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copper beneficiation essay

how to process copper ore: beneficiation methods and equipment | fote machinery

how to process copper ore: beneficiation methods and equipment | fote machinery

All available copper-bearing natural mineral aggregates are called copper mines. The high-grade copper concentrate can be obtained by the coarse grinding, roughing, scavenging of copper ore, then grinding and concentrating of coarse concentrate.

Due to the different types of ore, the nature of the ore is also different, so the beneficiation process needs to be customized. The specific process for selecting copper ore depends mainly on the material composition, structure and copper occurrence state of the original copper ore.

Before the beneficiation of copper ores, crushing and grinding are required. The bulk ores are crushed to about 12cm by a jaw crusher or a cone crusher. Then the crushed materials are sent to the grinding equipment, and the final particle size of the copper ore is reduced to 0.15-0.2mm.

Copper sulfide can be divided into single copper ore, copper sulfur ore, copper-molybdenum deposit, copper nickel, carrollite and so on. Basically, only flotation can be considered in its separation.

Almost all copper sulphide ores contain iron-bearing sulfides, so in a sense, the flotation of copper sulfide is essentially the separation of copper sulfide from iron sulfide. The common iron sulfide minerals in copper ore are pyrite and pyrrhotite.

1 Disseminated grain size and symbiotic relationship of copper and iron sulfide. Generally, pyrite has a coarse grain size, while copper ore, especially secondary copper sulfide, is closely associated with pyrite. Only when the copper ore is finely ground can it be dissociated from pyrite. This characteristic can be used to select copper-sulphur mixed concentrates, discard the tailings, and then grind and separate the mixed concentrate.

2 The influence of secondary copper sulfide minerals. When the secondary copper sulfide mineral content is high, the copper ions in the slurry will increase, which will activate the pyrite and increase the difficulty of Cu-S separation.

3 The influence of pyrrhotite. The high content of pyrrhotite will affect the flotation of copper sulfide. Pyrrhotite oxidation will consume the consumption of oxygen in the pulp. In severe cases, the copper minerals do not float at the beginning of flotation. This can be improved by increasing inflation.

Generally, copper is floated firstly and then sulfur. The content of pyrite in dense massive copper-bearing pyrite is quite high and high alkalinity (free CaO content> 600800g/m3) and high dosage of xanthine are often used to suppress the pyrite. There is mainly pyrite in its tailings with few gangues, so the tailings are sulfur concentrates.

For the disseminated copper-sulfur ore, the preferential flotation process is adopted, and the sulphur in the tailings must be re-floated. To reduce the consumption of sulfuric acid during the floatation and ensure safe operation, the process condition of low alkalinity should be adopted as far as possible.

It is more advantageous for copper sulfur ore containing less sulfur with copper easy to be floated. Carry out the bulk flotation firstly in the weakly alkaline pulp and then add lime to the mixed concentrate to separate the copper and sulfur in the highly alkaline pulp.

In semi-preferential bulk-separation flotation, Z-200, OSN-43 or ester-105 with good selectivity are used as collectors to float copper minerals firstly. The copper concentrate is then subjected to copper-sulfur bulk flotation and the obtained copper-sulfur mixed concentrate is subjected to separation flotation of floating copper and suppressing sulfur.

It avoids the inhibition of the easily floating copper under high lime consumption and does not require a large amount of sulfuric acid-activated pyrite. It has the characteristics of reasonable structure, stable operation, a good index and early recovery of target minerals.

3 The xanthate collector mainly plays the role of chemisorption together with the cation Cu (2 +), so minerals whose surface contains more Cu (2 +) minerals have a strong effect with the xanthate. The order of the effect is: chalcocite > covellite > porphyrite> chalcopyrite.

4 The floatability of copper sulfide minerals is also affected by factors such as crystal size, mosaic size, being original or secondary. The minerals with fine crystal and mosaic size are difficult to float. Secondary copper sulfide ore is easy to oxidize and more difficult to float than original copper ore.

As for the grinding and floating process, it is more advantageous to adopt the stage grinding and floating process for refractory copper ore, such as the re-grinding and re-separation of coarse concentrate, re-grinding and re-separation of bulk concentrate, and separate treatment of medium ore.

Copper oxide (CuO) is insoluble in water, ethanol, soluble acid, ammonium chloride and potassium cyanide solutions. It can react with alkali when slowly dissolving in ammonia solution. The beneficiation methods of oxidized copper ore mainly include gravity separatio, magnetic separation (see details on copper ore processing plant), flotation and chemical beneficiation.

