mini cement plant at best price in india
Shiroli M.I.D.C, Kolhapur
Precast Infrastructures Plot No. C-10, \'Deepak Tiles\'. Plot No. C-10, \'Deepak Tiles\'. Plot No. C-10, 'Deepak Tiles'.,, Shiroli M.I.D.C, Kolhapur - 416122, Dist. Kolhapur, Maharashtra
cement factory cost | how much does it cost to start a cement plant?
If youre thinking about set up a cement factory (or cement plant), you must weigh the pros and cons of it many times. There is no doubt that youve considered all your musts, such as locations, cement plant design, cement plant layout, etc. But the most important thing is absolutely cement factory cost how much does it cost to build a cement factory? Maybe you also want to know the potential investment you dont see coming.
According to the data we know, the total cost of a cement plant is estimated to be US$ 75 to US$ 100 per ton. One thing to be clear, this is just an estimation, in the real cement plant building, the cement factory cost is affected by various factors, including the significant difference in cost of land, availability of limestone mines, etc.
The cement factory cost is based on changing factors like size, location, labor, raw materials, and current real estate trends, which make it impossible to nail down a perfectly accurate, one-size-fits-all answer. So lets list the cost item needed in building a cement factory, everyone can get your own plant according to these items.
As we all know, the cement production line is made up of various types of cement equipment, the cement factory cost depends on the cement factory machine you choose. For some buyer who has abundant funds, might choose high-quality equipment, which increases the cost of the cement production line. At the same time, high-quality cement plant also brings considerable economic benefits and market returns.
At present, the new-type cement plant has advantages of high profit, quick effect, high efficiency, energy saving, environmental protection, easy operation, and low cost. The hot-sale cement plant is composed of following cement factory machines:
If you are ready to buy a cement plant, it is suggested to choose a cement plant manufacturer with a large scale and strong strength, which will provide full cement equipment and service, also ensure the quality and performance. In general, for the customer who wants to buy the whole cement production line, the cement plant manufacturer will give more preferential policies. On the contrary, the strength of small-scale manufacturers is limited, cement equipment types are not complete enough, need to buy from different manufacturers, not only trouble but also increase the cost of investment.
Investors have different requirements for the daily output of the cement factory, so we can find a large capacity cement plant and mini cement plant in the real case, and the investment capital will also be different. Generally, the higher the output value, the higher the investment, because the model requirements for cement equipment will be higher, and the price of equipment will naturally rise, but the value of the benefits to customers will be greater.
Enterprise competition is a side factor that affects the cement plant price. The more intense the competition, the cheaper and more affordable cement equipment prices. On the contrary, if there are fewer cement plant manufacturers and the competitiveness is weak, there is no obvious threat between the companies. Cement plant prices will generally maintain a normal state or relatively increase, which is a manifestation of natural laws.
Except for above elements, there are some other factors involved in the cement factory cost, such as labors, raw materials cost, cement plant design and so on, labors cost is always related to the location and your scale of cement factory; as for the cost of the raw materials, the place where is near mineral resource will be recommended, which will reduce your transportation cost. For most large cement plant manufacturers, they can provide custom solutions to cement plants, also supply the EPC project for equipment or cement plant.
growth and distribution of cement industry in india
Cement is indispensible for building and construction work and cement industry is considered to be an important infrastructure core industry. It is one of the most advanced industries of India. In a developing country like India, the cement industry can play a significant role in the overall economic growth.
The per capita consumption of cement is taken as one of the important indicators of well being of the people. The average per capita consumption of cement in India was 110 kg in 2003-04 against the world average of 240 kg. This is much lower than some of the advanced countries and there is vast scope for improving the situation. India is currently on a fast track of economic growth and if, the present growth trends continue, the per capita consumption is expected to touch 130 kg in 2010 even in the face of fast growing population.
Manufacturing of cement requires heavy, low value and weight loosing materials and is primarily a raw material oriented industry. Limestone is the main raw material and comprises 60-65 per cent of the total product. On an average 1.5 tonnes of limestone are required to produce one tonne of cement. Hence, the location of a cement plant is based on the limestone deposits.
The other raw materials used are sea shells, slag from steel plants and slag from fertilizer plants and these raw materials influence the localisation of cement industry in their own way. Silica (20-25%) and alumina (5-12%) are also important ingredients. Gypsum is necessary to regulate the setting time of cement. Power is used in raw material grinding, clinkerisation of limestone in the kiln operation and clinker grinding along with gypsum to form cement.
The older plants required 120 to 130 units per tonne of cement produced. Modern energy efficient plants consume only 80 to 90 units per tonne. Coal is another major input along with electricity and forms 40 per cent of the total cost. Coal is used not only as fuel in the kiln but also to burn the limestone.
The ash of the burnt coal combines with the limestone to form clinkei. On an average 250 kg of coal is required to produce one tonne of cement. The quantum of other materials required to produce one tonne of cement are 4 kg of gypsum, 0.4 kg of bauxite and 0.2 kg of clay.
