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# concentration of ores by magnetic separation

## concentration of ore by magnetic separation

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Dry Iron Ore Beneficiation Iron Ore Separation St Each mineral deposit has its own unique characteristics with respect to iron and gangue bearing minerals and therefore it requires a different concentration technique magnetic separation is typically used in the ...

Since, the ore contains both Ni and Fe, the calcination of laterite is effective in altering the crystalline structure of Fe species and therefore its magnetic properties, which in turn enable the selective concentration of nickel by magnetic separation that is an easy

Haematite Ore Concentration Is Done By Which Separation Technique Haematite Ore Concentration Is Done By Which Separation Technique haematite ore concentration is done by which haematite concentration methods greenrevolutionorgin. Magnetic separation ...

The wet magnetic separation can be applied both as an independent process and directly after dry concentration for more efficient magnetic separation. In domestic factories, the wet magnetic separation is carried out on drum separators with semicountercurrent baths, with the exception of the first stage, when direct-flow or countercurrent baths are used of the particle size of 2 +0 mm17.

Magnetic Separation It is based on the principle of magnetic properties of the ore components. If either the ore particles or the gangue are capable of being attracted in a magnetic field, magnetic separation can be used. Ore is kept in a conveyer which passes

Keywards: Magnetic separation, Deszenith, Lean iron ore Corresponding author: ... 60% Fe was treated in heavy media separation and in dry magnetic separation. Read More MAGNETIC CONCENTRATION OF IRON ORES OF ALABAMA

Electrostatic separation of ores in its present form is generally known as the Huff process, from the name of Charles H. Huff, of Boston, Mass., through whose constant and persistent labors (with the invention of Clinton E. Dolbear as a basis) the successful commercial process embracing separative machinery and the various electrifying devices has been developed step by step, and the finances ...

Oct 04 2018 magnetic separation and iron ore beneficiation magnetic separation is an old technique for the concentration of iron ores and for the removal of tramp iron since 1849 a number of patents on magnetic separation have been issued in usa and te...

Gravity Separation Of Iron Ore Pdf - lh-nehtiky.cz Magnetic-gravity separation of iron ore P A Usachyov & S Yu Korytny Mining Institute, Kola Science Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences, 24 Fersman str., 184200 Apatity, Munnansk region, Russia Received 17 ...

Concentration of the ore 1. Hydraulic washing process (Gravity separation) This process separates the heavier ore particles from the lighter gangue particles. This is done by washing them in a stream (jet) of water over a vibrating, sloped table with grooves. Denser ...

10/8/2012 Magnetic Separation This method is used in those cases where either ore or the impurities are of magnetic in nature. In this method, the powdered impure ore in the form of thin layer is allowed to fall on a rubber belt which moves horizontally over two rollers, one of which has electromagnetic .

Magnetic Separation Process Of Concentration Of Ore 2019914 Chrome process equipment is wet type strong magnetic separator, and spiral chute chrome spiral plant of gravity separator. 3 Experimental results and discussion 3.1 Chrome magnetic separation ...

Dry Iron Ore Beneficiation Iron Ore Separation St Each mineral deposit has its own unique characteristics with respect to iron and gangue bearing minerals and therefore it requires a different concentration technique magnetic separation is typically used in the ...

Magnetic Separator Concentrator For Iron Ore Separation After conversion the iron concentrations in the grade that could be sold 56 Fe were obtained by the wet magnetic separator and the falcon gravity separator with the recovery yields of 90. Get Price List Chat Online

Magnetic Separation is one of the physical concentration processes that utilizes the differences in magnetic properties of various minerals present in the ore body. The magnetic fraction may be valuable or gangue depending upon its end use in a particular process and so also the non-magnetic fraction, e.g., separation of magnetite (magnetic)

Concentration of Ore - Understand the properties of Ore and its types, Hydraulic Washing, Magnetic Separation, Froth Flotation Method, Leaching and more. Concentration Definition: The process of removal of the gangue from Ore is known as Concentration or ...

