difference between cement and concrete |concrete vs cement | what is cement concrete
In fact, cement and concrete are two different materials used in construction but, when cement combined with aggregate, sand, and water it forms strong and durable materials known as Concrete. Concrete is a material made from mixing cement, sand, and aggregate with water. Cement in concrete works as binding material which bind other materials together to make strong and durable materials concrete.
Cement is a finely ground power material, which can work as a binder when water is added to it. It is a mixture of different compounds consisting mainly of silicates and aluminates of calcium formed out of silica, calcium oxide, aluminum oxide, and iron oxide.
It works is the same as the glue we use for sticking two objects together, but it can bind natural compounds like sand and aggregate. When water is added to cement the hydration process starts (hydration is the chemical process between water and cement) and produces a bond between sand and aggregate. That is the major difference between cement and concrete.
Concrete is the oldest and most used man-made material on earth. Its most common construction material extensively used for buildings, bridges, roads, and dams. Its uses range from structural applications to sidewalk ways, curbs, pipes, and drains.
There is a clear difference between cement and concrete. Cement and concrete are two different materials but they are used together to form a strong and durable mass called concrete. Cement is one of the main ingredients of concrete, without cement concrete cannot be made.
Cement works as a binding agent in concrete which binds all other ingredients of concrete together to form a strong mass. Concrete is a widely used construction material. In fact, no construction work can complete without the use of concrete nowadays.
i want to patch up and resurface cement flooring of my school.
Areas of floor is large so need a cost effective way to do this.
I see lot of chemicals / option of URP+Cement / etc.
Can you suggest cost-effective and lasting solution for this?
concrete vs asphalt: which makes a better driveway - bob vila
If youve had enough of the ruts, cracks, and stains of your current driveway and are considering installing a new one, youre probably debating between the two most common solid materials: concrete and asphalt. While both are laid over a substrate of gravel, and both are basically a mixture of sand and stone, different adhesives are used to hold those components together: tar for asphalt and cement for concrete. The characteristics of those adhesives amount to the differencesboth pro and conbetween the two popular driveway surfaces.
Both asphalt and concrete create durable, attractive driveways, but theres more to choosing between them than simply going with the cheaper option. Thats why weve faced them off head-to-headconcrete vs. asphaltwith comparisons in seven major categories. So read on to discover whether asphalt or concrete is the winner for your home.
In their most basic forms, asphalt is dark gray to blackhence its common name of blacktopand concrete is pale gray. Unlike asphalt, though, concrete takes well to staining or tinting to just about any color you fancy. You can also stamp patterns into concrete or brush it for a textured finish. Go with concrete if you wish to match your homes color scheme, recreate the look of brick or another pattern, or prefer a bit of interest in your homes major entryway. Asphalt is a good choice if you want a streamlined appearance that matches the street.
Climate is a major consideration when choosing between asphalt and concrete. If you live in an area with very hot summers, you might find an asphalt driveway becomes gooey or sticky when the temperature soars. The cycle of softening in high heat, then re-hardening once things cool down, can cause asphalt to crack or sag. On the flip side, concrete can buckle, heave, or crack in the coldest winters (especially when you dont take proper measures to winterize concrete). Plus, the salt used to melt ice can pit, stain, or blotch concrete, leaving ugly marks. And it takes snow and ice longer to melt on concrete than asphalt.
A few months after installation to allow for full curing, your asphalt driveway will need to be sealed to protect the surface and lengthen its lifespan. Youll then need to reseal it every three to five years thereafter. (The task is well within the capabilities of most do-it-yourselfers: Pour the asphalt sealer onto your clean, dry driveway, and then use a driveway squeegee to spread it evenly over the entire surface.) Whileits not a must-do for concrete driveways, sealing concrete helps cut down on fadingan important protective measure for a tinted driveway.
When it comes to engine oil, gas drips, rust, and the rugged use driveways typically endure, the dark surface and matte finish of asphalt hides most stains and wear very well. Concrete, however, tends to show every mark and spill, so youll need to do more aggressive cleaning and degreasing to maintain its good looks.
While both asphalt and concrete crack, asphalt tends to deteriorate faster due to its softer consistency. However, its fairly easy to repair cracks and damage in asphalt, and the repaired areas generally blend well with the rest of the driveway.Its also relatively easy to apply a new topcoat of asphalt if the surface is heavily marred or showing its age. Concrete istougher to repair, and patched spots are usually fairly obvious unless you plan on resurfacing the whole driveway.
In general, if installed properly in a suitable climate and maintained regularly, your concrete driveway should last 30 to 40 years, while an asphalt driveway is generally good for 20 to 30 years. Neglect to install without an even, stable substrate of gravelor be careless about proper maintenanceand either type of driveway can fail within a few years.
You can normally use an asphalt driveway within a couple of days of installation. With concrete, youll wait at least a week before it fully cures enough for you to drive on itsomething to keep it in mind if street parking is a challenge in your neighborhood!
As a rough rule of thumb, a concrete driveway costs around 45 to 50 percent more than an asphalt driveway. According to price site CostHelper, homeowners report an average price of $2.24 per square foot for a new asphalt driveway and $4.36 for a new concrete driveway, but prices can fluctuate drastically depending on where you live, the complexity of the job, and the size of the driveway.
A new driveway is a big expense, whichever way you choose to go. There is no definite winner in the battle between asphalt and concrete; the decision comes down to which is best for your climate, your budget, and your tolerance for maintenance needs.
Disclosure: BobVila.com participates in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for publishers to earn fees by linking to Amazon.com and affiliated sites.
everything you need to know about concrete strength | cor-tuf
Here we take a look at the different types of concrete strength, why they matter, and how they impact the quality, longevity, and cost of concrete projects. We also demonstrate the differences in strength between traditional concrete and a newer, innovative concrete technologyUltra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC).
This is the most common and well-accepted measurement of concrete strength to assess the performance of a given concrete mixture. It measures the ability of concrete to withstand loads that will decrease the size of the concrete.
