the water canals. This and the burning of agricultural waste in the field cause soil, water, and air pollution as well as health problems. Some canals are used for irrigation, other canals are used as a source of water for drinking.

Rural communities have had agricultural traditions for thousands of years and future plans for expansion. In order to combine the old traditions with modern technologies to achieve sustainable development, waste should be treated as a byproduct. The main problems facing rural areas nowadays are agricultural wastes, sewage, and municipal solid waste. These represent a crisis for sustainable development in rural villages and to the national economy. However, few studies have been conducted on the utilization of agricultural waste for composting and/or animal fodder but none of them has been implemented in a sustainable form. This chapter combines all major sources of pollution/wastes generated in rural areas in one complex called an eco-rural park (ERP) or environmentally balanced rural waste complex (EBRWC) to produce fertilizer, energy, animal fodder, and other products according to market and need.

The idea of an integrated complex is to combine the above-mentioned technologies under one roof, a facility that will help utilize each agricultural waste with the most suitable technique that suits the characteristics and shape of the waste. The main point of this complex is the distribution of the wastes among the basic four techniques animal fodder, briquetting, biogas, and composting (ABBC) as this can vary from one village to another according to the need and market for the outputs. The complex is flexible and the amount of the outputs from soil conditioner, briquettes, and animal food can be controlled each year according to the resources and the need.

Based on the above criteria, an environmentally balanced rural waste complex (EBRWC) will combine all wastes generated in rural areas in one complex to produce valuable products such as briquettes, biogas, composting, animal fodder, and other recycling techniques for solid wastes, depending upon the availability of wastes and according to demand and need.

The flow diagram describing the flow of materials from waste to product is shown in Figure 7.2. First, the agricultural waste is collected, shredded, and stored to guarantee continuous supply of waste into the complex. Then according to the desired outputs the agricultural wastes are distributed among the basic four techniques. The biogas should be designed to produce enough electrical energy for the complex; the secondary output of biogas (slurry) is mixed with the composting pile to add some humidity and improve the quality of the compost. And finally briquettes, animal feed, and compost are main outputs of the complex.

The environmentally balanced rural waste complex (EBRWC) shown in Figure 7.3 can be defined as a selective collection of compatible activities located together in one area (complex) to minimize (or prevent) environmental impacts and treatment cost for sewage, municipal solid waste, and agricultural waste. A typical example of such a rural waste complex consists of several compatible techniques such as animal fodder, briquetting, anaerobic digestion (biogas), composting, and other recycling techniques for solid wastes located together within the rural waste complex. Thus, EBRWC is a self-sustained unit that draws all its inputs from within the rural wastes achieving zero waste and pollution. However, some emission might be released to the atmosphere, but this emission level would be significantly much less than the emission from the raw waste coming to the rural waste complex.

The core of EBRWC is material recovery through recycling. A typical rural waste complex would utilize all agricultural waste, sewage, and municipal solid waste as sources of energy, fertilizer, animal fodder, and other products depending on the constituent of municipal solid waste. In other words, all the unusable wastes will be used as a raw material for a valuable product according to demand and need within the rural waste complex. Thus a rural waste complex will consist of a number of such compatible activities, the waste of one being used as raw materials for the others generating no external waste from the complex. This technique will produce different products as well as keep the rural environment free of pollution from the agricultural waste, sewage, and solid waste. The main advantage of the complex is to help the national economy for sustainable development in rural areas.

A collection and transportation system is the most important component in the integrated complex of agricultural waste and sewage utilization. This is due to the uneven distribution of agricultural waste that depends on the harvesting season. This waste needs to be collected, shredded, and stored in the shortest period of time to avoid occupying agricultural lands, and the spread of disease and fire.

Sewage does not cause transportation problems as it is transported through underground pipes from the main sewage pipe of the village to the system. Sewage can also be transported by sewage car which is most common in rural areas since pipelines may prove expensive.