The process that is used for magnetic separation detaches non-magnetic material with those that are magnetic. This technique is useful for not all, but few minerals such as ferromagnetic (materials strongly affected by magnetic fields) and paramagnetic (materials that are less affected but the effect is A large diversity of mechanical means are used to separate magnetic materials. [2]

Mineral processing - Mineral processing - Concentration: Concentration involves the separation of valuable minerals from the other raw materials received from the grinding mill. In large-scale operations this is accomplished by taking advantage of the different properties of the minerals to be separated. These properties can be colour (optical sorting), density (gravity separation), magnetic ...

Concentration of ore is a step involved in the process of extraction of metal from its ore. unwanted rocks and grit are eliminated from mineral ore in this process. hydraulic washing, froth floatation process, magnetic separation and chemical separation are some of the

Concentration of Ores Study Material for IIT JEE ... This method of separation is used when either the ore particles or the gangue associated with it possess magnetic properties. For example, chromite Fe(CrO 2) 2 being magnetic can be separated from the non ...

Magnetic separationprocessof concentration of ore. The company mainly produces five series of products: crushing equipment, sand making equipment, mineral processing equipment, grinding equipment and cement building materials equipment, which are widely used in metallurgy, mining, chemical industry, building materials, coal, refractory materials, ceramics and other industries.

The magnetic properties of the ores form the basis of separation. When either the ore or the gangue is magnetic, this method is employed. e.g., Tinstone SnO2, the ore of tin. Method: The crushed ore is placed over a conveyer belt which rotates around two metal

Magnetic Separation and Iron Ore Beneficiation Magnetic separation is an old technique for the concentration of iron ores and for the removal of tramp iron. Since 1849, a number of patents on magnetic separation have been issued in USA, and texts of some of

The Concentration Of Magnetite Ore Magnetic Separation the concentration of magnetite ore magnetic separation The Pros of Magnetite Vs. Hematite for Extraction . The worldwide mining industry extracts iron from both hematite and magnetite ores. Hematite is a

Concentration of Ores Separation of magnetic ore from non-magnetic gangue or magnetic gangue from non-magnetic ore Use of depressant in froth floatation process - example In the froth floatation process, the role of the depressants is to separate two sulphide

Concentration of the ore 1. Hydraulic washing process (Gravity separation) This process separates the heavier ore particles from the lighter gangue particles. This is done by washing them in a stream (jet) of water over a vibrating, sloped table with grooves. Denser ...

Magnetic separationprocessof concentration of ore. The company mainly produces five series of products: crushing equipment, sand making equipment, mineral processing equipment, grinding equipment and cement building materials equipment, which are widely used in metallurgy, mining, chemical industry, building materials, coal, refractory materials, ceramics and other industries.

## concentration of ore: definition, separation of two sulphide ores

Enrichment or Concentration of Ore: Ores obtained from Earths crust are never pure. Instead, they are usually associated with earthy and siliceous impurities (in addition to the impurities of other minerals) called gangue or matrix. These impurities have to be removed from the ore before the extraction of the metal is done. In this article, we will learn about different methods of concentration of ore.

The removal of unwanted earthy siliceous impurities (i.e., gangue or matrix) from the ore is called ore-dressing or concentration of ores. The process used to concentrate an ore is called the beneficiation process.

An ore after mining from the ground contains many unwanted impurities like sand, rocky materials, etc. These unwanted impurities, including earthy materials, rocks, sandy materials, limestone, etc., are called gangue.