Compressive strength is tested by breaking cylindrical concrete specimens in a special machine designed to measure this type of strength. It is measured in pounds per square inch (psi). Testing is done according to the ASTM (American Society for Testing & Materials) standard C39.
Pounds per square inch (psi) measures the compressive strength of concrete. A higher psi means a given concrete mixture is stronger, so it is usually more expensive. But these stronger concretes are also more durable, meaning they last longer.
The ideal concrete psi for a given project depends on various factors, but the bare minimum for any project usually starts around 2,500 to 3,000 psi. Each concrete structure has a normally acceptable psi range.
Concrete footings and slabs on grade typically require a concrete of 3,500 to 4,000 psi. Suspended slabs, beams, and girders (as often found in bridges) require 3,500 to 5,000 psi. Traditional concrete walls and columns tend to range from 3,000 to 5,000 psi, while 4,000 to 5,000 psi is needed for pavement. Concrete structures in colder climates require a higher psi in order to withstand more freeze/thaw cycles.
Compressive strength is usually tested at seven days and then again at 28 days to determine the psi. The seven-day test is done to determine early strength gains, and in some cases, it may even be performed as early as three days.
Tensile strength is the ability of concrete to resist breaking or cracking under tension. It affects the size of cracks in concrete structures and the extent to which they occur. Cracks occur when tensile forces exceed the tensile strength of the concrete.
Traditional concrete has a significantly lower tensile strength as compared to compressive strength. This means that concrete structures undergoing tensile stress must be reinforced with materials that have high tensile strength, such as steel.
Flexural strength is used as another indirect measure of tensile strength. It is defined as a measure of an unreinforced concrete slab or beam to resist failure in bending. In other words, it is the ability of the concrete to resist bending.
Flexural tests are very sensitive to concrete preparation, handling, and curing. The test should be conducted when the specimen is wet. For these reasons, results from compressive strength tests are more typically used when describing the strength of concrete, as these numbers are more reliable.
A concrete mixture with too much cement paste may be easy to pourbut it will crack easily and not withstand the test of time. Conversely, too little cement paste will yield a concrete that is rough and porous.
Optimal mixing time is important for strength. While strength does tend to increase with mixing time to a certain point, mixing for too long can actually cause excess water evaporation and the formation of fine particles within the mix. This ends up making the concrete harder to work with and less strong.
There is no golden rule for optimal mixing time, as it depends on many factors, such as: the type of mixer being used, the speed of the mixer rotation, and the specific components and materials within a given batch of concrete.
A new concrete technology is available that has greater strength properties than traditional concrete across all strength ranges. This innovative material is called Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC), and it is already being implemented in many state and federal government infrastructure projects given its exceptional strength and durability.
The fibers vary from polyester to fiberglass bars, basalt, steel, and stainless steel. Each of these integrated fibers create a progressively stronger end product, with steel and stainless steel delivering the greatest gains in strength.
After just 14 days of curing, UHPC has a compressive strength of 20,000 psi. This number increases to 30,000 psi when fully cured for 28 days. Some mixes of UHPC have even demonstrated a compressive strength of 50,000 psi.
It is no surprise that UHPC is being used in many American infrastructure projects to repair the countrys aging bridges and roads. The material increases the lives of bridges, decreasing the overall lifecycle cost of these structures. UHPC has lower maintenance demands given its increased lifespan, further contributing to its lower lifetime cost.
When assessing a given concrete mixture for a project, it is important to know the various strength properties of that mixture. Knowledge of these numbers and what each type of concrete strength property delivers to a project is the key to choosing the right concrete mixture.
Concrete innovations such as UHPC outperform traditional concrete in all areas of strength, making it a smart choice for any and all concrete projects. The reduced maintenance and increased longevity of UHPC delivers a win-win of superior strength and lower lifecycle costs.
Cor-Tuf UHPC, the exclusive licensed producer of Cor-Tuf Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC) in the United States and the world, is the ideal material to use in the Federal Governments proposed $2 trillion plan to rehabilitate and upgrade the American infrastructure. And, thanks to our latest innovationour UHPC mobile batch plantCor-Tuf UHPC can now be used anywhere and everywhere, without any special considerations or accommodations.
The Federal Government has been putting a lot of emphasis on its proposed U.S infrastructure plan. The plan calls for a $2 trillion investment to repair the countrys damaged infrastructure, combat climate change, and create jobs.
Cor-Tuf UHPC, the exclusive licensed producer of Cor-Tuf Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC) in the United States and the world is bringing Cor-Tuf UHPC into mainstream production with its groundbreaking UHPC mobile batch plant. Now Cor-Tuf UHPC can be used by contractors anywhere and everywhere, under any conditions.
Believe it or not, concrete overlays have been in use in the U.S. for more than a century, with the first use dating back to the early 1900s. Concrete overlays were first used to build new highways and roads in our country, but later on the focus changed to using overlays as a cost-effective way to extend the life of roads and bridges that were past their prime.
If youve ever wondered, What is the difference between concrete and cement? youre in luck.
The terms concrete and cement are often used interchangeably. But the truth is, they are not the same. In fact, that cement truck many of us refer to on a job site is actually a misnomerit is really a concrete truck.
concrete vs cement: understanding the fundamentals
Cement is often confused with concrete, and its a common misconception that cement and concrete are interchangeable terms. Is it a cement sidewalk or a concrete sidewalk? A cement truck or a concrete truck?
Cement which is the glue that binds concrete together is a fine powder made up of crushed minerals such as limestone and clay that function as a binder. Cement can be made from a variety of materials, but it cant be used on its own. In fact, Roman cement was crushed rock with burnt lime, volcanic ash, and brick supplements. Today, Portland cement is the most common cement used and is one of the lowest cost materials around the world due to the widespread availability of limestone and shales.