Household municipal solid waste represents a crisis for rural areas where people dump their waste in the water canals causing water pollution or burn it on the street causing air pollution. The household municipal solid waste consists of organic materials, paper and cardboard, plastic waste, tin cans, aluminum cans, textile, glass, and dust. The quantity changes from one rural community to another. It is very difficult to establish recycling facilities in rural areas where the quantities are small and change from one place to another. It is recommended to have a transfer station(s) located in each community to separate the wastes, and compact and transfer them to the nearest recycling center as explained in Chapter 5. The transfer station consists of a sorting conveyer belt that sorts all valuable wastes from the organic waste, which is then compacted by a hydraulic press. The collected organic waste can be mixed with other rural waste for composting or biogas as explained above.

The outputs of the EBRWC are valuable and needed goods. EBRWC is flexible and can be adjusted with proper calculations to suit every village; moreover inputs and outputs from the complex can be adjusted every year according to the main crops cultivated in the village, which usually varies from year to year. The key element to the success of this solution lies in the integration of these ABBC technologies to guarantee that each type of waste is most efficiently utilized.

The four corner stone technologies for agricultural waste are animal fodder, briquetting, biogas, and composting (ABBC technologies). These technologies can be developed based on demand and need. In principal three agricultural waste recycling techniques can be selected to be the most suitable for the developing communities. These are animal fodder and energy in a solid form (briquetting) or gaseous form (biogas) and composting for land reclamation. There are some other techniques, which might be suitable for different countries according to the needs such as gasification, fiber boards, pyrolysis, etc. These techniques might be integrated into a complex that combine them altogether to allow 100% recycling for the agricultural waste. Such a complex can be part of the infrastructure of every village or community. Not only does it allow to get rid of the harms of the current practice of agricultural waste, but also of great economical benefit.

The amount of agricultural waste varies from one country to another according to type of crops and farming land. These waste occupies the agricultural lands for days and weeks until the simple farmers get rid of these waste by either burning it in the fields or storing it in the roofs of their houses; the thing that affects the environment and allows fire villages and spread of diseases. The main crops responsible for most of these agricultural wastes are the rice, wheat, cotton, corn, etc. These crops were studied and three agricultural waste recycling techniques were set to be the most suitable for these crops. The first technology is animal fodder that allows the transformation of agricultural waste into animal food by increasing the digestibility and the nutritional value. The second technology is energy, which converts agricultural wastes into energy in a solid form (briquetting) or gaseous form (biogas). The briquetting technology that allows the transformation of agricultural waste into briquettes that can be used as useful fuel for local or industrial stoves. The biogas technology can combine both agricultural waste and municipal waste water (sewage) in producing biogas that can be used in generating electricity, as well as organic fertilizer. The last technology is composting, that uses aerobic fermentation methods to change agricultural waste or any organic waste into soil conditioner. The soil conditioner can be converted into organic fertilizer by adding natural rocks to control N: P: K ratio, as explained before. Agricultural waste varies in type, characteristics and shape, thus for each type of agricultural waste there is the most suitable technique as shown in Figure 13.28.

A complex combining these four techniques is very important to guarantee each waste has been most efficiently utilized in producing beneficial outputs like compost, animal food, briquettes and electricity. Having this complex will not only help the utilization of agricultural waste, it will help solving the sewage problem as well that face most of the developing countries, as a certain percentage of the sewage will be used in the biogas production and composting techniques to adjust carbon to nitrogen ratio. An efficient collection system should be well designed to collect the agricultural waste from the lands to the complex in the least time possible to avoid having these wastes occupying agricultural land. These wastes are to be shredded and stored in the complex to maintain continuous supply of agricultural waste to the system and in turns continuous outputs.

briquetting machines - we are #1 in briquette machine manufacturing

briquetting machines - we are #1 in briquette machine manufacturing

Our briquetting machines can be used for many applications, where the best known are briquetting lines for consumer logs and industrial boilers. Lately, we have been delivering many lines for the production of briquettes from agricultural residues. More specialized applications include briquette lines for MDF, Wood fines, bedding for animals and briquettes for biogas. The latest addition includes the production of briquettes for the production of carbonized briquettes. Take a look at some of our cases.

