tampakan gold copper project - mining technology | mining news and views updated daily
The Tampakan copper-gold mine was proposed to be developed in the southern Philippines, 50km north of General Santos City on the island of Mindanao. It is the largest undeveloped copper-gold resource in the South-East Asia Western-Pacific region.
The mine was jointly owned by Tampakan Mining and Southcot Mining (together 60%) and Indophil Resources (40%). Sagittarius Mines (SMI) was the developer of the project on behalf of its shareholders Xstrata Copper (now Glencore Xstrata) and Indophil Resources. The title to the deposit was held under a financial and technical assistance agreement (FTAA) with the Philippines government, which was agreed to take a pre-determined share of the project cash flow, on payment of the development capital.
The Tampakan mine was estimated to hold 2.94 billion tonnes of resources, graded at an average 0.51% copper, and 0.19g/t gold, representing 15.0 million tonnes (Mt) of copper and 17.6 million ounces (Moz) of gold. The mine was anticipated to produce an average of 375,000tpa of copper and 360,000oz per annum of gold over its 17 years of mine life.
The high-sulphidation epithermal deposit overlies a porphyry copper system. The deposit lies at the southern end of the Central Mindanao Cordillera within the Cotabato Fault Zone. The west-north-west trending sinistral strike-slip fault extends 100km and separates the southern and northern structural domain of Mindanao. Two flat-lying areas, the Cotabato and Sarangani basins border the Tampakan district to the west and the east respectively.
The core of the district was characterised by a Miocene aged basement sequence consisting of basalt and basaltic andesite lavas and related volcaniclastic sediments. The sequence folds along a north-west striking ramp anticline.
The Pliocene-aged Tampakan Andesite sequence is a stratovolcanic complex composed of andesites. Characterised by deep dissections and erosions, the andesite sequence includes a series of grey to dark green porphyritic flow units composed of pyroxene, hornblende and andesite. It achieves a thickness of more than 650m and plunges 10 to 20 to the west-south-west in the immediate deposit zone. A series of hornblende diorite porphyry stocks and dykes of the same era intrude the Tampakan Andesite sequence.
The Tampakan copper-gold deposit is hosted immediately below the western end of the truncated upper surface of the fourth andesitic volcanic cycle recognised within the complex. The fourth andesitic volcanic cycle manifests within digital elevation models as a Pliocene aged, dissected, central vent stratocone. Widespread-argillic, advanced-argillic and intermediate-argillic alteration affect the sequence till an area of more than 90km.
Mineralisation at Tampakan included high-sulphidation style copper-gold that is related with, and central to, flat-dipping tabular structures of pervasive silica-clay and silica alteration. At approximately 0.3% copper distribution at contour, the deposit hosts up to 400m thick flat-lying to gently plunging tabular structures of mineralisation.
The high-sulphidation epithermal mineralisation occurs as veins, fractures, vug-fills or as disseminations at deeper levels. It includes copper-rich digenite, bornite and enargite. Chalcocite and covellite are also found to a lesser degree. Pyrite is usually found throughout the deposit while enargite is distributed, along with late-stage bodies and in zones of strong silicification.
Mining activities were planned to include preparation of the site, drilling and blasting of the ore and waste rock. Ore and waste rock was supposed to be extracted using large mechanical shovels, excavators and trucks. The ore was proposed to be hauled to the ore stockpile or the crusher while the waste rock to the waste rock storage facility (WRSF).
effort to stop controversial mine could also crush existing iron mines
President Donald Trumps administration has cleared the way for further consideration for a proposed mine that Twin Metals seeks to construct near Minnesotas Boundary Waters. Opponents on both the political left and right question the wisdom of allowing Twin Metals, a foreign-owned company, to potentially disrupt Minnesotas iconic northern wilderness area. However, one of the measures that Democrats have put forth to halt the Twin Metals development may also spell disaster for existing mining projects that help sustain the rust belt economy.
McCollums proposed appropriations act will govern how tax money is spent when it comes to regulating and approving environmentally related projects. One stipulation of the act is to make it clear that none of the funds appropriated or otherwise made available by this Act may be used to review or approve a mine plan proposed within the Rainy River Watershed of the Superior National Forest.