The first step in making cement is to extract limestone (and other materials) from a quarry by blasting. The materials are reduced in size and then transported to a plant for processing. Then, other materials like sand, clay, shale, iron ore, gypsum, and minerals are ground with the limestone to produce raw meal which is uniform in size and chemistry.
The raw meal is then processed in a kiln that exceeds 2,642 degrees Fahrenheit or 1,450 degrees Celsius (hotter than molten lava when it erupts from a volcano!). A rotary cement kiln, which accounts for more than 95% of world cement production, is essentially a long tube that can be 12-feet in diameter and upwards of 300-feet long depending on the plants production capacity.
Processing the raw meal in the kiln allows for several structural changes and chemical reactions to take place and for new compounds to be formed that contribute to the strength of the cement. The white-hot chunks that emerge from the kiln are called clinker and are air cooled. The clinker is ground in a mill to a desired size and strength. A laboratory collects samples and checks for fineness, consistency, strength, and heat of hydration among other attributes.
Because of the high temperature required in the kiln, coal, natural gas, fuel oil, and petroleum coke are often used for firings. However, with pushes toward more sustainable manufacturing, plant operators are more frequently addingrecycled materials to their fuel such as landfill overflow, slaughterhouse waste, plastics, and more. Another example are tires that can be difficult to dispose of otherwise.
Now that the clinker has cooled and its been ground into a fine cement powder, it is sold in bulk, bagged, or transported to a plant where it is mixed with other ingredients to form concrete or mortar.
Concrete is the final product resulting from mixing cement, aggregates (including sand), water, and admixtures together. It is initially malleable in its wet state and solidifies over time, gaining strength and durability.
The earliest usage of concrete was by the Roman Empire. While there is some indication that even earlier civilizations used a distant form of concrete, the Romans used a mix of quicklime, pozzolana, and an aggregate of pumice. The Pantheon is the largest concrete dome without reinforcement in the world build in 120 A.D.
Concrete mixes vary based on strength, appearance, and local requirements. As mentioned above, it is typically made from four key ingredients that are mixed in a specific ratio based on the application:
Depending on the application, there are a variety of concrete types that can meet your needs. An example is self-consolidating concrete (SCC) which is highly flowable and can spread readily into place without separating. The ratio of water to cement in self consolidating concrete is about .32 instead of .48 for conventional concrete. The flowable aspect of SCC makes it ideal for precast concrete.
Another example is polymer concrete which uses a catalyst to bind aggregates together. Its pressed instead of poured and used in applications where a higher corrosion resistance is needed (e.g. sanitary sewer manholes).
Ready mixed concrete is manufactured in a batch plant and delivered to the project site with water added in a barrel truck. Often various admixtures are used to provide optimal results in different weather conditions. An example includes accelerators such as calcium chloride or non-chloride accelerators that increase the rate at which the hydration reaction occurs.
With sustainable and green construction methods being top of mind, its important to understand the role concrete has on the environment. Concrete can stand for thousands of years and gain strength as it ages, where other building materials can rot, rust, and burn. Concrete from old buildings and demolished bridges, as examples, can be crushed, reduced, and incorporated into new batches as the aggregate component. It can also be used as rip rap and new road bases. Concrete is a highly energy efficient building material due to its inherent thermal mass and ability to absorb heat. Additionally, recycled materials such as post-consumer glass and slag cement can be incorporated into concrete for masonry units that can contribute to green and sustainable design.
Want to learn even more about precast concrete including how its made? Get a behind-the-scenes lookat one of our Oldcastle Infrastructure, A CRH Company, plants and gain first-hand experience on the manufacturing process.
The Building Solutions team at CRH is a group of construction industry veterans with diverse backgrounds from general contractors, architects, and engineers to business owners, developers, and urban planners. We've seen first-hand how technology, the economy, and politics can affect the construction industry. Through our blog and articles on our website, we provide you with our insights to help you understand these influencing factors and plan for the road ahead.
cement vs concrete: whats the difference? - engineering web
Most people dont know the difference between the terms cement and concrete. Whats the difference between these two, and why does it matter? In this article, we unpack some facts regarding cement and concrete, along with interesting questions on their uses.
Cement is a component of concrete. The easiest explanation of the difference between these two is comparing it to flour and dough. Here, cement is like flour, while concrete is like dough. The dough contains flour, but also some water, salt, and other fillers. Likewise, concrete contains cement, water, sand, and stone, in the most basic form. Usually, mix designers include some cement extenders and chemical admixtures, since this enhances the concrete performance and decreases the mix design cost.
Cement is the portion of concrete that develops strength. Without cement, you would have mud, not concrete, and your structure would have no strength. When cement particles come into contact with water, some of the gypsum and clinker in the cement dissolve. This forms a highly alkaline environment (pH 12), which is ideal for the subsequent exothermic hydration reaction.
The hydration reaction takes place in three stages. During the first stage, aluminate (C3A) in the clinker reacts with water to form an aluminate-rich gel. This gel reacts with the sulfate in the surrounding solution, forming ettringite and marking the end of the third phase. Ettringite consists of small rod-like crystals.
During the third phase of the hydration reaction, alite and belite present in the cement react, forming calcium silicate hydrate and calcium hydroxide. These are the products that contribute to concrete strength formation the more of these products you have, the stronger your concrete. These hydration products are crystalline. Eventually, these individual crystals would grow to interlock tightly, hold all stone and sand particles in place, and offer structural integrity to the concrete.
Portland cement is the most common type of cement used around the world. Used in most major construction projects, you will find Portland cement in the structure of the Burj Khalifa, the highway youre driving on, and in the home, you live.
Portland cement mainly consists of calcium, silicon, aluminum, and iron. To economically mix these components, manufacturers grind, blend, and heat treat a combination of more cost-effective materials. These include limestone, shells, chalk or marl, shale, clay, slate, blast furnace slag, silica sand, and iron ore.