Consumer wood briquettes are the ideal products for replacing traditional firewood. Since the end of the 90s, the demand for consumer wood briquettes used for home heating systems, fireplaces and wood burning stoves have increased. Driven by the global focus on renewable energy, this demand is still growing. Compared to alternatives, briquettes are both convenient, profitable and sustainable.

With our briquetting machines, your waste will be turned into valuable renewable energy. In collaboration with our sister company RUF Briquetting System, we offer a wide range of customized solutions and a full line of consumer briquetting machines varying from low to very high capacities.

At C.F. Nielsen, we have specialized in mechanical briquetting. We offer high capacity lines ranging from 4-500 kg/hour and upwards, corresponding to wood waste of approximately 1.000 tonnes per year and more.

Testing of your raw material is essential, as raw material, even if it is the same species, varies from country to country and from customer to customer. By testing your actual raw material many potential difficulties will be avoided during start-up and production at your new briquetting plant.

Costs should not be the only factor to be considered, when evaluating a briquetting plant. For newcomers in the business of biomass, production might not seem complicated. Never the less, it is our experience that two customers with similar raw material can have a very different success rate in terms of profitability.

The moisture content of wood changes the calorific value of the latter by lowering it. Part of the energy released during the combustion process is spent in water evaporation and is consequently not available for any wished-for thermal use.

Raw material is the residue you are looking to use in your briquetting production. It is typically unprocessed material from either from wood or agricultural by-products. Examples such as straw, pineapple waste, sugarcane bagasse, birch, larch etc. can be used for briquetting.

The calorific or heating value is an important indicator of the quality of the pressed fuel briquettes. It measures the energy content of the briquettes. It is defined as the amount of heat evolved when a pressed fuel briquette is completely burnt and the combustion products are cooled. And the Gross Calorific Value, shortened as GCV, refers to the calorific value with the condensation of water in the latent heat, also known as higher heating value. Whereas during combustion, the heat of condensation of water contained in the fuel and formed during combustion will become unavailable because of the vaporization of the water. And then, the useful heating value is gained after the heat of condensation of the water being subtracted from the gross calorific value, which is referred to as the Net Heating Value or lower heating value.

Due to low level of lignin, it is not possible to make briquettes in bigger diameter than 75 mm without adding any binder. Although rice husks are perfect for briquetting, they also contain a high silica content, resulting in a high ash content. Briquettes from rice husk are most often used in boilers or furnaces with very high burning temperature to avoid a low silica melting point and sintering (crystallization) of ash.

Biomass briquettes are a biofuel substitute to coal and charcoal. Briquettes are mostly used in the developing world, where cooking fuels are not as easily available. There has been a move to use briquettes in the developed world, where they are used to heat industrial boilers in order to produce electricity from steam. The briquettes are co-fired with coal in order to create the heat supplied to the boiler.

best briquetting plant 65 mm machine manufacturer in india

best briquetting plant 65 mm machine manufacturer in india

Briquetting Plant 65 MM with diameter of 65mm, with production 600-800 kg/h, Different type of raw material like agricultural waste, forest waste can be used to make biomass briquettes and it is also Khow as briquetting plant manufacturer, briquetting plant suppliers, briquettes plant.

Briquettes plant 65 with diameter of 65mm, with production 600-800 kg/h, Different type of raw material like agricultural waste, forest waste can be used to make biomass briquettes and it is also Khow as briquetting plant manufacturer, briquetting plant suppliers, briquettes plant.

Briquettes plant 65 with diameter of 65mm, with production 600-800 kg / h, Different type of raw material like agricultural waste, forest waste can be used to make biomass briquettes. This model is best suitable for achieving medium production capacity with minimum capital expenditure.

The Jay Khodiyar mechanical briquetting plant manufacturers develops a compression force of approximately 2000 kg/cm bar to obtain a high quality briquette of a high density and a remarkably reduced volume, without the addition of binders.

