selecting crushing chambers for cone crusher - metso outotec
To ensure the suitability of the liner profile for its application, it is important that there is data on which to base your decisions. Here we go through five things that should be defined and why. Get optimum capacity and maximum wear life of wear parts by considering these points from the perspective of your circuit and production. None of these points on its own should be the rationale for choosing the liner.
Feed should always be well graded with no gaps in the size distribution, which generally means an even distribution of different-sized feed material up to the defined maximum size. Fines (for example, 04 mm) should be screened out before the material is fed to the crusher as the fines may cause packing: this is a force overload and can be seen as adjustment ring movement. There are differences within different product ranges, and Nordberg GP Secondary cone crushers, for example, can handle a certain amount of fines in the feed due to their steep vertical cavity and adjustable stroke length.
The closed side setting (CSS) defines the reduction ratio in cone crushers and has a significant effect on product gradation, capacity, and power draw. The closed side setting is measured from the bottom of the mantle to the bottom of the bowl liner at their closest point during the gyrating cycle.
CSS should be close to the required product. The setting is too small if the adjustment ring is moving on the main frame. This is discussed in more detail in the 12 tips to maximize cone crusher productivity blog post. Summarizing, larger setting product size increases, capacity increases, power draw decreases.
For example, when feed material crushability changes from 40% to 20%, secondary and tertiary crushing loads increase. Harder material turns crusher product coarser, which increases the load of the closed circuits. Also, KW/ton product rises due to the material being harder. This kind of case is an example of the significance of liner materials. Different kinds of manganese alloys are being developed for different kinds of feed materials.
This goes hand in hand with the CSS (Crushing adjustment). You set your crushing adjustments such as CSS accordingly to obtain the desired product grading. For example, the Metso MX Multi-Action cone crusher has many other parameters to fine-tune the grading. This is taken into consideration along with other aspects when choosing the crusher in the first place, but it is also an important thing to consider if you are looking to optimize your plant. It might be that the tertiary crusher is overloaded and changing the liners of the secondary crusher eases it out without major changes in the circuit.
Generally, a higher speed creates a finer product gradation curve and better product shape, which is important when producing the end product for most construction applications, while operating the cone crusher at the lower end of its speed range will increase the cavity volumetric throughput and the product gradation curve can be altered to produce fewer fines. Crusher operating speed is adjusted by changing the diameter of the crusher and motor sheaves.
Each cone crusher has several cavity options with different feed openings and setting ranges. The correct cavity can be selected based on the feed size, setting, and application. Overall, it is essential to keep in mind that the crusher is just one part of a crushing circuit. Its performance depends on the proper selection and operation of feeders, conveyors, screens, electric motors, drive components, and feed silos which are part of the circuit. All the elements should be examined as part of an entity to get the most out of the production.
cone crusher liners - makuri group
The hardest crushing duty on a mine site is often the pebble crushers. Mill pebbles are tougher than normal ROM feed and often contain wet sticky nes, mill balls and ball fragments. These cause a variety of operational and maintenance issues.
In one name or the other, we have been in business for over 12 years now, but the last 12 months, or so, has been very tough for our small group supplying mining and quarrying customers globally thru our 5 companies in 4 countries.
Makuri Technology is rapidly gaining a reputation as the right team to partner with in the supply of high-performance wear parts.
Obtaining and maintaining the lowest operating cost is an ongoing challenge for mining companies, and Makuri Technology specialises in the development of exceptional high-performance wear parts that also come with a world-class three level guarantee system.
Makuri founder and chief executive Ian J. Wilson says that after working in mining equipment and process plant engineering and maintenance at some of the worlds largest and toughest sites for about 30 years, he saw both the need and opportunity to create higher value-adding parts.
Thank you for your interest in the MAK-Bloks Selection and Installation Handbook.
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cone crusher liner selection | wear parts for industry | qiming casting
Cone crusher liner selection, which is very important selection for user. Cone crusher liners needperiodic replacement to protect cone crusher and keep the output, so the better selection, the less cost and more profit.In this post, we will discuss from material selection,cavity selection and foundry selection.
High manganese which hasstrong resistance, high pressure and wear resistant,so it becomes the best choice, having work hardening characteristics unmatched compare withother wear-resistant materials.Because when the surface get large impact load or large contact stress, the steel surface will layer hardened, HB200 to HB500 by rapid increases , at the same time,the inner layer of austenitic steel still maintain good toughness.
From the test report, Mn13 is the high manganese steel and Mn18 isUltra-high manganese steel, The content of elements Si can effect theImpact toughness , need less than 0.5%,the lower content of element P and S are the basic,Cr can improve the wear,but need less than 2%, The Mo can improve toughness.
Cone crushers have several cavity options with different feed openings and setting ranges. The correct cavity can be selected based on the feed size and setting.
For example HP Series cone crusher, 5 types of cavity:
Choose a good foundry very help you to get more profit and better service. In fact, 80% crusher manufactures are not casting foundry, they areAssembly and design plants, such as So the price maybe double or more than their purchase price. If there is a foundry which can supply cone liners for you by foundry price with the same quality as OEM supply, why you do not have a try?
Qiming Casting can service to you and waiting for your try!
Qiming Casting is one of the largest manganese steel, chromium steel, and alloy steel foundry in China. Products include crusher wear parts, Crusher spare parts, mill liners, shredder wear parts, apron feeder pans, and electric rope shovel parts.
cone crusher liners selection | wear parts for industry | qiming casting
Cone crusher ,which is the most popular crusher type in the world than jaw crusher and impact crusher. Cone crusher liners , the mainly wear parts in cone crusher, and also need exchange them very regularly.In this post, we will analysis the selection by cone crusher cavity,crusher liners material and exchange time. We will choose cone crusher toanalysis.
Cone crusher have three series type, MP series cone crusher (MP800,MP1000,MP1250), HP series cone crusher (HP100,HP200,HP300,HP400,HP500,HP800),GP series cone crusher(GP100,GP200,GP300S,GP300,GP11F,GP220.)
Cone crusher wear parts, concave and mantle, are casting by manganese steel. Mangalloy, also called manganese steel or Hadfield steel, is a steel alloy containing an average of around 13%manganese. Mangalloy is known for its high impact strength and resistance to abrasion once in its work-hardened state.(From Wikipedia.com)
In order to avoid damage to the liner seating surfaces of the crusher head or bowl, wear parts must be replaced before they are worn through. In normal conditions, approximately 50% of the liner weight is consumed when liners are worn out. It is important to keep a record of liner wear in order to assess the degree of liner wear without the need to stop the crusher operation.
In fact, the exchange time based on the rate of cost and profit. In our experience, the quantity of output will decrease with abrasion of concave and mantle.
Production rate: 200 tons per hour of products,and Crush profit $5.0 per ton hours per day with 10 production hours per day.
If there is a 10% reduction in production results, you will lost $1000 per day in gross profit.A news set liners maybe just need $3000,when do you want to exchange new crusher liners? You can calculate it!