At a cement production facility, these components are ground into a fine powder and mixed in the correct proportions. This powdered mixture gets fed through a kiln, operating at extremely high temperatures, leading to clinker formation. When grinding clinker to a fine powder, we get what we know as cement. Often, this cement powder gets mixed with extenders like fly ash, silica fume, or blast furnace slag to create a less expensive mixture.
We make concrete by mixing cement, sand, stone, and water in the correct proportions. The sand and stone used in concrete are collectively known as aggregates and form the bulk of the concrete mixture since they are by far the cheapest component in the mix design.
For structurally sound concrete, you only need enough cement paste (a mixture of cement and water) to hold everything together, i.e., cover all the aggregates. This is why you would add as much sand and stone as practical to your mix design. Doing this keeps things affordable while still maintaining proper workability in the fresh concrete and structural integrity in the hardened concrete.
Concrete strength depends on the ratio of cement to water. The higher this ratio, the stronger the concrete. Cement manufacturers publish cement performance curves for each type of cement that they produce. These curves relate concrete strength development to the cement: water ratio in the ideal case. Using these curves, mix designers determine the ratio of cement to water used in their mix design.
Adding more cement than is necessary for your target strength, renders your mix design unnecessarily expensive. Keep in mind that cement is the most expensive portion of any mix design. In large structures, such as dam walls, this has the added risk of excessive heat development, which would lead to thermal cracking and structural failure. Take into account that the cement hydration reaction is exothermic, so everything gets hotter as the cement reacts to gain strength. In smaller, thin structures, the heat generated dissipates easily. However, in large, thick structures, this heat has nowhere to go and builds up over time, creating thermal cracks in the hardening concrete.
Cement mixed with water forms a cement paste that would harden and create a strong structure. Note that this mixture is likely to shrink due to the high volume of water needed to lubricate the cement powder adequately. This is also a costly mixture and would not be suited for larger structures. Usually, artisans use this type of paste for small decorative items, such as desk ornaments, small pots, and jewelry. Even then, most manufacturers would mix this paste with a portion of fine sand to decrease costs and shrinkage.
Sand and stone act as lubricants in a well-proportioned concrete mix design. Excluding sand from your mix design would necessitate more water to make your concrete workable enough for practical purposes. If you still want to reach a specific target compressive strength, you would have to add more cement to the mixture as well to maintain the cement: water ratio. Here, your mix design would be costly.
Firstly, you would reach a far higher compressive strength than the intended target. The workability of the fresh concrete mix would also decrease since excessive cement content makes fresh concrete sticky. Lastly, your concrete mix design would be much more expensive than is needed the economics of mix design is an essential aspect of construction.
Concrete is an incredibly versatile and robust construction medium and is widely used all across the world. As one of the essential portions of a concrete mix design, cement is equally essential and widely studied. We trust that this article shed some light on the difference between cement and concrete and that it gave you a deeper appreciation of concrete mix design principles.
concrete, cement or asphalt? what's the difference?
From highways to bridges and other structures, concrete, cement, and asphalt are some of the most ubiquitous building materials around. Each of the three has its own unique properties, advantages, and disadvantages depending on the intended use.
The choice of concrete, cement, or asphalt all depends on the task at hand and the desired outcome. One isnt necessarily an overall better choice than the others, since they each have their strengths and weaknesses, making them individually ideal for different projects.
If youre contemplating a new project, such as a new driveway, outdoor patio, or a walking path, and youre debating which of the three materials to use read on as well be taking a more detailed look at these three materials.
Before we can get into how to use concrete, asphalt, and cement, lets dig a little deeper into what they are, individually. Understanding the components of each and how theyre used will help later to figure out which one youll want to use.
Concrete has long been one of the most, if not the most, dependable building materials on the face of the earth. While various forms of concrete have been used for centuries, the quality of concrete that we see used today was developed in the 1800s. Its been around for so long that its easy to see why its so trusted.
Again, depending on the final outcome, there are a few options for what to use here, depending on how the concrete should look in the end, as well as the strength needed. Aggregate is basically combining lots of smaller particles to create a larger piece, which is exactly what these materials are doing in the concrete. Traditional choices include:
Water is the life of the concrete mix. Without water, its really just a bunch of rocks. Adding water allows all of the other elements to mix together until the concrete is the desired consistency. Thinner concrete will use more water but will be less strong. Thicker concrete will use less water and will be sturdier.
There are all kinds of things that can be mixed into concrete to give it different qualities. Some help the concrete dry quicker, while others can give it the ability to drain better when wet. Here are some of the ones that are used most frequently:
Cement alone isnt an effective building material, or anything really. Its another example of just sediment. But, when mixed with other things, it can be one of the strongest building materials. Cement, as weve briefly touched on, is one of the key ingredients in concrete.
Cement is made from lime and clay in their powdered form. Cement, as we know, is a binding agent, so it clings to other elements and causes them to stick together. Cement comes in two types: hydraulic and non-hydraulic.
This cement doesnt dry and adhere on its own; rather, the drying is a result of a chemical reaction. When the dry ingredients get together with water, they harden. Because this type of cement is reliant on a chemical reaction, it can set in different kinds of weather.
Non-hydraulic cement is really just the opposite of hydraulic. It dries naturally, without the help of a chemical reaction. Because it does dry naturally, however, it cant be done in wet or damp conditions. Pouring non-hydraulic cement right before it rains is definitely a no-no.
This building material is most often used in road construction. Its actually a form of concrete. Youre most likely picturing it in its common form, a dark and thick liquid, known for its viscosity. Asphalt is sticky in its liquid form but then hardens to become another solid building material.
Asphalt does occur naturally and can be harvested from the earth. In Trinidad, Pitch Lake houses the largest deposit of asphalt. However, asphalt can also be made as a byproduct of petroleum. When asphalt is combined with aggregates, it is heated and then poured.
If youve ever been lucky (or unlucky) enough to witness a street being paved, you might be familiar with what this looks like and smells like. The smell is not pleasant, but definitely unmistakable. Once the boiling liquid is created, its distributed, where its later poured. Other materials such as gravel or sand can be added to the asphalt as its drying, creating the desired surface.