The first step in metallurgy is to remove these unwanted impurities from the ore, to get a concentrated ore containing a much higher percentage of the metal. The method used to remove gangue from ore depends on the physical or chemical properties of the gangue and ores. Some of the methods used in the concentration of the ore include:a. Breaking and Crushing: Big masses of rocks containing the ore must be reduced to small lump so that they may be completely exposed to the action of the subsequent operations. Machines like crushers, etc., usually do it.b. Grinding and Pulverizing: Sometimes, some ores concentration and further treatment demand their reduction into a very fine state. Machines like grinding and pulverizing mills are used for this work.c. Flotation: Here concentration of the powdered ore is effected by taking advantage of differences in the behavior towards oil or water. Sulphides, for example, do not get wet, as do silica and most oxides when treated with water. They will therefore float on the surface while silica etc., will sink.d. Hand-picking: In case the impurities are quite distinct from the ores so that the naked eye may differentiate, these may be separated by hand-picking.e. Hydraulic washing or Levigation or Gravity separation: The process by which lighter earthy particles are freed from the heavier ore particles by washing with water is called levigation. For this purpose, the powdered ore is either agitated with water or washed with a running stream of water. Thus, the lighter gangue particles are washed away while the heavier ore particles settle down. Two common methods of gravity separation are described below:(i) Hydraulic classifier: In this method, the finely powdered ore is dropped through a hopper into a conical reservoir called a hydraulic classifier from the top. A powerful stream of water is introduced from the bottom of the reservoir. The lighter gangue particles are carried up by the current water and pass out along with water through the outlet provided near the top. The heavier ore particles get collected at the base of the cone. The conical shape of the reservoir helps reduce the velocity of water and thus prevents the ore particles from being carried away along with the stream of water.

(ii) Wilfley table: The other method of gravity separation is the Wilfley table. It is a wooden table having a slanting floor with riffles or grooves or cleats fixed on it.The pulverized ore is placed on the trays provided at one end of the table, and a stream of water under pressure is passed over it. Thus, a rocking motion is given to the table. The lighter gangue particles are carried away by the stream of water while the heavy ore particles get deposited in the grooves. The ore particles deposited in the groove move towards one side of the table due to the rocking motion given to the table and are finally collected. This method is used when the ore particles are heavier than the earthy or rocky gangue particles. This method is usually concentrated by the oxide ores iron (haematite), tin (Tin stone) and native ores of $${\rm{Au,}}\,{\rm{Ag,}}$$ etc.

f. Electromagnetic separation: This method of concentration is employed when either the ore or the impurities associated with it are magnetic in nature. For example, chromite, $$\left( {{\text{FeO}}{\text{.C}}{{\text{r}}_{\text{2}}}{{\text{O}}_{\text{3}}}{\text{=FeC}}{{\text{r}}_{\text{2}}}{{\text{O}}_{\text{4}}}} \right)$$ an ore of chromium, magnetite $$\left({{\text{F}}{{\text{e}}_{\text{3}}}{{\text{O}}_{\text{4}}}} \right){\text{-}}$$ an ore of iron and pyrolusite $$\left({{\text{Mn}}{{\text{O}}_{\text{2}}}} \right){\text{-}}$$ an ore of manganese being magnetic in nature, are separated from non-magnetic siliceous gangue by this method. Similarly, tinstone or cassiterite, an ore of tin being non-magnetic, can be separated from magnetic impurities like those of tungstates of iron and manganese, which are generally associated with this method.In this method, the powdered ore is dropped over a conveyor belt moving around two rollers one of which has an electromagnet in it. As the ore particles roll over the belt, the magnetic particles are attracted by the magnetic roller. As a result, two heaps are formed separately. The heap collected below the magnetic roller contains the magnetic particles, while the heap formed away from the magnetic roller contains the non-magnetic impurities. In the case of tinstone, the tungstate being magnetic fall in a heap under the magnetic roller while the ore particles that is $${\text{Sn}}{{\text{O}}_{\text{2}}}$$ fall in a separate heap away from the magnetic roller.