I am official agent of Briquetting since 2008 .sold more than 70 Briquetting plants in Vietnam. Best quality Briquetting Machine. Fully satisfied with the products. Timely delivery of spare parts. Frequent visit of Director to guide us in complete process for each installations.

We are a proud customer of Briquetting, because we got the latest technology machines with easy to operate control panels with sensor system buzzes when necessary with fully automatic system. They sent well qualified technician to our site who guided us in each and every step of installation, maintenance of the machine. Happy to choose Briquetting.

Good technical support, Good quality machines, easy to operate the plant because they are providing operating manuals, DVDs and all the needed stuff. And also taking regular follow-ups for services or any other technical assistance.

Since 3 years I am running the Briquetting plant & Dryer successfully & getting very good technical support from the company. Got complete guidance from start to end about the set-up. Good market in Kenya so planning to install another machine in near future.

briquette plant manufacturer | briquetting plant - lehra fuel

briquette plant manufacturer | briquetting plant - lehra fuel

Every year millions of tons of agricultural wastes are generated which are either destroyed or burnt inefficiently in loose form causing air pollution. These wastes can can be recycled & can provide a renewable source of energy by converting biomass waste into high density fuel briquettes without addition of any binder. This recycled fuelis beneficial for the environment as it conserves natural resources. What many people do not know is that recycling also prevents global warming which has a direct adverse impact on global climate.

Fuel is prime need of every industry & pollution free environment is the primeconcern of society. Serving both the purposesLEHRAFuel-Tech Pvt. Ltd.is a reputed & leading Indian company engaged in manufacturingand marketing offor renewable and non- conventional energy equipment i.e.BRIQUETTING PLANTS& MACHINERYfor converting agro-forestry waste into White coal; Bio-mass basedBriquetting System& other energy equipments. Since our inception we had manufactured & exported more than 1200 nos. of Briquetting Plants. Our company is in approved list of SuppliersofIREDALtd. (A Govt. of Indias leading Financial Institution).

The Concept: The process of BRIQUETTING is the physical transformation of the loose raw material into high density fuel briquettes through a compactly compressed unit. The form change results in a much higher specific density of the material which increases its Calorific Value (combustion efficiency) as compressed to the loose material. Energy is the key factor in economic development of the country. By the turn of the century our requirement of energy will increase rapidly and resources are limited .which has resulted in the universal recognition of the need to tap renewable energy from non-conventional sources. Biomass briquettes from Agricultural and Forest Wastes is fairly a good substitute for coal, lignite, firewood, crude oil .This recycled fuelis beneficial for the environment as it conserves natural resources. What many people do not know is that recycling also prevents global warming which has a direct adverse impact on global climate.

Almost any biomass can be briquetted. Biomass waste is the material derived from plants that use Photosynthesis to grow which include plant and animal material such as wood from forests, material left over from agricultural and forestry processes, and organic industrial, human and animal wastes.

With the increase in the demand of energy. The natural conventional resources are diminishing very fast. This can be controlled by using non conventional sources like sunlight, wind energy, water energy. But these sources cannot be used as fuel. So the best non conventional fuel is Biomass briquettes. This not only is Socially Economical as well financially very economical.

Biomass Briquetting is done to organic waste, Municipal waste which helps to cleans our surrounding and minimize landfills. It burnts completely so produces less ash and CO2. By utilizing this unwanted waste into energy we save our valuable natural resources of fossil fuel. Biomass waste-to-energy conversion reduces greenhouse gas emissions. The greenhouse gas emissions are significantly reduced by preventing methane emissions from landfills. Moreover, biomass energy plants are highly efficient in harnessing the untapped sources of energy from biomass resources.

Biomass Briquettes are more economical than other fuels because it contains low moisture, low ash high density. Manufacturing briquettes is Profitable as the demand of energy is increasing day by day and vice versa the supply of natural fossil fuel is limited It is very easy for handling, transporting storage. It is cheaper than heavy furnace oil , steam coal fire wood etc. Moreover government of India has also announced series of incentives for promoting this project for installing Briquetting plants. as the entire world is engaged in developing alternative energy sources. it is promoted to the industries as a prime renewable energy project throughout the world. The project gives excellent viability. The total payback period of the project is approx.2 year. It is pollution free and no hazard in this project. It is eco friendly renewable green energy project.