Now that we know what were working with, and how each of these materials is made, we can get down to the nitty-gritty. The specifics of why concrete, cement, and asphalt are used. What makes each one of these ideal for certain projects, and less for others.
There are all kinds of different concretes available for use. Whether youre a contractor or a DIYer, theres a type ofconcrete out there thats right for the job. Again, it just really depends on the task at hand.
There are many different concretes available, however, were going to focus primarily on the ones that are most frequently used. These are the types of concrete that youre most likely to use or encounter.
Although ready-mix concrete sounds like it might be the best choice for a DIY job, be warned. There is a lot of room for error if youre not exactly sure what needs to be added to the concrete when its mixed. And, not knowing could cause a majorly botched job.
One obstacle that can cause a challenge with ready mix concrete is that its ready to go, like right away. It needs to be used quickly, or else it will start curing and hardening. If a job site is more than three hours away, or wont be used in that time frame, then ready mix is not your best option.
This particular kind of concrete remedies the issue of the concrete hardening before its ready to be poured. With a little science and the help of a super special truck, this concrete is able to maintain the perfect combination of temperature and moisture, long enough that it will remain liquid until poured.
Volumetric concrete is used when there are multiple sites involved in the project. Its also used frequently in making basements. Not surprisingly, any projects that are larger and will require more concrete and a longer time frame will also usually use volumetric concrete.
Concrete is also fairly temperature-sensitive, especially in the pouring and curing phases. Rapid set concrete is rather resilient in colder temperatures, so it works well for patios and other outdoor areas that are likely to be exposed to cold winters.
If strength is one of the main priorities, such as with bridges or ceiling construction, then reinforced concrete is where its at. This is the muscles behind the operation. The strength comes from steel, in the form of:
Like other concretes, the main elements are water and some sort of crushed stone. But, polymer concrete is actually very different. Polymer concretes harden and cure with the help of an epoxy. Most commonly used for polymer concretes are:
The various epoxies used give the polymer concrete different amounts of strength. However, as a whole, polymer concrete is very durable. But just because its stronger doesnt make it the best option for any job or project. Polymer concrete is not only one of the more expensive options, but its also fairly dangerous due to the chemicals used.
Polymer concrete is used most often in construction when its necessary to create a joint that merges two pieces. The chemicals used also make it ideal for resisting corrosion from temperature changes, and shrinking as it cures.
In many home improvement projects that call for concrete, decorative is the path most taken. Decorative concrete comes in so many forms and can be used in so many applications. Theres a color and texture of decorative concrete that will fit into any project.
Different elements are mixed in with the concrete, so it really can take on any aesthetic it needs to. In addition to adding things to the mix, its also easy to add something on top of the concrete as its drying, changing its appearance. Here are a few ways that decorative concrete can be adapted to fit in any project:
Cement is different from concrete, as we know, because, on its own, its not a building material. By itself, cement can be used to construct anything. But, its a very important ingredient in how other things are created.
Along with the powder from any of the above, and sometimes a combination of one or more, iron ore is added to make cement. Together, these ingredients are heated to an incredibly high temperature, just above 2,500 degrees (F). Thats too hot to even imagine.
The result is known as a clinker. Once this has cooled, its again ground into a powder, and this is what we know as cement. This whole process is where cement gets its strength. And the strength is why its used in making concrete.
Asphalt is the number one choice for paving roads, as you know, from earlier. Asphalt isnt exactly an entirely different building material than concrete; rather, its a type of concrete, as we previously mentioned.
The process of heating the compounds in asphalt and then pouring while its hot is what makes it so strong and durable. Durability is one of the main reasons why this option is so widely used for paving, as opposed to traditional concrete paving.
Just like concrete, there are a few different kinds of asphalt that are used for different applications. And, each of the types of asphalt comes with its own set of reasons for why its used. Here are the major players in the asphalt world.
If stormwater is a problem, then this type of pavement provides the solution. As the name suggests, this particular form of asphalt allows for optimum water draining. And, water is managed through the construction of the asphalt, making it a fairly cost-effective method of paving as well.
Porous asphalt is also better for the environment. The pores allow this type of pavement to cool down, and not retain heat as much as others. Also, water is driven back into the water table instead of other places where runoff ends up, so it doesnt add to water in the sewers or stormwater drains.
This is a fairly new type of asphalt. The purpose of this asphalt is to keep roads that are frequently traveled, well-paved, and in need of less repair. This is achieved through mixing course asphalt with stabilizing agents.
The coarse stones, as opposed to finely milled powder, is why its called stone matrix asphalt. The result is a road thats traveled often, without developing extensive rutting. And, if youve ever felt your car dip into a rut while youre driving, you know just why this is dangerous and should be avoided.
But, SMA, as this asphalt is commonly referred to, gets bonus points for doubling as a noise reducer. Sounds from traffic can be quite a nuisance, which is why noise reduction is great, no matter where it comes from. So, SMA is not only used for its durability, but also gives urban streets, airplane runways, and racetracks the chance of being a little quieter.
Layers of asphalt are used in this kind of asphalt technique, which makes the road smooth and long-lasting. Together, these make for a safe road. Each layer, for the most part, has a different role to play in creating the road.
Theres flexibility and strength, along with crack prevention and a layer to maintain structural integrity. When done properly, this kind of paving will require little maintenance. Hence the name, perpetual pavement.
The top layer can help preserve the existing asphalt, and if needed, make repairing the surface easier and less of a challenge. As long as the asphalt pavement underneath is properly installed and maintained, then the idea is that the layer on top can preserve the integrity.
While theres still a lot to be learned about the type of asphalt, there are some big-name companies that are putting a lot of effort into developing the products. This is slowly becoming more and more used in asphalt paving.
Weve gone into detail about what concrete, cement, and asphalt. What they are individually, how they work together, and what theyre used for. Another key piece of the pavement puzzle is how these are different.