g. Electrostatic separation: This method is used for the concentration/ separation of ores, which are good conductors of electricity, while impurities are poor conductors of electricity. The method is based upon the principle that when an electrostatic field is applied, the ore particles, which are good conductors of electricity, get electrically charged and hence are repelled by the electrodes having the same charge and thus are thrown away. This method is used for the concentration /separation of $${\text{PbS}}$$and $${\text{ZnS}}$$ores occurring together in nature. The mixture of ores is powdered and dropped over a roller subjected to an electrostatic field. $${\text{PbS}}$$ being a good conductor, immediately gets charged and thrown away from the roller, whereas $${\text{ZnS}}$$is a poor conductor, does not get charged and falls vertically from the roller.h. Froth floatation process: This process is commonly used for sulphide ores and is based upon different wetting characteristics of ore and gangue particles. The finely powdered ore is mixed with water, pine oil (frother) and ethyl xanthate or potassium ethyl xanthate(collector) in a big tank. Then, the whole mixture is agitated with air. The ore particles wetted with oil come in the froth and are taken off, while impurities wetted with water settle at the bottom.

If the mineral to be concentrated consists of sulphides of two metals, then adjusting the proportion of oil to water is often possible to separate one sulphide from the other. Additional reagents called froth depressants to prevent one type of sulphide Ore particles from forming the froth with air bubbles. For example, sodium cyanide is used as a depressant to separate lead sulphide ore from zinc sulphide ore. It is because $${\text{NaCN}}$$forms a soluble zinc complex $${\text{N}}{{\text{a}}_{\text{2}}}\left[{{\text{Zn}}{{\left({{\text{CN}}} \right)}_{\text{4}}}} \right]$$which goes into the solution thereby preventing it from forming the froth. Under these conditions, only $${\text{PbS}}$$forms a froth and hence can be separated from $${\text{ZnS}}$$ore.

The bauxite ore contains aluminium in the form of $${\text{A}}{{\text{l}}_{\text{2}}}{{\text{O}}_{\text{3}}}$$along with $${\text{Si}}{{\text{O}}_2},$$ iron oxides and titanium oxide as impurities. The powdered ore is heated with a concentrated solution of $${\text{NaOH}}$$at $${\text{473-523}}\,{\text{K}}$$ and $$35-36$$ bar pressure. As a result, alumina is leached out as Sodium aluminate and $${\text{Si}}{{\text{O}}_2}$$ as sodium silicate leaving behind the impurities.

$${\text{A}}{{\text{l}}_{\text{2}}}{{\text{O}}_{\text{3}}}{\text{ + 2NaOH + 3}}{{\text{H}}_{\text{2}}}{\text{O}} \to {\text{2Na}}\left[{{\text{Al}}{{\left({{\text{OH}}} \right)}_{\text{4}}}} \right]$$$${\text{Si}}{{\text{O}}_{\text{2}}}{\text{ + 2NaOH}} \to {\text{N}}{{\text{a}}_{\text{2}}}{\text{Si}}{{\text{O}}_{\text{3}}}{\text{ + }}{{\text{H}}_{\text{2}}}{\text{O}}$$

The resulting solution is filtered to remove the undissolved impurities. Then it is cooled, and its $${\text{pH}}$$ is adjusted either by dilution or by neutralization with $${\text{C}}{{\text{O}}_2}$$when aluminium hydroxide gets precipitated. In this stage, the solution is seeded with freshly prepared samples of hydrated alumina to get it precipitated, leaving behind sodium silicate in the solution.

$${\text{2Na}}\left[{{\text{Al}}{{\left({{\text{OH}}} \right)}_{\text{4}}}} \right]{\text{ + C}}{{\text{O}}_{\text{2}}} \to {\text{A}}{{\text{l}}_{\text{2}}}{{\text{O}}_{\text{3}}}{\text{.x}}{{\text{H}}_{\text{2}}}{\text{O + 2NaHC}}{{\text{O}}_{\text{3}}}$$The hydrated alumina is filtered, dried and heated to 1400 K temperature to give back pure $${\text{A}}{{\text{l}}_{\text{2}}}{{\text{O}}_{\text{3}}}{\text{.}}$$

$${\text{A}}{{\text{l}}_{\text{2}}}{{\text{O}}_{\text{3}}}{\text{.x}}{{\text{H}}_{\text{2}}}{\text{O}} \to {\text{A}}{{\text{l}}_{\text{2}}}{{\text{O}}_{\text{3}}}{\text{ + x}}{{\text{H}}_{\text{2}}}{\text{O}}$$