Qiming Casting is one of the largest manganese steel, chromium steel, and alloy steel foundry in China. Products include crusher wear parts, Crusher spare parts, mill liners, shredder wear parts, apron feeder pans, and electric rope shovel parts.
cone crusher liners - flsmidth
In any crushing application, equipment performance is critical to the success of an operation, but when equipment is constantly in need of maintenance, it affects profitability. We understand that to keep your equipment and process running smoothly, it may require an approach that is more in-depth than just choosing a different material grade or Cone Crusher Liner. FLSmidth has the capabilities and equipment knowledge to create the best solution for you and your process by reviewing your entire process and machine setup.
Crusher operating parameters, liner selection, material selection, plant process review, and customer goals all go into providing our customers with the ideal solutions. If more than one option is available, we offer cost-benefit options to make the decision-making process easier for you.
Using our knowledge as an Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM), we ensure that the supplied product is correct for your equipment and application. We offer Cone Crusher Liners tailored to your needs and manufactured to help you find increased productivity.
FLSmidth provides sustainable productivity to the global mining and cement industries. We deliver market-leading engineering, equipment and service solutions that enable our customers to improve performance, drive down costs and reduce environmental impact. Our operations span the globe and we are close to 10,200 employees, present in more than 60 countries. In 2020, FLSmidth generated revenue of DKK 16.4 billion. MissionZero is our sustainability ambition towards zero emissions in mining and cement by 2030.
cone crusher - an overview | sciencedirect topics
Cone crushers were originally designed and developed by Symons around 1920 and therefore are often described as Symons cone crushers. As the mechanisms of crushing in these crushers are similar to gyratory crushers their designs are similar, but in this case the spindle is supported at the bottom of the gyrating cone instead of being suspended as in larger gyratory crushers. Figure5.3 is a schematic diagram of a cone crusher.
The breaking head gyrates inside an inverted truncated cone. These crushers are designed so that the head-to-depth ratio is larger than the standard gyratory crusher and the cone angles are much flatter and the slope of the mantle and the concaves are parallel to each other. The flatter cone angles help to retain the particles longer between the crushing surfaces and therefore produce much finer particles. To prevent damage to the crushing surfaces, the concave or shell of the crushers is held in place by strong springs or hydraulics which yield to permit uncrushable tramp material to pass through.
The secondary crushers are designated as Standard cone crushers having stepped liners and tertiary Short Head cone crushers, which have smoother crushing faces and steeper cone angles of the breaking head. The approximate distance of the annular space at the discharge end designates the size of the cone crushers. A brief summary of the design characteristics is given in Table5.4 for crusher operation in open-circuit and closed-circuit situations.
The Standard cone crushers are for normal use. The Short Head cone crushers are designed for tertiary or quaternary crushing where finer product is required. These crushers are invariably operated in closed circuit. The final product sizes are fine, medium or coarse depending on the closed set spacing, the configuration of the crushing chamber and classifier performance, which is always installed in parallel.
For finer product sizes, i.e., less than 6mm, special cone crushers known as Gyradisc crushers are available. The operation is similar to the standard cone crushers, except that the size reduction is caused more by attrition than by impact . The reduction ratio is around 8:1 and as the product size is relatively small the feed size is limited to less than 50mm with a nip angle between 25 and 30. The Gyradisc crushers have head diameters from around 900 to 2100mm. These crushers are always operated under choke feed conditions. The feed size is less than 50mm and therefore the product size is usually less than 69mm.
Maintenance of the wear components in both gyratory and cone crushers is one of the major operating costs. Wear monitoring is possible using a Faro Arm (Figure 6.10), which is a portable coordinate measurement machine. Ultrasonic profiling is also used. A more advanced system using a laser scanner tool to profile the mantle and concave produces a 3D image of the crushing chamber (Erikson, 2014). Some of the benefits of the liner profiling systems include: improved prediction of mantle and concave liner replacement; identifying asymmetric and high wear areas; measurement of open and closed side settings; and quantifying wear life with competing liner alloys.
Various types of rock fracture occur at different loading rates. For example, rock destruction by a boring machine, a jaw or cone crusher, and a grinding roll machine are within the extent of low loading rates, often called quasistatic loading condition. On the contrary, rock fracture in percussive drilling and blasting happens under high loading rates, usually named dynamic loading condition. This chapter presents loading rate effects on rock strengths, rock fracture toughness, rock fragmentation, energy partitioning, and energy efficiency. Finally, some of engineering applications of loading rate effects are discussed.
In Chapter4, we have already seen the mechanism of crushing in a jaw crusher. Considering it further we can see that when a single particle, marked 1 in Figure11.5a, is nipped between the jaws of a jaw crusher the particle breaks producing fragments, marked 2 and 3 in Figure11.5b. Particles marked 2 are larger than the open set on the crusher and are retained for crushing on the next cycle. Particles of size 3, smaller than the open set of the crusher, can travel down faster and occupy or pass through the lower portion of the crusher while the jaw swings away. In the next cycle the probability of the larger particles (size 2) breaking is greater than the smaller sized particle 3. In the following cycle, therefore, particle size 2 is likely to disappear preferentially and the progeny joins the rest of thesmaller size particles indicated as 3 in Figure11.5c. In the figures, the position of the crushed particles that do not exist after comminution is shaded white (merely to indicate the positions they had occupied before comminution). Particles that have been crushed and travelled down are shown in grey. The figure clearly illustrates the mechanism of crushing and the classification that takes place within the breaking zone during the process, as also illustrated in Figure11.4. This type of breakage process occurs within a jaw crusher, gyratory crusher, roll crusher and rod mills. Equation (11.19) then is a description of the crusher model.
In practice however, instead of a single particle, the feed consists of a combination of particles present in several size fractions. The probability of breakage of some relatively larger sized particles in preference to smaller particles has already been mentioned. For completeness, the curve for the probability of breakage of different particle sizes is again shown in Figure11.6. It can be seen that for particle sizes ranging between 0 K1, the probability of breakage is zero as the particles are too small. Sizes between K1 and K2 are assumed to break according a parabolic curve. Particle sizes greater than K2 would always be broken. According to Whiten , this classification function Ci, representing the probability of a particle of size di entering the breakage stage of the crusher, may be expressed as
The classification function can be readily expressed as a lower triangular matrix [1,16] where the elements represent the proportion of particles in each size interval that would break. To construct a mathematical model to relate product and feed sizes where the crusher feed contains a proportion of particles which are smaller than the closed set and hence will pass through the crusher with little or no breakage, Whiten  advocated a crusher model as shown in Figure11.7.
The considerations in Figure11.7 are similar to the general model for size reduction illustrated in Figure11.4 except in this case the feed is initially directed to a classifier, which eliminates particle sizes less than K1. The coarse classifier product then enters the crushing zone. Thus, only the crushable larger size material enters the crusher zone. The crusher product iscombined with the main feed and the process repeated. The undersize from the classifier is the product.