Flotation is one of the commonly used mineral processing techniques for copper oxide ores. According to the different properties of copper oxide ores, there are sulphidizing flotation, fatty acid flotation, amine flotation, emulsion flotation and chelating agent-neutral oil flotation method.

Process flow: The dosage of sodium sulfide can reach 1~2kg/t during vulcanization. Because the film produced by vulcanization is not stable and is easy to fall off after vigorous stirring, and sodium sulfide itself is easily oxidized, sodium sulfide should be added in batches.

Besides, the vulcanization speed of malachite and azurite is relatively fast, so the vulcanizing agent can be directly added to the first flotation cell with no need to stir in advance during vulcanization and adjust the amount of vulcanizing agent according to the foam state.

Fatty acids and their soaps are mainly used as collectors of fatty acid floatation, also known as direct flotation. During flotation, water glass (gangue inhibitor), phosphate, and sodium carbonate (slurry regulator) are also usually added.

There is a practice of mixing vulcanization and fatty acid methods. Firstly float the copper sulfide and part of the copper oxide with sodium sulfide and xanthate, and then float the residual copper oxide with fatty acid.

For example, the ore in the Nchanga processing plant in Zambia contains 4.7% copper. The copper content achieved to 50% ~ 55% through flotation by adding 500g/t of lime (pH 9 ~ 9.5), 10g/t of cresol (foaming agent), 60g/t of ethylxanthate, 35g/t of amyl xanthate, 1kg/t of sodium sulfide, 40g/t of palmitic acid and 75g/t of fuel oil.

It is mainly to sulfurize the copper oxide mineral firstly and then add the copper accessory ingredient to create a stable oil-wet surface. Then, the neutral oil emulsion is used to cover the mineral surface, resulting in a strong hydrophobic floating state. In this way, the mineral can be attached to the foams firmly to complete the separation.

Many problems should be paid attention to in the flotation of copper ore, such as the length of the vulcanization time, whether to add sodium sulphide in batches and the proportion of chemicals. Here is a brief introduction.

1 The vulcanization time. Different ores require different vulcanization times. Generally speaking, it should be short rather than longer. The suitable vulcanization time is 1 to 3 minutes. After 6 minutes, the recovery rate and concentrate grade will decrease.

2 Add sodium sulfide in batches. The roughing time for processing the ore in the concentrator is about ten minutes, while the ore contains a large amount of carbonaceous gangue and the divalent sulfur ions disappear quickly in the slurry. So the effect of adding sodium sulfide in batches is better than that of adding it once.

3 Add sodium sulfide proportionally. Generally, copper oxide floats in the liquid at a slower speed, and reduce the number of cycles of the mineral in the flotation process can obtain a higher recovery rate. It is of great significance to study the distribution ratio of sodium sulfide among different operations to catch the mineral at the right time.

The chemical beneficiation method is often used for refractory copper oxide and mixed copper. For some copper oxide minerals with high copper content, fine mosaic size and rich sludge, the chemical beneficiation method will be used to obtain good indicators because the flotation method is difficult to realize the separation.

The solution of ammonia and ammonium carbonate in a concentration of 12.5% was used as the solvent to leach for 2.5h at a temperature of 150, a pressure of 1925175~2026500Pa. The mother liquor can be distilled by steam at 90 to separate ammonia and carbon dioxide. Copper, on the other hand, is precipitated from the solution as black copper oxide powder.

Because some copper oxide minerals are not tightly combined with iron, manganese, etc., it is difficult to separate them by using the magnetic separation method alone, and flotation has a good separation effect.

Therefore, the flotation method is used to obtain high-grade concentrates, the magnetic separation is for tailings and wet smelting is carried out finally. This process combines flotation, magnetic and wet smelting very well, which greatly increases the recovery rate and reduces the beneficiation cost.

The above are several common beneficiation methods for copper oxide minerals. For the selection of copper oxide minerals, it is best to conduct a professional beneficiation test and customize the process according to the report.

Flotation is the most widely used method in copper mine production. The copper ore pulp is stirred and aerated, and the ore particles adhere to the foams under the action of various flotation agents. The foams rise to form a mineralized foam layer, which is scraped or overflowed by the scraper. This series of flotation processes are all completed in the flotation machine. (Contact Manufacturer)

The internal magnetic system of the barrel adopts a short circuit design to ensure that the barrel skin has no magnetic resistance at high speeds, and the stainless-steel barrel skin does not generate high temperatures, extending the life of the magnetic block.