Cement and its raw materials are low value bulk materials and the transportation over long distance by rails and roads involves huge costs. Some of the transportation cost of transporting limestone is reduced by beneficiating this mineral at the quarry heads.
The transportation cost is also reduced if the manufacturing plant is located near the market. In fact ready market is the pre-requisite for the proper growth of an industry, producing heavy commodity with low specific cost like cement.
It is obvious from the above discussion that availability of raw materials, bulk transport facilities at reasonably low cost and market are the three main localisational factors, in that order, which favour the growth of cement industry in India.
The first attempt to manufacture cement in India was made in 1904 when a mill based on sea shells as a source of limestone was established at Chennai. But this attempt proved abortive and a really successful attempt was made in 1912-13 when the Indian Cement Co. Ltd. set up a plant at Porbandar.
World War I gave impetus to cement industry in India. Consequently, Katni Cement and Industrial Co. Ltd. at Katni (M.P.) started production in 1915 and Killick Nixons Bundi Portland Cement Co. at Lakheri (Rajasthan) commenced in 1916. A number of companies came into existence to make use of the post war boom. Six new factories at Dwarka (Gujarat), Japla (Bihar), Banmore, Mehgaon, Kymore (M.P.) and Shahabad (Karnataka) were erected by 1922-23.
Cement Production virtually took off the ground only after tariff protection was granted to this industry in 1924. A turning point came in 1934 when 10 out of 11 existing companies merged into the Associated Cement Co. Ltd. (ACC). The Dalmia Cement Group was also formed in 1937. This group set up factories at Dalmianagar (Bihar), Dalmiapuram (Tamil Nadu) and Dalmia (Charkhi) Dadri in Haryana.
By 1947, there were 18 cement factories with a capacity of 21.15 lakh tonnes and production of 20.16 lakh tonnes. Rapid economic progress associated with massive building programmes during the plan period accelerated the demand for cement and provided stimulus to this industry. India achieved self sufficiency in cement only in 1980s during the short five year period of partial decontrol.
Prior to that Indian cement industry had seen days of total controls, partial decontrol and imports. This industry was totally decontrolled in March, 1989 and it grew in leaps and bounds in 1990s. Today, in terms of quality, productivity and efficiency, the industry is second to none in the world. Its technology is state- of-the-art, its cost of production is one of the lowest in the world and its productivity is easily one of the highest.
Currently, the Indian cement industry is the second largest in the world after that of China. With a turnover of around Rs. 30,000 crore, the industry is the second biggest contributor to the exchequer. The Central government gets about Rs. 4,000 crore from excise duty and various state governments another Rs. 4,000 crore from sales tax yet another Rs. 2,000 crore comes from royalties, octroi and cesses.
The industry provides direct employment to 1.5 lakh persons and indirect employment to 1.2 million persons. As on 30 April 2004 there were 16 large cement plants with an installed capacity of 144.98 million tonnes. Apart from these, there are 300 mini and tiny plants spread all over the country. The estimated capacity of mini plants is about 11 million tonnes per annum. The mini plants play a supplementary role.
The concept of mini plants was accepted by the Government in 1979 to exploit smaller deposits of limestone scattered in remote and inaccessible areas. This concept was supported by incentives like 50 per cent reduction in excise duty. The main advantage of mini cement plants is that they provide employment opportunities to rural and remote areas and make cement easily available there.
Further, they help in dispersal of production capacity and reduce strain on transportation infrastructure. Over 60 companies are engaged in the production of cement. The industry has been going through a period of re-alignment or consolidated since early 1990s but still has a long way to go in this regard. The late 1990s also saw the entry of a couple of multinational through the acquisition route.
The production of cement has increased considerably during the plan period. It increased from a low of 2.7 million tonnes in 1950-51 to 8.0 million tonnes in 1960-61, 1970-71, 48.8 million tonnes in 1999-91 and 123.4 million tonnes in 2003-04
Given the enormous need for infrastructure and housing, which require large quantities of cement as a basic building material, the prospects of industry are bright. The Working Group on Cement Industry for the formulation of Tenth Five Year Plan and other studies on global competitiveness of the Indian cement industry highlight constraints such as high cost of power, high freight cost, inadequate infrastructure and poor quality of coal. In order to utilize the excess production capacity available with the cement industry, the Government has identified the following thrust areas for increasing demand:
The Indian Cement industry today produces 11 varieties of cement including ordinary Portland cement (71%), Portland pozzolana cement (18%) and Portland blast furnace slag cement (10%). The balance one per cent is of all special cements.
A look at the distribution pattern of cement factories reveals that they are mainly concentrated along the Vindhayan rangesrunning from eastern Rajasthan to Jharkhand where abundant supply of good quality limestone is available.
In fact limestone deposits have acted as big magnets for attracting cement factories and rarely a factory in this region is situated at a distance of over fifty kilometres from the limestone quarries. The vast northern plain, on the other hand, is devoid of limestone deposits and does not support cement factories to any appreciable extent.
It is for this constraint of raw material that 86 per cent of the factories and 75 per cent of the production capacity is found in Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Bihar.