While considering the above aspects of a model of crushers, it is important to remember that the size reduction process in commercial operations is continuous over long periods of time. In actual practice, therefore, the same operation is repeated over long periods, so the general expression for product size must take this factor into account. Hence, a parameter v is introduced to represent the number of cycles of operation. As all cycles are assumed identical the general model given in Equation (11.31) should, therefore, be modified as
Multiple vectors B C written in matrix form:BC=0.580000.200.60000.120.180.6100.040.090.20.571.000000.700000.4500000=0581+00+00+000.580+00.7+00+000580+00+00.45+000.580+00+00+000.21+0.60+00+000.20+0.60.7+00+000.20+0.60+00.45+000.20+0.60+00+000.121+0.180+0.610+000.120+0.180.7+0.610+000.120+0.180+0.610.45+000.120+0.180+0.610+000.041+0.090+0.20+0.5700.040+0.090.7+0.20+0.5700.040+0.090+0.20.45+0.5700.040+0.090+0.20+0.570=0.580000.20.42000.120.1260.274500.040.0630.090
Now determine (I B C) and (I C)(IBC)=10.5800000000.210.42000000.1200.12610.27450000.0400.06300.0910=0.420000.20.58000.120.1260.725500.040.0630.091and(IC)=000000.300000.5500001
Now find the values of x1, x2, x3 and x4 as(0.42x1)+(0x2)+(0x3)+(0x4)=10,thereforex1=23.8(0.2x1)+(0.58x2)+(0x3)+(0x4)=33,thereforex2=65.1(0.12x1)+(0.126x2)+(0.7255x3)+(0x4)=32,thereforex3=59.4(0.04x1)+(0.063x2)+(0.09x3)+(1x4)=20,thereforex4=30.4
In this process, mined quartz is crushed into pieces using crushing/smashing equipment. Generally, the quartz smashing plant comprises a jaw smasher, a cone crusher, an impact smasher, a vibrating feeder, a vibrating screen, and a belt conveyor. The vibrating feeder feeds materials to the jaw crusher for essential crushing. At that point, the yielding material from the jaw crusher is moved to a cone crusher for optional crushing, and afterward to effect for the third time crushing. As part of next process, the squashed quartz is moved to a vibrating screen for sieving to various sizes.
Crushers are widely used as a primary stage to produce the particulate product finer than about 50100mm. They are classified as jaw, gyratory, and cone crushers based on compression, cutter mill based on shear, and hammer crusher based on impact.
A jaw crusher consists essentially of two crushing plates, inclined to each other forming a horizontal opening by their lower borders. Material is crushed between a fixed and a movable plate by reciprocating pressure until the crushed product becomes small enough to pass through the gap between the crushing plates. Jaw crushers find a wide application for brittle materials. For example, they are used for comminution of porous copper cake. A Fritsch jaw crusher with maximal feed size 95mm, final fineness (depends on gap setting) 0.315mm, and maximal continuous throughput 250Kg/h is shown in Fig. 2.8.
A gyratory crusher includes a solid cone set on a revolving shaft and placed within a hollow body, which has conical or vertical sloping sides. Material is crushed when the crushing surfaces approach each other and the crushed products fall through the discharging opening.
Hammer crushers are used either as a one-step primary crusher or as a secondary crusher for products from a primary crusher. They are widely used for crushing hard metal scrap for different hard metal recycling processes. Pivoted hammers are pendulous, mounted on the horizontal axes symmetrically located along the perimeter of a rotor. Crushing takes place by the impact of material pieces with the high speed moving hammers and by contact with breaker plates. A cylindrical grating or screen is placed beneath the rotor. Materials are reduced to a size small enough to pass through the openings of the grating or screen. The size of the product can be regulated by changing the spacing of the grate bars or the opening of the screen.
The feature of the hammer crushers is the appearance of elevated pressure of air in the discharging unit of the crusher and underpressure in the zone around the shaft close to the inside surface of the body side walls. Thus, the hammer crushers also act as high-pressure, forced-draught fans. This may lead to environmental pollution and product losses in fine powder fractions. A design for a hammer crusher (Fig. 2.9) essentially allows a decrease of the elevated pressure of air in the crusher discharging unit . The A-zone beneath the screen is communicated through the hollow ribs and openings in the body side walls with the B-zone around the shaft close to the inside surface of body side walls. As a result, the circulation of suspended matter in the gas between A and B zones is established and the high pressure of air in the discharging unit of crusher is reduced.
Crushers are widely used as a primary stage to produce the particulate product finer than about 50100 mm in size. They are classified as jaw, gyratory and cone crushers based on compression, cutter mill based on shear and hammer crusher based on impact.
A jaw crusher consists essentially of two crushing plates, inclined to each other forming a horizontal opening by their lower borders. Material is crushed between a fixed and a movable plate by reciprocating pressure until the crushed product becomes small enough to pass through the gap between the crushing plates. Jaw crushers find a wide application for brittle materials. For example, they are used for comminution of porous copper cake.
A gyratory crusher includes a solid cone set on a revolving shaft and placed within a hollow body, which has conical or vertical sloping sides. Material is crushed when the crushing surfaces approach each other and the crushed products fall through the discharging opening.
Hammer crushers are used either as a one-step primary crusher or as a secondary crusher for products from a primary crusher. They are widely used for crushing of hard metal scrap for different hard metal recycling processes.
Pivoted hammers are pendulous, mounted on the horizontal axes symmetrically located along the perimeter of a rotor and crushing takes place by the impact of material pieces with the high speed moving hammers and by contact with breaker plates. A cylindrical grating or screen is placed beneath the rotor. Materials are reduced to a size small enough pass through the openings of the grating or screen. The size of product can be regulated by changing the spacing of the grate bars or the opening of the screen.
The feature of the hammer crushers is the appearance of elevated pressure of air in the discharging unit of the crusher and underpressure in the zone around of the shaft close to the inside surface of the body side walls. Thus, the hammer crushers also act as high-pressure forced-draught fans. This may lead to environmental pollution and product losses in fine powder fractions.
A design for a hammer crusher (Figure 2.6) allows essentially a decrease of the elevated pressure of air in the crusher discharging unit . The A-zone beneath the screen is communicated through the hollow ribs and openings in the body side walls with the B-zone around the shaft close to the inside surface of body side walls. As a result, circulation of suspended matter in the gas between A- and B-zones is established and high pressure of air in the discharging unit of crusher is reduced.
For a particular operation where the ore size is known, it is necessary to estimate the diameter of rolls required for a specific degree of size reduction. To estimate the roll diameter, it is convenient to assume that the particle to be crushed is spherical and roll surfaces are smooth. Figure6.2 shows a spherical particle about to enter the crushing zone of a roll crusher and is about to be nipped. For rolls that have equal radius and length, tangents drawn at the point of contact of the particle and the two rolls meet to form the nip angle (2). From simple geometry it can be seen that for a particle of size d, nipped between two rolls of radius R:
Equation (6.2) indicates that to estimate the radius R of the roll, the nip angle is required. The nip angle on its part will depend on the coefficient of friction, , between the roll surface and the particle surface. To estimate the coefficient of friction, consider a compressive force, F, exerted by the rolls on the particle just prior to crushing, operating normal to the roll surface, at the point of contact, and the frictional force between the roll and particle acting along a tangent to the roll surface at the point of contact. The frictional force is a function of the compressive force F and is given by the expression, F. If we consider the vertical components of these forces, and neglect the force due to gravity, then it can be seen that at the point of contact (Figure6.2) for the particle to be just nipped by the rolls, the equilibrium conditions apply where
As the friction coefficient is roughly between 0.20 and 0.30, the nip angle has a value of about 1117. However, when the rolls are in motion the friction characteristics between the ore particle will depend on the speed of the rolls. According to Wills , the speed is related to the kinetic coefficient of friction of the revolving rolls, K, by the relation
Equation (6.4) shows that the K values decrease slightly with increasing speed. For speed changes between 150 and 200rpm and ranging from 0.2 to 0.3, the value of K changes between 0.037 and 0.056. Equation (6.2) can be used to select the size of roll crushers for specific requirements. For nip angles between 11 and 17, Figure6.3 indicates the roll sizes calculated for different maximum feed sizes for a set of 12.5mm.