Some metals like gold and silver are extracted from their concentrated ores by leaching. They are dissolved in suitable reagents like acids or bases, leaving behind insoluble impurities. Then the metal is recovered from the solution by precipitation or crystallization. For example, Silver ore is leached with a dilute solution of sodium cyanide. As a result, silver dissolves, forming a complex sodium dicyanoargentate(I). This solution is further treated with scrap zinc to get the precipitate of silver.$${\text{A}}{{\text{g}}_{\text{2}}}{\text{S + 4NaCN}} \to {\text{2Na}}\left[ {{\text{Ag}}{{\left( {{\text{CN}}} \right)}_{\text{2}}}} \right]{\text{ + N}}{{\text{a}}_{\text{2}}}{\text{S}}$$$${\text{2Na}}\left[{{\text{Ag}}{{\left({{\text{CN}}} \right)}_{\text{2}}}} \right]{\text{ + Zn}} \to {\text{N}}{{\text{a}}_{\text{2}}}\left[{{\text{Zn}}{{\left({{\text{CN}}} \right)}_{\text{4}}}} \right]{\text{ + 2Ag}}$$

Similarly, native gold is leached with a potassium cyanide solution, and it is recovered from the solution by the addition of scrap zinc.$${\text{4Au + 8KCN + }}{{\text{O}}_{\text{2}}}{\text{ + 2}}{{\text{H}}_{\text{2}}}{\text{O}} \to {\text{4K}}\left[{{\text{Au}}{{\left({{\text{CN}}} \right)}_{\text{2}}}} \right]{\text{ + 4KOH}}$$$${\text{2K}}\left[{{\text{Ag}}{{\left( {{\text{CN}}} \right)}_{\text{2}}}} \right]{\text{ + Zn}} \to {{\text{K}}_{\text{2}}}\left[ {{\text{Zn}}{{\left( {{\text{CN}}} \right)}_{\text{4}}}} \right]{\text{ + Au}} \downarrow$$

All materials found on Earth are made up of chemical elements. Most elements found on Earth are metals and nonmetals. There are numerous ways to carry out the concentration of ores. The correct method is chosen based on the physical andchemical properties of the metal. This article discussed important procedures like hand-picking, hydraulic washing, magnetic separation, froth floatation method, and leaching processes for the concentration of the ores.

Q.1. Which method is used for the concentration of sulphide ore in metallurgy?Ans: Froth flotation method isusedfor theconcentrationof sulphideores. The method is based on the preferential wetting properties with the frothing agent and water. Example:Galena $$\left({{\text{PbS}}} \right).$$

Q.2. What is the concentration process for the ore?Ans: The removal of the gangue fromthe oreis known asconcentrationor dressing or beneficiation. There are numerous methods ofconcentration,and the methods are chosen based on the properties of theore.

Q.3. What is meant by the concentration of the ore, and why is it very important?Ans: Concentration of oremeans removal of impurities by physical or chemical methods. The impurities like sand, rocky materials, limestone, mica, etc., present in theoreare called gangue or matrix.Concentrationisnecessaryas it is easy to extract a metal when the impurities are removed at the beginning.

Q.4. Which type of ore is concentrated by froth flotation?Ans: Sulphide ores are concentrated by the froth-flotation process. Only sulphide ores are concentrated by this method because pine oil selectively wets the sulphide ore and brings it to the froth.

Q.6. What is the gravity separation method for the concentration of ore?Ans: Gravity separation, also called hydraulic washing, is a method of separation based on the difference in the specific gravity of the metallic ore and gangue particles.

## processing of mineral ores by modern magnetic separation techniques | springerlink

A review is given of the current state of development of magnetic separation technology in relation to the field of mineral processing. The subject matter is classified in terms of separation devices based upon particle entrapment and upon particle deflection. Of these particular mention is made of the Jones and of the Kolm-Marston separators (particle entrapment) and also of open gradient magnetic separation (particle deflection).

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