copper processing plants | north west | bond equipment
Pre-concentration for low grade copper ore in order to maximise concentrator throughputs and revenues. Our modular of DMS, optical sorting, and spiral concentrator modules are ideally suited to pre-concentrate your ore cost effectively at high tonnages.
dense media separation (dms) plants - jxsc machine
A heavy medium is a heavy-fluid or heavy suspension fluid with a density greater than that of water (1g/cm3). The process of separating ore particles in heavy media is called Dense Media Separation / Heavy Media Separation (DMS / HMS).
The heavy medium separation method is an advanced gravity beneficiation method. Following the Archimedes principle particles smaller than the density of the heavy medium will float, and particles larger than the density of the heavy medium will sink in the medium.
The heavy suspension fluid is a suspension composed of finely pulverized high-density solid particles and water. High-density solid particles act to increase the density of the medium and are called medium solid.
Overall consideration 1. High enough density. To make the required density of suspension liquid. 2. Easy to recycle. It can be separated by simple ways like magnetic separation, flotation or classification. 3. Wide range of sources, low prices, and no harmful impurities.
Heavy medium beneficiation is a method of strict density separation, which can effectively separate ore with a mineral density difference of about 0.1. Therefore, DMS methods are widely used in the separation of coal and various metal ores and non-metallic ores. Direct separate clean coal and waste rock; separate coarse waste tailings and rough concentrate.
For the ordinary gravity separation method, the lower limit of the feeding ore is about 2-3mm (the coal is 3-6mm). When sorting by heavy medium cyclone, the lower limit of the ore size can be reduced to 0.5mm. The upper limit of the ore particle size is related to the ore size, embedding characteristics and equipment size. In usually, the ore is 50-150mm, and the coal is 300-500mm.
DMS can greatly reduce the surrounding rock and waste rock under the same processing capacity, reduce ore grinding consumption, thus reduce production costs. Undoubtedly, heavy medium mineral processing is one of the most promising directions for improving the comprehensive economic benefits of non-ferrous metal mines.
Limits Restricted by the density of medium solid, it is difficult to prepare a suspension with a high density, so DMS method is difficult to obtain a high-grade final concentrate. Only can remove low-density monomer gangue and surrounding rock, prevent them enter the grinding operation.
There are four types of heavy liquid separation machines for industrial applications: deep trough type, shallow trough type, vibrating type (heavy medium vibrating chute), and centrifugal type (heavy medium cyclone).
Heavy medium vibration chute uses heavy flotation liquid to separate coarse ore (hematite, manganese ore, and other ferrous metals) in the vibration process, feed ore size is generally 75-6mm. Vibration chute structure Working principle Under the action of chute shaking and rising water flow, the heavy suspension liquid and ore form a high concentration of stratified sedimentation bed. The heavy minerals with a high density are distributed in the bottom and are discharged; the light minerals are distributed in the upper part. The light and heavy minerals are separated from the medium by a dissociation sieve (vibration screen), and the sieved medium is returned to the medium cone for recycling.
The difference between heavy medium cyclone and regular hydro cyclone is that the medium to be fed is not water but a suspension liquid. After sorting by heavy medium cyclone, heavy minerals and some media are discharged along with the sedimentation port, and light minerals and the rest of the medium are discharged from the overflow port, de-medium separately, obtain the heavy and light products.
Advantages 1. High processing capacity, high sorting efficiency, and lower feeding limit, up to 0.5 mm; 2. Due to the concentration effect, a lower density suspension can be used to obtain a higher sorting density; 3. Can use high particle size suspension liquid; 4. Simple structure, no power required.
Medium preparation Crush and grind bulk ferrosilicon or magnetite (used as media solid) to the required size in advance. The crushing and grinding process usually consists of jaw crusher, ball mill, spiral classifier, screen, etc.
Ore beneficiation Ore beneficiation is the separation of light and heavy minerals in the heavy medium separation machine. The density of the suspension is kept stable during the sorting process, so it is necessary to take frequent samples for measurement.
Medium removal Light and heavy mineral products obtained after the ore beneficiation process are carried with suspension, which is to be recovered. The de-medium process is divided into two sections: the first section is screened out of the thick medium and returned directly to the process; the second section is flushed with water on the screening machine to wash away the medium solid adhering to the ore. The two-stage screening can be carried out on the same sieve machine.
Medium purification ( purification ) Generally, the amount of thick medium that is removed from the light and heavy minerals is about 90% to 95% of the total used medium, and the rest of the medium solid adhered to the ore is flushed to the dilute medium. This part of the medium is seriously polluted and needs to be purified and concentrated. This whole operation is called Media Purification.
Use magnetic separation, flotation or gravity separation to recover the medium solid in the dilute medium, and then dehydrated and concentrated by means of a water cyclone and finally reconfigured into a suspension with a proper density to return to the process.
In a Dense Media Separation (DMS)/ Heavy Media Separation( HMS) plant, powdered ferrosilicon (an alloy of iron and silicone) is suspended in water to form a fluid near the density of diamond (3.52 g/cm3), to which the diamond-bearing material is added to begin the separation process of the heavier minerals from the lighter material. Additional separation of the denser material occurs by centrifuge in cyclones that swirl the mixture at low and high speeds, forcing the diamonds and other dense minerals to the walls and then out the bottom of the cyclone. Wastewater rises at the center of the cyclones and is sucked out and screened to remove waste particles. The DMS process results in a concentrate that generally weighs less than one percent of the original material fed into the plant at the beginning of the process.