The maximum particle size of a limestone sample received from a cone crusher was 2.5cm. It was required to further crush it down to 0.5cm in a roll crusher with smooth rolls. The friction coefficient between steel and particles was 0.25, if the rolls were set at 6.3mm and both revolved to crush, estimate the diameter of the rolls.
It is generally observed that rolls can accept particles sizes larger than the calculated diameters and larger nip angles when the rate of entry of feed in crushing zone is comparable with the speed of rotation of the rolls.
Jaw crushers are mainly used as primary crushers to produce material that can be transported by belt conveyors to the next crushing stages. The crushing process takes place between a fixed jaw and a moving jaw. The moving jaw dies are mounted on a pitman that has a reciprocating motion. The jaw dies must be replaced regularly due to wear. Figure 8.1 shows two basic types of jaw crushers: single toggle and double toggle. In the single toggle jaw crusher, an eccentric shaft is installed on the top of the crusher. Shaft rotation causes, along with the toggle plate, a compressive action of the moving jaw. A double toggle crusher has, basically, two shafts and two toggle plates. The first shaft is a pivoting shaft on the top of the crusher, while the other is an eccentric shaft that drives both toggle plates. The moving jaw has a pure reciprocating motion toward the fixed jaw. The crushing force is doubled compared to single toggle crushers and it can crush very hard ores. The jaw crusher is reliable and robust and therefore quite popular in primary crushing plants. The capacity of jaw crushers is limited, so they are typically used for small or medium projects up to approximately 1600t/h. Vibrating screens are often placed ahead of the jaw crushers to remove undersize material, or scalp the feed, and thereby increase the capacity of the primary crushing operation.
Both cone and gyratory crushers, as shown in Figure 8.2, have an oscillating shaft. The material is crushed in a crushing cavity, between an external fixed element (bowl liner) and an internal moving element (mantle) mounted on the oscillating shaft assembly. An eccentric shaft rotated by a gear and pinion produces the oscillating movement of the main shaft. The eccentricity causes the cone head to oscillate between the open side setting (o.s.s.) and closed side setting (c.s.s.). In addition to c.s.s., eccentricity is one of the major factors that determine the capacity of gyratory and cone crushers. The fragmentation of the material results from the continuous compression that takes place between the mantle and bowl liners. An additional crushing effect occurs between the compressed particles, resulting in less wear of the liners. This is also called interparticle crushing. The gyratory crushers are equipped with a hydraulic setting adjustment system, which adjusts c.s.s. and thus affects product size distribution. Depending on cone type, the c.s.s. setting can be adjusted in two ways. The first way is by rotating the bowl against the threads so that the vertical position of the outer wear part (concave) is changed. One advantage of this adjustment type is that the liners wear more evenly. Another principle of setting adjustment is by lifting/lowering the main shaft. An advantage of this is that adjustment can be done continuously under load. To optimize operating costs and improve the product shape, as a rule of thumb, it is recommended that cones always be choke-fed, meaning that the cavity should be as full of rock material as possible. This can be easily achieved by using a stockpile or a silo to regulate the inevitable fluctuation of feed material flow. Level monitoring devices that detect the maximum and minimum levels of the material are used to start and stop the feed of material to the crusher as needed.
Primary gyratory crushers are used in the primary crushing stage. Compared to the cone type crusher, a gyratory crusher has a crushing chamber designed to accept feed material of a relatively large size in relation to the mantle diameter. The primary gyratory crusher offers high capacity thanks to its generously dimensioned circular discharge opening (which provides a much larger area than that of the jaw crusher) and the continuous operation principle (while the reciprocating motion of the jaw crusher produces a batch crushing action). The gyratory crusher has capacities starting from 1200 to above 5000t/h. To have a feed opening corresponding to that of a jaw crusher, the primary gyratory crusher must be much taller and heavier. Therefore, primary gyratories require quite a massive foundation.
The cone crusher is a modified gyratory crusher. The essential difference is that the shorter spindle of the cone crusher is not suspended, as in the gyratory, but is supported in a curved, universal bearing below the gyratory head or cone (Figure 8.2). Power is transmitted from the source to the countershaft to a V-belt or direct drive. The countershaft has a bevel pinion pressed and keyed to it and drives the gear on the eccentric assembly. The eccentric assembly has a tapered, offset bore and provides the means whereby the head and main shaft follow an eccentric path during each cycle of rotation. Cone crushers are used for intermediate and fine crushing after primary crushing. The key factor for the performance of a cone type secondary crusher is the profile of the crushing chamber or cavity. Therefore, there is normally a range of standard cavities available for each crusher, to allow selection of the appropriate cavity for the feed material in question.
The main task of renovation construction waste handling is the separation of lightweight impurities and construction waste. The rolling crusher with opposite rollers is capable of crushing the brittle debris and compressing the lightweight materials by the low-speed and high-pressure extrusion of the two opposite rollers. As the gap between the opposite rollers, rotation speed, and pressure are all adjustable, materials of different scales in renovation construction waste can be handled.
The concrete C&D waste recycling process of impact crusher+cone crusher+hoop-roller grinder is also capable of handling brick waste. In general, the secondary crushing using the cone crusher in this process with an enclosed crusher is a process of multicrushing, and the water content of waste will become an important affecting factor. The wet waste will be adhered on the wall of the grinding chamber, and the crushing efficiency and waste discharging will be affected. When the climate is humid, only coarse impact crushing is performed and in this case the crushed materials are used for roadbase materials. Otherwise, three consecutive crushings are performed and the recycled coarse aggregate, fine aggregate, and powder materials are collected, respectively.
The brick and concrete C&D waste recycling process of impact crusher+rolling crusher+hoop-roller grinder is also capable of handling the concrete waste. In this case, the water content of waste will not be an important affecting factor. This process is suitable in the regions with wet climates.
The renovation C&D waste recycling process of rolling crusher (coarse/primary crushing)+rolling crusher (intermediate/secondary crushing)+rolling crusher (fine/tertiary crushing) is also capable of handling the two kinds of waste discussed earlier. The particle size of debris is crushed less than 20mm and the lightweight materials are compressed, and they are separated using the drum sieve. The energy consumption is low in this process; however, the shape of products is not good (usually flat and with cracks). There is no problem in roadbase material and raw materials of prefabricated product production. But molders (the rotation of rotors in crusher is used to polish the edge and corner) should be used for premixed concrete and mortar production.
analysis of the wear failure of cone crusher liner at copper mine
In view of the work conditions of Copper Mine, the analysis of the wear failure of the cone crusher was made. SEM analysis showed that drilling, cutting and squeezing (impacting) of ore which resulted in pits were the dominating wear means and the fatigue spalling caused by low-frequency fatigue was one of the wear failure means. Therefore, the liner materials should be required to have both very high surface to resist the drilling and cutting of ore and very high strength and toughness to resist low-frequency fatigue and impact load. So, high manganese steel alloying was selected to increase the preliminary hardness and work hardening rate of the liner. Meanwhile, the improvement of metallurgy foundry and heat treatment qualities of high manganese steel was also a factor that couldnt be ignored.