Agricultural waste can be described as all the organic materials which are produced as by-products from harvesting and processing of agricultural crops. These residues can be further categorized into primary residues and secondary residues. Agricultural residues, which are generated in the field at the time of harvest, are defined as primary or field based residues whereas those co-produced during processing are called secondary or processing based residues.

Forest harvesting is a major source of biomass for energy. The largest source of energy from wood is the waste product from the pulp and paper industry called black liquor. Logging and processing operations generate vast amounts of biomass residues. Wood processing produces sawdust and a collection of bark, branches and leaves/needles. A paper mill, which consumes vast amount of electricity, utilizes the pulp residues to create energy for in-house usage. beside Pulp Waste from Paper mills Wood chips and shravings, Tree bark and twings, Saw dust bamboo leaves. Wild grasses. Shrubs Above raw material can be briquettes without using any binder. After making Briquettes from above materials it contains calorific value of 3500-4800 k.cal/kg.

LEHRA FUEL TECH PVT LTDis well known name in Briquetting Plant (Renewable Energy devices) Manufacturing IndustrySince 1988(Located at VPO JAGERA). It is a name synonymous with International Quality of Briquetting Plants.

production and characterization of briquettes from invasive forest weeds: lantana camara and prosopis juliflora | springerlink

production and characterization of briquettes from invasive forest weeds: lantana camara and prosopis juliflora | springerlink

Study on production of briquettes from two invasive forest weeds, i.e., Lantana camara and Prosopis juliflora was carried out. The experiments were carried out using a 90mm industrial briquetting unit. The optimum moisture content for briquetting was found around 1012%. L. camara and P. juliflora biomass briquettes were found to have high density (1.2gcm3) and high energy density (23.05GJm3). In this study, fuel properties (calorific value, proximate and ultimate analysis), combustion characteristics and ash elemental composition of L. camara and P. juliflora biomass were investigated. Both the species are found to have less ash content. Further, high CaO content in ash (4768%) gives added advantage to these species. In this study, we have also worked out the cost involved in briquetting. The emphasis was given to these species because of the huge biomass they produce. These species are widely present in different agro-climatic zones of India and can play a major role in future bioenergy schemes.

Bhagwat SA, Breman E, Thekaekara T, Thornton TF, Willis KJ (2012) A battle lost? Report on two centuries of invasion and management of Lantana camara L. in Australia, India and South Africa. PLoS ONE 7(3):e32407. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032407

Kanagaraj N, Sekhar C, Tilak M, Palanikumaran B (2017) Cost and returns of briquette production in Tamil Nadu. Int J Curr Microbiol Appl Sci. 6(7):12381242. https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2017.607.149

Kumar RK (2017). Lantana removal under MNREGA from next week. The Hindu (28th August, 2017). https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/karnataka/lantana-removal-under-mnrega-from-next-week/article19571797.ece. Accessed 04 May 2020

Mangut V, Sabio E, Ganan J, Gonzalez JF, Ramiro A, Gonzalez CM, Roman S, Al-Kassir A (2006) Thermogravimetric study of the pyrolysis of biomass residues from tomato processing industry. Fuel Process Technol 87(2):109115

Munir S, Daood SS, Nimmo W, Cunliffe AM, Gibbs BM (2009) Thermal analysis and devolatilization kinetics of cotton stalk, sugar cane bagasse and shea meal under nitrogen and air atmospheres. Bioresour Technol 100:14131418

Shiferawa H, Demel T, Nemomissac S, Assefac F (2004) Some biological characteristics that foster the invasion of Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC. at Middle Awash Rift Valley Area, north-eastern Ethiopia. J Arid Environ 58:134153

Kumar, R., Chandrashekar, N. Production and characterization of briquettes from invasive forest weeds: Lantana camara and Prosopis juliflora. J Indian Acad Wood Sci 17, 158164 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13196-020-00268-8

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