Knowing how these two differ can be a determining factor in which pavement option to use. Or, if youre trying to identify an existing pavement, the differences between the two can help you figure out what youre working with
Concrete has a lot of options, as we know, from just a few common ones we discussed above. And again, those are just a few of the choices. Within each of these types of concretes, each one looks different. Theres no limit as far as texture, color, and even shape when it comes to concrete.
But asphalt is quite the opposite, as far as appearance goes. Because of the materials used to make asphalt, along with the actual process of making asphalt, the aesthetic outcome is pretty limited. This is why we often hear asphalt referred to as blacktop. Its usually black, or gray.
Theres quite a price difference when it comes to asphalt paving vs. concrete paving. Asphalt is far less expensive than concrete. This is due to the ease of installation and availability of materials.
There are also so many different ways that concrete can be used, as we know, so that really affects how much the overall cost will be. Each variation of concrete has different installation and maintenance requirements, and some require professionals.
Both concrete and asphalt have their climate preferences. Depending on where you live, this could help determine the choice of which pavement to go with. However, the wrong choice could end up costing you in the long run, with more repairs and maintenance being necessary.
If you live somewhere that heats up a lot during the summer, youve probably experienced hot asphalt at some point. Its something you dont forget the smell or the sight of the heat rising off the pavement.
Not only does it make the surface undesirable for any kind of life when its hot, but the structural integrity is also compromised by heat. Asphalt is a flexible material. However, as it grows hotter, the flexibility increases. When it cools and hardens, the asphalt is likely to crack and crumble.
Even though concrete can withstand extreme heat, its very sensitive to the cold temperaturesespecially frequent, consistent exposure. Places with extra chilly winters can just expect that roads and sidewalks, as well as any other concrete paved surface, will experience some sort of damage during the colder months.
And, were talking about just the damage that comes from the coldness. Add in the fact that most places that have really cold winters also experience a lot of snow. Snow means freezing, and the use of ice melting agents, which can also wreak havoc on concrete.
Temperature damage to concrete can come in many forms, but cracking is the most common. However, its worth keeping in mind that any paved roads you drive on during the winter months could have potholes lurking, not to mention small imperfections that can turn into giant nooks and crannies, and any of these can cause damage to a car or vehicle.
Asphalt and concrete both require upkeep and maintenance. However, asphalt is the least needy of the two. Once the asphalt has been fully cured, it will need to be sealed. And, sealed again, every few years. This is fairly simple to do and protects the asphalt surface.
Concrete, on the other hand, doesnt require sealing. Although sealing can be done to assist concrete from fading, it doesnt offer much more protection than that. Concrete is especially susceptible to staining, so it actually requires a lot of cleaning in the event that it does have an oil or grease stain.
Asphalt is much easier to repair than concrete, and a lot of the time, its a pretty simple DIY job. There are so few variations and a little more room for error with asphalt. The color is easy to blend since it doesnt have a color. Not to mention, if there is a mistake, its hidden by the darkness of the asphalt itself.
Anything thats been paved should last upwards of twenty years. Thats if there was a level surface, and proper subsurface was done before the paving. And even if those two are present, then the installation of the asphalt or concrete itself has to be done properly.
If all of thats in place, leaving out any environmental factors such as extreme water damage or temperatures, concrete pavement usually will outlast asphalt by about ten years. Concrete will last, on average, about 30 to 40 years. Asphalt, on the other hand, tops out between 20 to 30 years.
Keep in mind this doesnt take into consideration any additional wear and tear that isnt of regular circumstance. Severe weather plays a major role in the strength or deterioration of each kind of pavement. This average only considers average traffic, too.
A concrete driveway can take a week or longer before its fully ready for use again. This is because once it dries, concrete has to cure as well. Curing, and allowing the concrete to properly acclimate to its surroundings, is imperative to concretes longevity.
Asphalt, however, can be regularly used after just a couple of days. Naturally, this depends on the weather, as well as they type of use for the particular area thats been paved. But, in most cases, asphalt is done drying much quicker than concrete and doesnt need to be cured.
Hi, I'm Gio Valle, creator of Your Own Architect. Whether you are looking to design and build your own house or simply doing some research, you've come to the right place. I developed this site in the hopes that it will provide you with valuable information and help answer your questions, so that you can create your perfect home.
difference between concrete and cement | big d ready mix
This question may not have crossed your mind until now; but its something to think about. The common individual seems to use the two interchangeably. Even someone who frequently deals with the two may not know the difference. Is your sidewalk made of concrete or cement? Is that highway made of concrete or cement? What about a dam?
As a matter of fact, each of those is a trick question. The answer is all of the above. The distinct difference between concrete and cement is cement is a component of concrete, while concrete is the end result of a mix of cement and a few other components.
Cement is a mixture itself. It is most often made up of limestone, clay, shells, and sand. The collection of ingredients is combined with iron ore and crushed at extreme temperatures to become cement. Temperatures will be around 2,500 F. Cement has soil-like look. An obvious distinction between cement and concrete is that cement is soft, while concrete is rock solid. For instance, certainly youve seen someone spread cement while building a structure. Perhaps between bricks to create a lengthy adhesion.
Many people mistaken concrete trucks for cement trucks. The revolving cylindrical container or barrel that you see attached to trucks actually contains concrete, rather than cement. You often see these concrete trucks on site with workers so they can lay the concrete to build a parking garage or a highway.
Cement is mixed alongside gravel, sand and water to create concrete. Those are the ingredients within the giant barrel of the concrete truck. Typically, concrete is made up of 10-15% concrete, 60-75% sand and gravel, and 15-20% water (per Concrete Contractors Assn.). The chemical reaction between cement and water is called hydration. The reaction forms the hard-as-rock material known as concrete. In fact, the hydration process continues for a number of years, resulting in a stronger surface over time. For this reason, concrete is trusted to carry tremendous weights and withstand major pressures without really ever wearing.