Our customer, Dexing copper mine, which is the largest copper mine in Asia. It has more than 30 sets cone crushers, so need a large number of cone crusher wear parts every year. It has many crusher wear parts suppliers, however, the quality of these parts is not stable. Therefore, our foundry had helped it to find the wear failure of cone crusher liners and improve its span life.
The ore in the Dexing Copper Mine can be divided into porphyry and phyllite-type ore according to the type of ore body rock. The ratio of ore volume is 1: 3. In the mining area, there are three industrial types of oxidized ore, mixed ore, and primary sulfide ore. The sulfide ore is the main type and accounts for more than 99% of the mass. The hardness of Dexing copper ore is generally between f = 5-8, which belongs to medium-hard ore. The average compressive strength of the phyllite type ore is 84.8 MPa, and the average compressive strength of the granodiorite-type ore is 109.2 MPa.
The key step of wear failure analysis is to analyze the morphology of the wear surface, so the sample must be taken from the fresh wear surface of the wear debris. The moving cone (liner) we sampled was just removed from the cone crusher and shipped back in time. The broken cone crusher liner is cut into large samples by oxygen-acetylene flame, and 4 samples are taken from top to bottom. The size of the sample should be such that the sampling site is not affected by heat. Then, through the wire cutting process, take out the sample at the center of the large sample for scanning electron microscope to observe the wear morphology. The size of the sample is about 10 mm 10 mm 10 mm, and one sample is taken to measure the change in microhardness from the surface inward. Observation of the specimen was performed on an S-2700 scanning electron microscope. Before observation by the electron microscope, the samples were cleaned with ultrasonic waves.
The three-body abrasive wear is formed between the cone crusher mantle, cone crusher concave and the ground ore, and the surface of the liner is in a complex stress state. Under the action of huge spring compressive stress, the ore generates huge compressive stress on the local surface of the lining plate, and at the same time, the moving cone generates high shear stress at the same time. The two acts at the same time, which causes chiseling, cutting and extrusion of the lining plate.
From the first picture Wear Morphology After Cone Crusher Liners Failure x100, The cone-crushing motorized lining plate performs an eccentric rotation motion. When it is deflected to the fixed lining plate, it will give a huge impact load to the broken ore, causing the lining plate to be squeezed and plastically deformed. In the case of repeated repeated plastic deformation, the liner forms numerous squeeze (impact) pits, check the Wear Morphology After Cone Crusher Liners Failure x500.
At the same time, the ore-bearing the huge load will subject the lining plate to compression stress and shear stress. The compression stress causes plastic deformation of the moving liner. In the case of repeated repeated plastic deformation, numerous squeezing (impact) pits are formed on the surface of the liner, like the following Squeeze (impact) pits on the wearing surface of the cone crusher liner pictures. At the same time, at the bottom of the extrusion pit, after repeated extrusion, deformation strengthening occurs and plasticity is exhausted to form a brittle fracture. Its appearance Morphology of brittle fracture at the bottom of the pit
Further observations revealed that the ore squeezed the surface of the liner under the effect of huge crushing stress. Because the ore has a low Platts hardness f value, the f value actually reflects the compressive strength of the ore, f=R/100, R means Compressive strength. Therefore, the compressive strength of the ore is low, the breaking strength is also low, and it is easy to break. After the ore breaks, it is squeezed to the bottom of the pit due to the lower hardness of the lining, see the following picture:
At the same time, as the moving cone rotates, shear stress is generated between the ore and the liner. The sliding ore and the ore squeezed at the bottom of the pit cut and cut the surface of the lining.
Therefore, in the actual operation of the cone crusher lining, there are simultaneously cutting, cutting and pressing (impact) pits Various forms of wear. As for the proportion of the three types of wear, it is not only related to the force and size of the ore, but also to the value of the Platts hardness f that reflects the compressive strength of the ore.
It should be pointed out that the cone crusher has a large crushing force and a high rotation speed. Under the action of huge compression and shear pressure, the lining board is subjected to periodic contact fatigue loads. Fatigue cracks can easily occur on the subsurface layer, resulting in fatigue spalling. Flaking is also one of the failure factors of the wear of the crusher liner.
In summary, the wear mechanism of the cone crusher lining is the coexistence of cutting wear, plastic wear and fatigue wear. With the different working conditions, especially the different F value of the hardness of the ore, the proportions of the three wear mechanisms are different.
Because the material of the sampled cone crusher liner (lining plate) is high manganese steel, the lining plate is subjected to a huge impact load during the operation of the cone crusher, so that it has a good work hardening effect.
It can be seen from the table test results that the cone crusher liner is subjected to a huge impact load in the crushed ore. The hardness Hv of the liner surface can be as high as 500 or more, but the hardening depth is only within 2 mm. Therefore, the liner is required to have good toughness and sufficient strength to resist the huge impact load and cause chipping. The surface hardening values of different parts of the same lining board are different, which shows that different parts of the lining board have different stresses and different sizes of ore. The upper part of the moving lining board is impacted by a large ore, so the hardening value is the highest; while in the lower part of the moving lining board, the ore has been broken, and its surface hardening value is low.
According to the above analysis of wear morphology and wear mechanism, the cone crusher lining not only requires high surface hardness to resist ore chiseling and cutting but also requires high strength and toughness to improve resistance to huge impact loads and Low cycle fatigue ability, will not break and break. Therefore, the basic requirement for the material selection of the cone crusher liner is to increase the surface hardness as much as possible and to improve its resistance to cutting wear while ensuring that the liner does not crack. Due to the high plasticity and toughness of high manganese steel, and the unmatched high work hardening ability of other wear-resistant materials, high manganese steel is still the material of choice for cone crusher linings. However, as the power of the crusher continues to increase, the crushing ratio increases and the ore grade continues to decrease, especially the Dexing Copper Mine is a lean ore, and it is generally difficult for high manganese steel to meet production requirements. Therefore, it is necessary to increase the initial hardness of the high-manganese steel and increase its work hardening rate under the premise of better exerting the inherent characteristics of the high-manganese steel and ensuring that the high-manganese steel has proper plasticity and toughness. Based on this, based on the composition of ordinary high manganese steel, we consider alloying treatment to improve the strength and hardness of high manganese steel and evenly distribute a considerable number of high hardness mass points on the basis of austenite to improve the worn form of the liner, Slow down the rate of wear. However, the addition of alloying elements to high-manganese steels is beneficial to the improvement of strength and hardness, but it will inevitably lead to the reduction of plasticity and toughness. Therefore, the amount of alloying elements must be added in order to avoid excessive reduction of plasticity and toughness and lead to fragmentation. So our foundry suggest using CrMoVTiRe manganese steel to cast their cone crusher liners,
The test results show that the initial hardness of CrMoV TiRe high manganese steel can reach about HB 260, which is conducive to improving the resistance to cutting wear. However, the addition of alloying elements, especially the addition of carbide-forming elements, will inevitably lead to an increase in the number of undissolved carbides, which will reduce the plasticity and toughness to a certain extent compared with ordinary high-manganese steels. While attaching importance to the alloying of high-manganese steels, we must not neglect the improvement of metallurgical quality, especially reducing the amount of phosphorus and inclusions. This is an economical and convenient way to improve the service life of high-manganese steel linings. During water toughness treatment, heat treatment process parameters such as water toughness treatment temperature, water inlet and outlet time, and water temperature should be strictly controlled so that the amount of undissolved carbides and precipitated carbides is controlled within the range prescribed by national standards.