Since it adopts a dynamic magnetic system design, the roller does not stick to the material, which is conducive to material sorting. The selected grade can be increased by 3-6 times to more than 65%.

Copper mines are generally purified by flotation, but for the beneficiation of copper minerals with coarser grain size and higher density, the pre-selection by the gravity separation method will greatly reduce the cost and achieve flotation indicators.

As a leading mining machinery manufacturer and exporter in China, we are always here to provide you with high quality products and better services. Welcome to contact us through one of the following ways or visit our company and factories.

Based on the high quality and complete after-sales service, our products have been exported to more than 120 countries and regions. Fote Machinery has been the choice of more than 200,000 customers.

the complete collection of copper beneficiation reagents | fote machinery

the complete collection of copper beneficiation reagents | fote machinery

In the flotation process of the copper mine, the use of flotation reagents to change the surface properties of the mineral is a flexible and effective way to control the flotation behavior. It is also an important reason why flotation can be widely used in mineral processing. This article mainly focuses on copper collectors, inhibitors, activators, foaming agents, ore-leaching bacteria, lixivium, extractants, etc.

Copper and sulfur in copper ore have strong collection properties, which is also conducive to improving the recovery of associated gold in copper sulphide ores. The flotation effect of refractory copper-sulfur ore containing secondary copper minerals is better than that with butyl xanthate, but its selectivity is worse.

As the excellent collector and foaming agent for non-ferrous metal ores, it has a special separation effect on the copper, lead, silver and activated zinc sulfide ores and refractory polymetallic ores.

It has stronger collection capacity than xanthates, especially for chalcopyrite. It has weaker collection capacity for pyrite, but better selectivity and faster flotation speed. Better separation effect than xanthate can be obtained by using it in the separation of copper-lead sulfide ore.

As the highly selective collector, it has very low solubility in water and high activity for flotation of copper, zinc, molybdenum and other sulfide ores, as well as precipitated copper, segregate copper, etc. It's often used in combination with water-soluble collectors to increase the efficacy, reduce dosage and improve selectivity.

DMDC: It has a strong collection capacity for copper and a weak collection capacity for pyrite and unactivated sphalerite. It can be used for copper and sulfur separation and its flotation index is higher than butyl xanthate.

Compared with the xanthate or aerofloat, it has higher selectivity and stability. It has a stronger collection effect on chalcopyrite and chalcocite, but a weaker collection ability on pyrite. The amount of pyrite inhibitor can be reduced during the flotation of copper sulfide.

Under the condition of alkalescence, it has good collecting ability and selectivity for chalcopyrite and other copper-bearing minerals, as well as strong collecting ability for associated precious metals such as gold and silver.

QF collector, containing thiocarbonyl functional groups, has strong collection capacity for natural gold, chalcopyrite and other minerals. Its ability to collect gold and copper is higher than that of low-grade xanthate and dithiocarbamate collectors.

PN405 has a strong selective collecting and foaming capacity for copper ore. By using this agent alone or with a small number of xanthate collectors, a better selection index can be obtained when floating the copper. It is also a high-efficiency collecting and foaming agent for copper-nickel sulfide ore to be used in conjunction with Y89 xanthate.

MOS-2 has strong new selective collecting ability for copper ore and weak collecting ability for pyrite. The separation of copper and sulfur can be realized and the dosages of collectors, lime and no. 2 oil can be reduced in lower alkaline medium by using it. Mos-2 collector also has a good foaming performance, so when using it as a collector, less or no foaming agent can be used.

It is a new class of ester collector for copper sulfide, which can preferentially collect copper in the rough selection stage with strong chemical adsorption on the surface of copper, and it is not easy to fall off.

It has good collecting performance and selectivity for copper sulfide, good selectivity for skarn copper ore with high secondary copper content, and can separate copper and sulfur in low alkaline medium.

It is a collector of copper sulfide ore, which has both foaming properties with rich and non-sticky foam, good selectivity, strong collecting property and fast flotation speed to improve concentrate grade. It has a wide PH range and can be added in stock solution.