Although heavy media separation has been recognized since the last century and used in coal washing, in mineral processing, hydrometallurgy or pyrometallurgy processes, as a general process, heavy medium separation is not really shown before fine grinding of ore. It is proved that the method of heavy medium separation can effectively separate diamond and other precious stones and treat copper, lead and zinc ores. In some cases, effective recovery of gold and PGM, the improved method can also be effective separation of non-metallic minerals, like barite, fluorite and other industrial minerals. In the non-mine field, heavy medium separation technology can be used to treat waste vehicle debris, renewable resources, industrial and municipal waste and electronic waste.
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copper processing | equipment, process flow, cases - jxsc machine
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According to the metallurgy process, the copper ore is divided into three natural types by the ratio of copper oxide and copper sulfide. That is, sulfide ore, containing less than 10% copper oxide; oxidized ore, containing more than 30% copper oxide; mixed ore, containing 10% to 30% of copper oxide.
(1) Single copper ore. Its composition is relatively simple, and the only valuable component is copper. The gangue is mainly quartz, silicates, and carbonates. (2) Copper-sulfur ore. valuable components are copper, pyrite. (3) Copper pyrite. valuable components are copper, pyrite, magnetite. (4) Copper-molybdenum ore. valuable components are copper, pyrite, magnetite, molybdenite. (5) Copper-nickel ore. valuable components are copper, nickel-containing pyrite, pyrrhotite. (6) Copper-cobalt ore. valuable components are copper, cobalt-containing pyrite.
(1) All iron-free copper minerals, such as chalcocite and covellite, are similar in floatability, and cyanide and lime have weaker inhibitory effects on them. (2) All copper minerals containing iron, such as chalcopyrite and bornite, are susceptible to inhibition by cyanide and lime in alkaline media. (3) The xanthate collector is mainly chemically adsorbed with the cation Cu2+, so the surface contains more Cu2+ minerals and has a stronger effect with xanthate. The order of strength is: chalcocite > > covellite > > bornite > > chalcopyrite. (4) The floatability of copper sulfide minerals is also affected by factors such as crystal size, intergranular size and primary or secondary. Crystallization and inlaying are too thin to be difficult to float. Secondary copper sulfide ore is easily oxidized and is less likely to float than primary copper ore.
Almost all copper sulfide ore has iron-containing sulfides, so in a sense, the flotation of copper sulfide ore is essentially the separation of copper sulfide from iron sulfide. The iron sulfide minerals commonly found in copper ore are pyrite and pyrrhotite.
heavy media separation | dense media separation | diamond plant
In the production of the diamond plant, heavy medium separation/ dense medium separation processing technology is very important, directly related to energy utilization, resource conservation, and production efficiency, considered to be one of the most effective methods of gravity separation. DMS technology can be used for coal washing and separation of diamonds and other precious stones, recovery of gold and platinum group metal (PGM), and treatment of copper, lead, zinc and other metal ores. In recent years, with the continuous improvement of peoples awareness of environmental protection, traditional mineral processing technology is increasingly unable to meet the actual needs of protecting the ecological environment. As a technology that has an important impact on Chinas sustainable development, innovation and improvement of heavy medium mineral processing technology and management are very necessary. The article outlines the process flow of heavy medium mineral processing technology.
Overview of the process flow of heavy medium mineral processing technology
(1) Sorting of heavy minerals in lump ore. This process is mainly to separate the ore and ore bodies and to place mixed mineral materials in the heavy medium cyclone. Because the heavy medium sorting machine has a high precision advantage, can process mineral materials in large quantities, it is used in separating and mixing mineral materials. It has great advantages and improves the efficiency of mineral material sorting. This process is generally applicable to large-scale concentrators. At present, the process problems in this process are mainly reflected in the difficulty of management and the difficulty in recycling, which affects the improvement of production efficiency.
(2) Jig rough selection. In the jigging process, the refuse discharging density is usually guaranteed at 1180 kg per square meter, the jig machine adopts pre-exhaustion can effectively reduce the strontium content in the mineral resources. The influence of the previous sorting process avoids the wear damage caused by the krypton content of the cyclone, meanwhile, ensures the service life of the cyclone, which has a certain superior effect on the technical upgrading of the jig sorting system and the large fluctuation of the ore body.
(3) Mine body jigging. In this process, mainly through the mineral-heavy medium cyclone separation process, sorting and processing of mineral products, the process has the advantages of high precision, large processing capacity, and low cost, but there are also some shortcomings, mainly reflected in low yield and low separation efficiency. Therefore, the process is more suitable for concentrators with stable minerals.
(4) Secondary separation of the heavy medium cyclone. In the secondary sorting process of the cyclone, the process flow is firstly operated by the quarrying stone technology, and the crushed mineral product is secondarily sorted with the concentrate. Since the two products are simultaneously sorted, the process flow It is more complicated, and two sets of media recovery equipment are needed in the process. This also shows that the operation cost and construction cost of the process itself is high, and the daily management and maintenance involved are also more.
(5) Two-product heavy medium cyclone sorting. The heavy products and minerals are effectively sorted by a low-density cyclone, and the heavy products are sorted again after sorting to obtain minerals. The two-product heavy medium cyclone sorting process itself has high raw material requirements, so the process operation is also difficult and the operability is relatively low, so this process is not common in Chinas mineral processing work.
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