It should be pointed out that while paying attention to the material of the cone crusher liner, the formulation of the casting process should not be ignored. The wall thickness of the cone crusher lining is large, and the maximum wall thickness of the fine crushed lining can reach 200 mm.If ordinary sand casting is used, the cooling rate is slower, and the casting temperature is not strictly controlled. Coarse. Due to the coarse grains, only one grain is observed when zoomed in to 100 times, so it is only zoomed in to 50 times, so it cannot be evaluated according to the national standard of GB6394. Grain refinement will help to increase the service life of the liner. Therefore, in the casting process, it is recommended to use metal mold sand and reduce the pouring temperature, which will help refine the grain of high manganese steel lining plate.
Qiming Machinery is the leading manganese steel, chromium steel, alloy steel, and heat-resisting steel manufacturer in China. We manufacture crusher wear parts, shredder wear parts, mill liners, apron feeder pans, and other wear parts for customers.
cone crusher liners, concave bowl liner and mantle liner | quarrying & aggregates
Rayco is a leading casting manufacturer and supplier at home, able to offer high-quality chamber bushing options for various cone crushers, Rayco offers our mantle & bowl liner selection in 12%-14%, 18% and 22% manganese, with Cr content 2%-3%. Practices in mine crushing and aggregates production industry have proven that performances of our liners are similar to, or even beyond that of original cone crusher manufactures.
cone crushers | mclanahan
A Cone Crusher is a compression type of machine that reduces material by squeezing or compressing the feed material between a moving piece of steel and a stationary piece of steel. Final sizing and reduction is determined by the closed side setting or the gap between the two crushing members at the lowest point. As the wedge or eccentric rotates to cause the compression within the chamber, the material gets smaller as it moves down through the wear liner as the opening in the cavity gets tighter. The crushed material is discharged at the bottom of the machine after they pass through the cavity.
A Cone Crusher will deliver a 4:1 to 6:1 reduction ratio. As we set the closed side setting tighter to create a finer output, we also reduce the volume or throughput capacity of the machine. Generally speaking, multiplying the closed side setting by two is a good guide to the top size of the gradation exiting the machine.
The technology that makes a MSP Cone Crusher outperform competitive cones on the market is the combination of all of the factors of performance i.e. balanced eccentric, higher speeds, fulcrum point position, and stroke. By using sound engineering with years of field testing a truly tried and tested new Cone Crusher has emerged.
A balanced eccentric coupled with a fulcrum point ideally placed over the crushing chamber yields highly effective compression crushing. This allows higher eccentric speeds to maximize performance without disruptive forces. The eccentric stroke is designed to work with the eccentric speed and fulcrum position to produce higher yields and minimize recirculating loads. The torque and resultant crushing forces are as effective as virtually any Cone Crusher on the market.
Spiral bevel gears provide the turning force to the eccentric. The spiral gear is mounted on a sturdy countershaft of the Cone Crusher, which rides in bronze bushings. The gears are precision cut for quiet operation. Misalignment problems are eliminated.
The MSP Cone Crusher features one of the largest volume displacements by a crusher head. When there is a large volume of material displaced this way, it means that more material is crushed in each cycle, more material can be fed to fill the larger void left when the crushing head recedes, and more material flows through the crusher due to the larger throughput and gyrating cycles allowing material to drop further. The benefits of high efficiency, greater crushing force and high capacity coupled with the durability the market expects are the reasons why this design is the best way to increase your productivity and profitability.
Sleeve bearings make removal and installation of the MSP Cone Crusher head and main shaft simple. The tapered main shaft fits into a large opening at the upper end of the tapered eccentric bushing. The shaft does not require precise alignment. It can be inserted from a vertical position and will self-align.
With the MSP Cone Crushers automatic hydraulic overload relief system, the crusher immediately opens in the event of an overload. This action reduces the crushing pressure, allowing the obstruction to pass through the chamber. After the chamber has been cleared, the hydraulic control system automatically returns the crusher to its original setting. Shock loads on the crusher are reduced for longer component life.
MSP Cone Crushers are built to make your operations run more smoothly and easily. Its simple and easy to read control panel provides you with the necessary information to properly run your crusher. For example, the MSP Cone Crusher shows you the exact cone setting to allow the operator to stay on top of a critical set point.
To enhance your Cone Crusher's life and maintain optimal crushing capacities, an automatic liner change reminder is included for your convenience. When the new mantle and liners are installed, the automated reminder is reset. As the crusher operates, the system will track production capacities and calculate the liner wear rate. When the cone liners reach the maximum wear point, it sends a flashing reminder to 'change cone' on the cone setting meter. After the wear parts are changed, simply reset the automated reminder system and continue efficient, reliable crushing.
The MSP Cone Crushers are built heavier than most competitive Cone Crushers. The extra weight means lower stress on the machine, which results in longer operational life. There is no question that the proper use of mass makes for more durable crushers. Additionally, a broad array of manganese liners is offered for each size MSP Cone. A unique and patented feature allows the Liners to fit without the use of any backing material. Improved Chamber matching with crusher feeds virtually eliminates any trial and error.
All these factors combine to give producers more effective compression crushing. This reduces liner wear, which reduces wear cost and allows higher yields, resulting in decreased overall cost per ton of finished product.
In the Symons principle, which is utilized by the MSP Cone Crusher, each cycle is timed so that the feed material and the upward thrust of the crushing head meet at the moment of maximum impact. The optimum speed of gyration and the large eccentric throw produce two important results: 1) the rapidly closing head catches the falling feed material and delivers the extremely high crushing force and 2) on the other side of the chamber the rapidly receding head allows material to fall freely to the next point of impact or exit the chamber. The combination of superior crushing force and free flow of material in the MSP Cone Crusher results in production levels that are unsurpassed and means lower power consumption per ton.
Ten years of testing went into the final combination of speed, stroke, and head angle to deliver the most efficient use of power. Greater efficiency delivers lower power consumption, reduced cost per ton, less maintenance and higher profits.
The power input imparted by the driven eccentric results in a bearing force in opposition to the crushing force at a point on the lower portion of the main shaft. The bearing force as it is transmitted to the main shaft provides the required moment to crush the rock. The distance between the bearing force and the fulcrum point is called the force arm. The longer the force arm, the greater the momentum, which produces a greater crushing force.
Crushing loads are distributed over a large spherical bearing. The socket liner keeps full contact with the crushing head ball and carries all of the vertical component and part of the horizontal. The long force arm, represented by the main shaft, reduces the load transmitted through the eccentric bushing.