It is a modified chalcophile chelating agent, which has no other hydration group except the groups that can form chelating compounds with copper, and can form stable hydrophobic polymers insoluble in water (or with very low solubility) with the surface of copper oxide.

It has a strong inhibitory effect on sulphide ores other than chalcopyrite. It can avoid the inhibitory effect on chalcopyrite when using too much sodium sulfide. It can be used in combination with sodium sulfite and zinc sulfate.

The combination of T-16 + zinc sulfate inhibitor can inhibit zinc, activate copper and lead, and eliminate the effect of slurry foam viscosity, which can effectively realize the flotation separation of copper-lead and zinc.

One of the development trends of mining is the application of bioleaching technology to recover important metals from various low-grade ores. Compared with traditional mineral processing technology, biological leaching technology has the characteristics of low cost, easy operation and low pollution.

The extractant can chemically react with the extract to form an extractable compound that can be dissolved in the organic phase, which is the most critical factor affecting the success of the extraction process.

In the flotation process of copper ore, the beneficiation reagent is an important factor that determines the flotation effect. It is one of the main research directions of mineral processing workers to explore a new copper flotation process and develop new cost-effective and environmentally friendly reagents to improve the utilization rate of copper resources.

As a leading mining machinery manufacturer and exporter in China, we are always here to provide you with high quality products and better services. Welcome to contact us through one of the following ways or visit our company and factories.

Based on the high quality and complete after-sales service, our products have been exported to more than 120 countries and regions. Fote Machinery has been the choice of more than 200,000 customers.

copper ore beneficiation technology

copper ore beneficiation technology

In modern industry and daily life, copper has a wide range of application and demand. It has an important and irreplaceable position in electric, marine, aviation, communication, petrochemicals, household appliances, high-energy physics, metallurgy,

In modern industry and daily life, copper has a wide range of application and demand. It has an important and irreplaceable position in electric, marine, aviation, communication, petrochemicals, household appliances, high-energy physics, metallurgy, etc.

Composition of cooper ore is very complex, including chalcocite, chalcopyrite, azurite, tetrahedrite, malachite, etc. Different beneficiation process is designed according to different ore. Even if the same type of ore in different mining plant, the beneficiation process is also different. According to the properties of different ore, we will choose suitable beneficiation process.

Generally use relatively simple process, after a period ofgrinding, fineness -200 mesh occupy about 50% to 70%, once roughing, two or three times selected, one or two times scavenging. Such as disseminated copper minerals has relatively small size, consider to adopt the stagegrinding and separation processes. Processing bornite concentrator, mostly coarse concentrate regrinding - a selection of stage grinding and separation processes, and its essence is mixed -flotationprocess. First by a coarse grinding, roughing, scavenging, and then rough concentrate regrinding recleaner get high-grade copper concentrate and concentrate. Rough grinding -200 mesh about 45% to 50% and then pulverized -200 mesh occupy about 90% to 95%.

Dense copper ore chalcopyrite and pyrite as tight symbiosis, pyrite is often secondary copper-activated pyrite content is high, difficult to suppress, sorting difficult. Sorting process requires both get copper concentrate and concentrate. Typically election of copper tailings is pyrite concentrate. Dense copper ore processing, often using two stages of grinding or grinding, fine grinding fineness requirements.

Weakly magnetic minerals beneficiation, for example: hematite, limonite, ilmenite, wolframite, tantalum, niobium, etc.. Non-metallic minerals deironing, purification, for example: quartz, feldspar, nepheline, fluorite, sillimanite, spodumene,kaolin.

Mining ores first by thejaw crusherfor preliminary broken, in broken to a reasonable fineness through ascension machine, after to mine machine uniform intoball mill, ball mill by crushing, grinding of ore.

After grindingball millof ore materials into the next procedure and: grading. Hierachial machine with different proportion of solid particles in the liquid and the speed of the precipitation different principle of minerals, the mixture to wash, grading. After a wash and classification of the mineral mixture after magnetic separation unit.

Because of various minerals than magnetized coefficient of different magnetic force and, by mechanical force will mixture of magnetic material separated. After magnetic separators preliminary after the separation in mineral grains was sent into the flotation machine, according to different mineral properties of different drugs, make to the minerals and other material separation open.

minerals | free full-text | multidimensional optimization of the copper flotation in a jameson cell by means of taxonomic methods | html

minerals | free full-text | multidimensional optimization of the copper flotation in a jameson cell by means of taxonomic methods | html

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