So, now you know. Even if you never lay concrete yourself, at least you can prove your friend wrong when he/she points out a cement truck driving down the road. Its an all too common mix-up; however, the difference between cement and concrete truly is simple. You can have cement without concrete, but you cannot have concrete without cement. Cement helps make concrete.
For any of your concrete needs, call Big D Ready Mix Concrete. We provide ready mix concrete for commercial and residential projects. Weve been a staple concrete supplier in Dallas, TX since 2002. Contact Big D Ready Mix Concrete today! We look forward to easing your project!
Big D Ready Mix Concrete has been serving clients in the Dallas, TX area since 2002, with over 400 utility mixes, high-strength wall mixes, exposed aggregate mixes, flexural strength mixes, stamp concrete mixes, flowable fill mixes, grout mixes, and trailer pump mixes.
benefits of a concrete patio vs. wood & composite decks - 2019 guide
Adding a deck or concrete patio to your home is one of the best ways to increase the value of your property. It can also become a favorite family gathering place for barbeques, birthdays and fully enjoying your outdoor living space.
If youre considering adding a deck or patio to your home, there are a number of options to consider. One of the main choices youll need to make is what type of construction material to use. In this article well break down the pros and cons of a concrete patio vs. a wood deck vs. a composite deck.
One of the primary advantages of a concrete patio is that it requires little to no maintenance and lasts much longer than wood or composite material. This means the cost youll pay over the lifetime of your home for the patio is much lower.
For example, the lifetime cost of a maintenance free concrete patio that lasts 70 years is likely five to ten times less than a wood deck that needs regular maintenance and has to be replaced every 10 years.
Concrete is extremely durable and will last a lifetime when installed correctly. The durability advantage of concrete is even more prominent in areas with extreme temperatures that wreak havoc on wood and composite materials.
One issue many homeowners have with wood and composite decks is having spiders and rodents (ex. mice and rats) living in the open space underneath their decks. This same issue doesnt exist with concrete patios as there are no open spaces or cavities between the deck and the ground.
One of the lesser known benefits of a concrete patio is the unlimited design options. Unlike wood or composite material, concrete can be stamped with a wide array of patterns (ex. cobblestone look, brick look, tile look, wood plank look, etc.). The stamping options can be combined with staining of any color to further customize the appearance.
Concrete is a very versatile material and can be poured to fit any design and any shape. This gives you the option to have curved edges, built in steps, multiple tiers and anything else your heart desires.
One of the biggest benefits of concrete patios is that they require little to no maintenance. Many wood decks have to be stripped, re-stained/re-painted and re-sealed on a very regular basis (often yearly in extreme climates). This is not only costly but its also not an enjoyable way to spend your time.
Of the different types of material options, a concrete patio is the most difficult for a novice homeowner to install correctly. Many DIY issues arise from not preparing the ground properly, not using adequate reinforcement materials and poor planning.
The initial cost of a concrete patio is typically higher than a wood deck. This difference in cost is more than recouped over time by the lower maintenance costs and longer lifespan of a concrete patio (see advantage #1).
Composite decks cost more to initially install than wood decks but typically last longer. Compared to concrete patios, the initial installation cost of composite decks can be slightly lower or roughly the same depending on the material. Composite decks dont last as long as concrete patios. This puts the lifetime cost of a composite deck lower than a wood deck in many cases and higher than a concrete patio.
Composite decking is much less durable than a concrete but more durable than wood. The durability of composite decking varies widely by manufacturer and extreme temperatures can cause warping, sagging, fading and chemical leaching.
One issue many homeowners have with composite decks is having rodents (ex. rats and mice) living in the open space underneath their deck. Weeds growing between the slats of composite decks is also a common issue when the decking material does not fit tightly together.
The variety of composite decking styles and colors is much more limited than concrete. The overall design of composite decks also has limitations compared to concrete. For example, its difficult to build a composite deck with built-in curved steps and curved sides while this look is much easier to accomplish with concrete.
One of the top complaints and disadvantages of composite decks is that they become extremely hot underfoot in warm weather and direct sunlight. The extreme heat retention of composite decking often makes it unsuitable for bare feet. The heat radiated from the composite decking can also make it less enjoyable to be on even hours after the sun has gone down.
Wood decks are typically built with pressure treated pine, cedar or redwood. While wood has been a popular choice for decking material, it comes with some distinct disadvantages to a concrete patio or a composite deck.
One of the primary disadvantages of a wood deck is that it requires consistent maintenance and doesnt last as long as a concrete patio or composite deck. This means youll pay a higher overall cost after factoring in maintenance and replacing the deck.
For example, the lifetime cost of a wood deck that requires regular maintenance and has to be replaced every 10 years is likely five to ten times higher than a maintenance free concrete patio that lasts 70 years.
Wood is much less durable than a concrete or composite deck. The lack of durability is even more prominent in areas with extreme temperatures that wreak havoc on wood causing warping, sagging, rotting, fading and broken boards.
Other durability concerns with wood are splinters and insect issues (ex. termites and carpenter ants). Termites are especially concerning with wood decks as termites attracted to a wood deck can easily spread to the house causing significant structural damage.
One issue many homeowners have with wood is having rodents (ex. rats and mice) living in the open space underneath their deck. Weeds growing between the slats of wood decks is also a common issue that frustrate many homeowners.
The variety of wood styles and colors is much more limited than composite decking or concrete. The overall design of wood decks also has limitations compared to concrete. For example, its very difficult to build a wood deck with curved sides and built-in curved steps while this look is much easier to accomplish with concrete.
One of the biggest drawbacks to a wood deck is the ongoing cost and labor involved in maintaining the wood. Transparent stains typically have to be applied to wood decks on a yearly basis. This is a costly and time-consuming process that takes the joy out of owning a deck.
No matter which material you choose, adding a deck or patio to your home is one of the best ways to increase your property value while gaining enjoyable outdoor living space. If youre considering a concrete patio based on its distinct advantages but arent sure about the price, your best bet is to request a free estimate from a highly rated local concrete contractor.