Capacities and product gradations produced by Cone Crushers are affected by the method of feeding, characteristics of the material fed, speed of the machine, power applied, and other factors. Hardness, compressive strength, mineral content, grain structure, plasticity, size and shape of feed particles, moisture content, and other characteristics of the material also affect production capacities and gradations. Gradations and capacities are most often based on a typical, well-graded choke feed to the crusher. Well-graded feed is considered to be 90% to 100% passing the closed side feed opening, 40% to 60% passing the midpoint of the crushing chamber on the closed side (average of the closed side feed opening and closed side setting), and 0 to 10% passing the closed side setting. Choke feed is considered to be material located 360 degrees around the crushing head and approximately 6 above the mantle nut. Maximum feed size is the average of the open side feed opening and closed side feed opening.
Minimum closed side setting may vary depending on crushing conditions, the compressive strength of the material being crushed, and stage of reduction. The actual minimum closed side setting is that setting just before the bowl assembly lifts minutely against the factory recommended pressurized hydraulicrelief system.
Overall, industry acceptance of the Symons principle and performance, the McLanahan Cone Crusher works to deliver lower recirculating loads at higher tonnage rates with lower maintenance costs by combining:
A general rule of thumb for applying Cone Crushers is the reduction ratio. A crusher with coarse style liners would typically have a 6:1 reduction ratio. Thus, with a 34 closed side setting, the maximum feed would be 6 x 34 or 4.5 inches. Reduction ratios of 8:1 may be possible in certain coarse crushing applications. Fine liner configurations typically have reduction ratios of 4:1 to 6:1.
The difference between the volume displaced by the crushing head when it is fully closed and fully open is called the displacement volume. A large displacement volume results in greater capacity because:
In order to maintain the maximum levels of capacity, gradation, and cubical product, a Cone Crusher must be choke-fed at all times. The best way to keep a choke-feed to the ConeCrusher is with a surge bin (or hopper) and feeder that are located prior to the crusher. Choke-feeding is almost impossible to achieve without a hopper and feeder.
There are a number of different criteria to consider when selecting the right chambers for your crushing needs. However, the one that must always be considered isthat you have a well-graded feed to the chamber. A well-graded feed is generally thought to be 90 to 100% passing the closed-side feed opening, 40 to 60% passing the midpoint, and 0 to 10% passing the closed-side setting.
One thing you should never do is place a new concave liner in a crusher with a worn mantleor place a new mantle in a crusher with a concave liner. Why? If you have properly selected the replacement component, you will change the complete profile of the Cone Crusher by mating new and worn components. The receiving opening will tend to close down, restricting the feed from entering the chamber and causing a reduction in tons per hour.
If the liner is wearing evenly throughout the chamber, you should consider changing out the manganese when it has worn down to about 1" (2.5 cm) thick at the bottom. At about 3/4" to 5/8" (1.9 to 1.6 cm) thick, the manganese will crack, causing the backing material to begin to disintegrate. This, in turn, will cause the liners to break loose. If this should happen, continued operation could destroy the seat on the support bowl or the head of the Cone Crusher.
McLanahan Symons Principle (MSP) Cone Crushers utilize a
combination of improved factors of performance, which are enhanced by the
Symons Principle of crushing, as well as the latest hydraulic features and
electrical features that create a modern, efficient, reliable and durable Cone Crusher
that ultimately leads to a faster ROI. MSP Cone Crushers are designed to make
your operation run more smoothly and easily, as well as ensuring lower
operating costs and minimal downtime so that MSP Cone Crushers are more
frequently fully operational and processing optimal amounts of material.
Efficiency can be defined by the ratio of the work done by a machine to the energy supplied to it. To apply what this means to your crusher, in your reduction process you are producing exactly the sizes your market is demanding. In the past, quarries produced a range of single-size aggregate products up to 40 mm in size. However, the trend for highly specified aggregate has meant that products have become increasingly finer. Currently, many quarries do not produce significant quantities of aggregate coarser than 20 mm; it is not unusual for material coarser than 10 mm to be stockpiled for further crushing.
prolonging cone crusher liner life | agg-net
In the current economic climate, cost base is a major factor in managing a successful quarrying business, and wear costs associated with cone crushers can be a major cost centre. This paper explains a method to reduce wear costs by hardfacing crusher liners. Although this process is not new to the quarrying industry, it is not the norm, as there are many sceptics who have tried it in the past with bitter memories. However, the process has been perfected in recent years and can work well in the right applications.
Cone crushers operate by having stone fed into the top of the crusher chamber. The chamber is lined with wear parts, namely the mantle and bowl liners. As the stone drops though the choked chamber, crushing is achieved when the motion of the mantle causes compressive and abrasive forces to act upon the stone and bowl liner, causing the stone to break.
Liners are manufactured from manganese steel rather than normal steel as the manganese content provides protection against abrasion (normal steel generally has a lower tolerance to wear than crushing duties require). Depending on the stone being crushed, the percentage of manganese in the liners can vary from around 12% to 23%. Care has to be taken during selection, as insufficient manganese will not protect the liner, while too much can result in brittleness in the liner, causing failure not through wear but through cracking. Either way, the cost of manganese can be significant but, as this paper will show, this can be reduced.
With continued use the crystal structure of manganese steel changes, becoming more dense. This occurs when the stone being crushed is forced against the liner causing it to work-harden. Green manganese starts off at around 25 Rockwell (250 Brinell) and can achieve a hardness of approximately 60 Rockwell (660 Brinell) after a period of work-hardening.
Correct crushing chamber selection is crucial when installing a cone crusher. The reduction ratio, which in turn determines the product produced, depends on the chamber selected. In addition, the closed-side setting (the gap where maximum crushing is attained) affects both wear and the product produced. For example, if a standard unit is used instead of a shorthead, a reduction in fine product occurs, resulting in recirculation and, hence, more wear.
Standard: shallower angle than a shorthead with a longer crushing face. Suitable for a larger feed size, generally +100mm, with a wide feed grading curve. Suitable for use as a secondary crusher but, if smaller feed is introduced, can become susceptible to packing/blockages.
Shorthead: steeper angle than a standard with a shorter crushing face. Suitable for a smaller feed size, generally 100mm, with a short feed grading curve. Suitable for use as a tertiary crusher but will not accept large feed size owing to its smaller feed aperture.
Once again, selection depends upon the product required and the feedstock. Consultation with manufacturers is essential, some of whom will provide computer design facilities and offer wear-analysis services on both their own and other makes of crusher, such is the level of competition.
On most cone crushers, rough-cast manganese liners are fitted to the head assembly and concave using an epoxy material commonly known as crusher backing. Exposure to this backing material has been known to result in cases of sensitization, a condition which can lead to people having violent allergic reactions upon minute exposure, causing possible respiratory failure. Any reduction in wear part changes will not only reduce exposure to backing compounds (an improvement to employees work conditions required under COSHH), but also reduce the use of cranes or overhead winches, thereby further reducing the frequency of potentially hazardous situations. Some cone crushers do not use backing but instead have precision-cast and machined liners. Work to reduce wear on these has been carried out but is not discussed in this paper.
Rock with a low silica content, eg good-quality limestone, does not normally give rise to high wear costs, whereas rock which contains a high silica component, eg sandstone, sand and gravel etc, invariably does. The problem is usually encountered as soon as the liners are fitted, with the manganese being worn away before it has a chance to work-harden. The resulting wear costs can be considerable, as new liners, cranes, fitters and associated downtime are usually all involved.