While this would successfully prohibit the Twin Metals copper-nickel project, it would also prevent existing iron mines that have already been approved from receiving the requisite approval for future operations.
As Minnesota Congressmen Pete Stauber puts it, McCollums bill seeks to ban not only new mines, but future operations in existing iron ore mines Congresswoman McCollums attack on iron mining is an all-time low, even for her, Stauber adds, per the Duluth News Tribune.
Isaac Orr, an energy and environmental environmental policy specialist with the Center of the American Experiment, says that Trumps recent consideration of the Twin Metals project merely reverses bad Obama era policy.
Liberal media outlets conveniently forget that the leases for the Twin Metals mine were inappropriately cancelled in the final days of the lame duck Obama/Biden administration. Emails revealed by the Wall Street Journal show even Amy Klobuchar understood that the cancellation of these leases was based on politics, not science, Orr told Alpha News.
biggest copper project in decades begins production
Canadas Ivanhoe Mines (TSX: IVN) has begun producing copper concentrate at its Kamoa-Kakula project in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) months ahead of schedule as the metal continues to trade close to all-time highs.
Kakula, the first mine planned at the concession, is initially forecast to generate 3.8 million tonnes of ore a year at an average feed grade well in excess of 6% copper over the first five years of operation, the company said.
The countrys President,Felix Tshisekedi,said it was a clear sign that the country was open for business and investment. Ivanhoes co-chairperson Robert Friedland described first production from Kamoa-Kakula as a historic moment for Ivanhoe and the DRC.
Discovering and delivering a copper province of this scale, grade and outstanding ESG credentials, ahead of schedule and on budget, is a unicorn in the copper mining business, Friedland said in a separate statement.
The mining veteran noted that while the exploration journey started well over two decades ago, the Kakula deposit was discovered a little over five years ago. This is remarkable progress by the mining industrys glacial standards from first drill hole to a new major mining operation, he said.
Kicking off production at Kamoa is indeed a momentous event for the copper market. Most of the current top producing mines are decades old and, except rare exceptions such as SolGolds Cascabel in Ecuador and Anglo Americans Quellaveco project in Peru, there havent been major new discoveries in years.
While copper projects are in the pipeline, producers are wary of repeating oversupply mistakes of past cycles by speeding up plans at a time when mines are getting a lot trickier and pricier to build one reason why copper prices are near decade highs at above $4 per pound.
The copper industry needs to spend upwards of $100 billion to close what could be an annual supply deficit of 4.7 million metric tonnes by 2030, according to estimates from CRU Group. The potential shortfall could reach 10 million tonnes if no mines get built, commodities trader Trafigura has said.
Operations at Kamoa-Kakula are set to ramp up this year to reach between 80,000 and 95,000 tonnes of copper in concentrate. After several phases of expansion, the mines peak annual copper production will be more than 800,000 tonnes.
Friedland believes the project will becomethe worlds second-largest copper mine and also the one with the highest grades among major operations. The concentrator is slated to produce concentrate grading around 57% copper.
The Vancouver-based company has also vowed to produce the industrys greenest copper, as it works to become the first net-zero operational carbon emitter among the worlds top-tier copper producers. Friedland has not set a target date for achieving that goal.
Given the current copper price environment, Ivanhoe and Zijin are exploring expanding production capacity from the current 7.6 Mtpa capacity (to be implemented in two phases of 3.8 Mtpa) to 11.4 Mtpa. This may be achieved by adding output from other targets in the concession Kansoko, Kamoa North (including the Bonanza Zone) and Kakula West.
BMO Metals Andrew Mikitchook said Wednesdays news was an important milestone for Ivanhoe shareholders. We expect further revaluation of the shares as the mine ramps up over the next months and the Phase 2 expansion (remains ahead of schedule) is delivered by Q3 2022, he said.
Looking ahead, Mikitchook said investors would watch for three Kakula-Kamoa milestones: ongoing monthly operational updates, 2021 costs guidance,and updates on copper concentrate offtake arrangements.
philippines: iron ore production | statista
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