At Bankston Concrete Construction, we specialize in custom residential concrete patios. With over 50 five-star reviews, were proud to be the highest rated concrete construction company in San Antonio and the surrounding area. Wed love to provide you a free estimate on a concrete patio that youll love for years to come.
Residential and commercial clients alike can count on us to deliver quality service, prompt completion times, and budget-friendly rates for their concrete projects. We take our craft seriously and go the extra mile for our customers, allowing our work to stand the test of time.
"cement" or "concrete"?
I have a problem with people using the word cement when they mean concrete; they are not interchangeable, yet people write and say it all the time.To clarify, cement is the powder used to make concrete. The hardened surfaces on which we walk and drive are concrete, not cement. Its really no big deal, just something that leaps out at me when I read it or hear it.
Although many speakers use the words interchangeably to refer to any hard substance, the distinction matters when it comes to putting these materials to use. Fiction writers especially need to know the difference. For example, it would be embarrassing to have a character who is a construction worker mix up the terms.
The word cement evolved from a word for small broken stones to mean powdered stones. It entered English from Old French in the 14th century as ciment. The French word came from Latin caementa, stone chips for making mortar.
The Romans made their cement by mixing limestone with volcanic ash. They kept this mixture as dry as possible and then pounded it into an arrangement of rocks already in place. They didnt use rebar, but many of their bridges, aqueducts, and temples still stand.
Portland cement was first produced in 1824 by a British stonemason, Joseph Aspdin. He heated a mixture of finely ground limestone and clay in his kitchen stove and then ground the mixture into a powder that hardened with the addition of water. He called it Portland cement because of its resemblance to a stone quarried on the Isle of Portland in the English Channel.
The word concrete came into English as an adjective in the late 14th century, from Latin concretus, condensed, hardened, thick, hard, stiff, curdled, congealed, clotted. It began as a term of logic, but expanded in meaning until, in 1834, it was being used as a noun meaning building material made from cement, etc.
concrete: 4. a. Applied by the early logicians and grammarians to a quality viewed (as it is actually found) concreted or adherent to a substance, and so to the word expressing a quality so considered, viz. the adjective, in contradistinction to the quality as mentally abstracted or withdrawn from substance and expressed by an abstract noun: thus white (paper, hat, horse) is the concrete quality or quality in the concrete, whiteness, the abstract quality or quality in the abstract; seven (men, days, etc.) is a concrete number, as opposed to the number 7 in the abstract.
This has been one of my pet peeves for a long time. Ive worked testing concrete in my job (yes I was the guy who gets to smash concrete cylinders with a compression machine). In the construction industry you are exposed as a newbie or green if you refer to concrete as cement. The only caviot is some old timers still refer to concrete trucks as a cement truck. Theyve put in their time and no one corrects them.
The other thing is the consistency of concrete is made of 3/4-1 stone and is rather thick like a milkshake. It is not like water and takes a couple of hours to setup unless it is quick setting and can harden in less than an hour.
Reinforcement (optional) some concrete has polyester or fiberglass fibers added to resist random cracking)
Admixtures (optional) ( Chemicals/Substances added to change workability , cure time, or other properties depending on what the concrete is being used for )
Furthermore Concrete doesnt dry it actually hydrates or cures its a chemical reaction between the Portland cement and water that yields a new product (hardened concrete) and heat. Hydrating concrete is exothermic (gives off heat) and the reagents (water, Portland ) must be in exactly the right proportions or the final product will be weaker than it should be
Concrete is cured wet, usually for 28 days. Letting it dry before that is the worst thing you can do for strength. There are compounds that can be sprayed on slabs and other flatwork that slow the evaporation of water and allow it to cure more slowly.
Interesting I always thought of abstract as abridge I thought it was a false cognate, cause in Spanish abstracto is something that is not defined or a form of art not a summary, but now I see you use this word like us.
I would like someone to clear up something for me please; In Spanish the words curb and sidewalk are interchangeable is it the same in English?
Not in American English. The sidewalk is the paved area you can walk on. The curb is the edge that separates the street from everything that isnt street. Sometimes the sidewalk lies next to the curb (Street/curb/sidewalk); sometimes there is grass between the curb and the sidewalk (street/curb/grass/sidewalk). One can walk on the curb, of course, but its actual function is to define what is street.
Im from New Zealand and Id never heard people say cement for concrete back home, but I hear it all the time now that Im living in America. I think it stands out to me more because the pronunciation is different too in NZ we say sa-MENT and here they say, SEE-ment. It always irritates me.
Izza, it depends on what part of America youre in, as to the pronunciation of cement. Being originally from California, its always pronounced sa-MENT. SEE-ment is more typical of the South, or regions near it.
While I know theres a difference between cement and concrete, for some reason, I have always had a problem remembering which is which until I realized that the occur in alphabetical order. Cement precedes concrete alphabetically and you first have cement which you use to make concrete.
My 60 year concrete patio is VERY badly spalled (?) with many small chunks of a quarter inch depth. Is self leveling concrete advisable, and should a bonding agent be used beforehand?
I intend to brush it hard, followed by a leaf blower, then hose it and when dry Ill use the leaf blower again before starting the concrete job. Any advice or corrections would be gratefully accepted, as I have NO experience to fall back on. thanks.
Youve stumbled into a language blog. We just give advice about the meaning of words. You might try searching self-leveling concrete. Heres one useful looking site that came up when I did that:
Its new to my knowledge that cement is actually made of small broken stones that are being powdered in order to use for making mortar. If I were to be a builder, I will make sure that Ill have all the knowledge in order to build the strongest buildings and houses. And also, I am very keen to experimenting things. I am wondering if using a limestone could be a good alternate for cement in building concrete blocks.
Limestone is an ingredient in cement:
Common materials used to manufacture cement include limestone, shells, and chalk or marl combined with shale, clay, slate, blast furnace slag, silica sand, and iron ore.