In order to prevent liner wear during the initial period of work-hardening, specialist contractors can coat the liners with a protective surface. This process has to be carried out with great care because the manganese liners can distort and/or shrink during the process, causing a poor fit in the crusher. Small distortions are generally not a problem in crushers using backing compound, as the backing material compensates for any such irregularities. To apply the protective coating, the liner is placed on a rotating turntable and carefully preheated. A bead of 3mm thick chrome carbide is welded on to the liner as the table revolves. The areas requiring treatment are determined by the wear pattern on a normal set of liners, and by experimenting with resultant wear patterns on treated liners. Hardfacing can give the liners a protective coating of up to 62 Rockwell until it is worn off, but by this time the manganese should have work-hardened to its maximum hardness of around 60 Rockwell.
In trials undertaken at Quartzite Quarry the mantle of a standard 3ft Nordberg crusher had 3mm thickness of hardfacing applied from top to bottom, overlain with another 3mm from the middle to the bottom, with another 3mm near the bottom (ie a total thickness of 3mm where stone enters the crusher, 6mm where crushing is apparent and 9mm at the point of discharge). Wear was not as bad on the bowl liner, therefore this was treated with a single 3mm thickness across its entire surface.The stone being processed was a quartzite with an 85% silica content, a PSV of 65 and an AAV of 2.
The 18% manganese liners used prior to the trials lasted for a maximum of 12 weeks (16,800 tonnes through crusher). The first trial liners using hardfacing lasted 38 weeks (53,200 tonnes through crusher), providing 216% extra life. As this proved such a success, it was decided (correctly) that a lower-cost manganese could be used. A set of 14 % manganese liners was then treated. These liners lasted for 48 weeks (67,000 tonnes through crusher), providing 298% extra life.
Including the cost of the manganese and crane hire, but not downtime, the hardfacing added 35% extra to the cost of a normal liner change, however the overall saving was 234% of the total budgeted for replacement liners in the first trial. In the second trial, because of the cheaper manganese steel used, the hardfacing added just 32% extra to the budgeted liner cost but overall savings rose to 319%. Moreover, exposure to the backing compound was also significantly reduced as just one liner change was required per year instead of four.
When applied, the chrome carbide bead forms a step which can slow the passage of material through the crusher. This holding effect can move the point of wear to the step area during the phase when the bead is being polished. While this did not prove to be a problem during the trials at Quartzite Quarry, it is a factor that should be considered. In some applications, mostly with shorthead crushers, it is not possible to use hardfacing as the opening aperture on the crusher is only just big enough to allow the entry of, for example, 100mm stone. When hardfaced, one bead on the mantle and one bead on the bowl liner will result in a 6mm reduction in the inlet aperture, thereby only allowing 94mm stone to enter, which could be critical. This can sometimes be compensated for by opening the crusher closed-side setting to widen the inlet, but this is not always possible.
Crusher feed trays were also fabricated with 6mm of chrome carbide hardfacing material and these have been found to be almost wear free; one feed tray installed over two years ago shows no sign of wear despite having had over 70,000 tonnes of material pass over it. This compares very favourably with the Hardox wear plates used previously which had to be changed every three months after 20,000 tonnes of material had passed over them. Again, this has reduced downtime and costs.
On chute applications hardfacing material did not prove effective over the entire chute length. At impact points it wore out as quickly as mild steel, and the main benefits are to be found where sliding contact takes place. Chrome iron tiles have since been fitted at points of impact and to date the results look promising, but it is still to early to quantify the benefits.
Hardfacing using chrome carbide can be effective in prolonging life in cone crusher liners. This results in reduced downtime, lower liner costs, less exposure to crusher backing and fewer lifting operations. While not a panacea for all wear problems, hardfacing is certainly worth exploring with crusher manufacturers and specialist welding companies. In addition, some wear part companies will supply ready-to-use hardfaced liners. The cost-effectiveness of hardfacing depends entirely on the application. For example, the process would probably not be cost-effective on a low-wear application, but even in some high-wear applications wear life may not be extended to the extent where it becomes cost-effective. Nevertheless, considering its low initial cost, there is little to lose but a lot to gain by trying hardfacing at least once.
localization development of cone crusher liners of hp5 cone crusher
However, the fixed and moving cone liners are vulnerable parts, with large annual loss and high price, the supply cycle is long, which affects the normal production. Our foundry has many years of experience in making crusher liners, so it is decided to make the liners of the equipment domestically by us.
considerations when selecting a new crusher liner
A crusher is a machine designed to reduce large rocks into smaller rocks and gravel. A wide range of cone crusher liners are available to accommodate coarse and fine feeds, but which you choose depends on several factors. The most crucial element in cone crusher liner selection is the feed. You should have a well-graded feed going into the crushing chamber. However, you should also know what type of feed you want to put in your crusher. Read these considerations when selecting a new crusher liner to learn more.
Several factors affect liner life, but the most notable is the stone you process and how its suited for your crush liner. Rock liners are responsible for providing the immediate dynamic content on the stone as its being crushed. The different types of stone interact with the liner in a certain way. The type of cone crusher liner purchased needs to support the material being crushed. In both the materials, the crusher is composed and the size and wetness of the material youll be running.
One menace to any job site is downtime. Time is a precious commodity that cannot be replaced. So, when you have a machine part go out unexpectedly, youll be wasting precious manpower as you scramble to fix the problem. Certain parts are made to wear down at predictable levels and be replaced at pre-selected times. With an easy-fitting liner, youll experience minimum downtime, predictable maintenance scheduling, and a speedy replacement.
You will really want to talk to your dealer about the particularities of their products, and then youll want to compare. A longer wear life will mean increased uptime and efficiency, as more material can be run through the liner before replacement. Youll want to check with your manufacturer whether a custom or factory-made crusher liner is right for you. A custom-made crusher liner may offer more features that can extend its life.
Cast Steel Products is a leading supplier of crusher liners for all primary cone crushers, gyratory crushers, jaw crushers, impact crushers, and roll crushers. Our experienced sales and engineering staff work closely with you to supply exactly what is needed. Our crush liners deliver a longer wear life which means liners dont have to be replaced as often. Fewer quantities are required per year, leading to less frequent maintenance shutdowns. We keep our customers working at peak proficiency because our crush liners were designed just for that. We hope these considerations when selecting a new crush liner have helped you consider the advantages of Cast Steel Products. Contact our experienced sales team today!
the influence of liner condition on cone crusher performance - sciencedirect
The Whiten steady-state crusher model form has been used to develop a quantitative model of 7-foot cone crushers, based on sampling surveys of production machines. By incorporating liner age (wear) and liner length as variables in the regression equations for the classification parameters, it has been possible to infer the influence of these variables on the selection of particles for breakage, and thus on the product size distribution.
The model suggests that an increase in the length of the (profiled) liner, other things being equal, increases the value of the classification parameter controlling the size below which all particles pass direct to product (i.e., are not crushed). This could be interpreted as an increase in the efficiency of the classification of fines in the crusher.
An increase in liner age decreases the value of the classification parameter controlling the size above which all particles are selected for breakage, thus increasing the proportion of coarser particles selected for breakage. This is attributed to a lengthening of the parallel crushing zone with wear, causing an increased residence time in the crushing zone and thus exposure to a larger number of crushing actions, which would be expected to influence directly the likelihood of the breakage of coarser particles.