The combined installed capacity and production of these two neighbouring states have enabled them to occupy a leading position among the cement producing states of India. These two states account for about 21 per cent of the installed capacity and around 22.5 per cent of the total production.
There are at present 14 cement plants in the state. The main centres of production are Satna, Kymore, Katni, Maihar, Mandhar, Gopalnagar, Durg, Akaltara, Jamul, Banmore and Tilda. Several new plants especially in the Chhattisgarh are coming up.
With 10.7 per cent of the total installed capacity and about 18 per cent of the total production of India. Andhra Pradesh occupies second place among the cement producing states of India. Most of the 18 plants are concentrated in the Telangana belt. The location of plants along the trunk rail route skirting the plateau along its junction with the coastal plain offers the best advantages with respect to raw material, market and transport.
Peddapalli is the biggest plant with an installed annual capacity of 7 lakh tonnes. The other important producers are Krishna, Karimnagar, Cementnagar, Vijaywada, Panyon, Macherla, Mancherial, Tandur, Vishakhapatnam, Vizianagram, Nadikundi, Erranguntla, Yerranguntala, Adilabad, etc. Several mini plants are also coming up.
Rajasthan has surpassed Tamil Nadu and is now the third largest cement producing state accounting for over 11 per cent of India. The major cement plants skirt the Aravali Range where plenty of limestone is available. The large scale conversion of metre gauge railway lines into broad gauge has given the much needed improved transport facilities and stimulates cement industry in this region.
The state has 10 major plants and the main centres of production are Sawai Madhopur, Lakheri, Chittaurgarh, Udaipur, Nimbaheda and Sirohi. With an annual capacity of 8.5 lakh tonnes, the plant at Sawai Madhopur is the largest in Rajasthan.
Gujarat has suffered a decline in its share of cement production from 12.8 per cent in 1970 to 9 per cent in 2003-04 and is now relegated to fourth position among the major cement producing states of India. Gujarat had the advantage of an early start and the earliest successful attempt to manufacture cement was made at Porbandar.
The industry enjoys the benefit of large deposits of limestone in the state. Besides, sea shell can also be used. Large market of Western India is readily available. Ten plants of the state are located at Sika, Sevolia, Okha, Porbandar, Dwarka, Vadodara, Ranavav, Veraval and Bhavnagar.
Tamil Nadu was a major producer of cement in the 1970s but its share fell from about 17.1 per cent in 1970 to 8.7 per cent in 2003-04. There are 8 plants in the state which are located at Talaiyuthu, Alangulam, Tulukapatti, Dalmiapuram, Poliyur, Sankaridurg and Madukkarai.
Karanataka has also gone down from 10.4 per cent of contribution in 1979 to about 6.5 per cent in 2003-04. This state has a total of 8 plants. Bagalkot, Bhadravati, Shahabad, Ammasaudram, Bangalore and Krukunta are the main centres.
The other producers are Bihar (Dalmia Nagar, Sindri, Japla, Chopan Chaibasa Khalari, Kalvanpur, Banjari), Uttar Pradesh (Dalla, Churk, Chunar), Maharashtra (Chandrapur Ratnagin, Saweri, Mumbai, Battam, Kolhapur), Haryana (Charkhi Dadn, Bhupendra), Orissa (Rajgangpur, Bargarh), Himachal Pradesh (Rajban and Gogal), J and (Wuyon and Srinagar), Assam (Bakaja , Guwahati), West Bengal (Durgapur, Purulia, Madhukunda), Meghalaya (Siju).
From a net importer, India has emerged as a major exporter of cement in the international market She entered the world cement scenario in 1989 with a meagre export of 1.6 lakh tonnes. Indias cement exports have steadily increased since then and reached a level of 8.99 million tonnes in 2003-04.
The main buyers of Indian cement are Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, Middle East countries and South-East Asian countries. The exports to these countries are likely to increase as they do not have appreciable deposits of limestone and cannot develop cement industry on their own.
how many cement plants are producing in india 2020? | datis export group
Indian Cement Company Ltd produced only one type of cement which was designed by the British standard committee as Artificial Portland Cement. This company marketed its product in Mumbai, Karachi, Madras, and other parts and became a financial success.
At that time India had to import cement from England. The price of imported cement was higher. Some other factors such as an increase in domestic demand, reduction in supply from abroad (due to war), availability of Indian Capital, ample raw material, Cheap labor, support of the government, etc. made it a leading industry in India in a short period of time.
In January 1915, a cement unit was started at Katni in Madhya PradeshIn December 1916, another unit at Lakheri in Rajasthan was started.During the First World War period, cement production in these three important factories was taken under control of the government and later the control was lifted once the war was over. After the war, 6 more units were launched in India.
In 1924, Indias cement production was 267000 tons. However, initially, this increased production could not reduce the imports and the industry suffered a rate of war. This led to the closure of many indigenous units. The Indian companies which were away from ports or commercial centers faced the locational disadvantage.
The above incidents led to the industry stakeholder approach to the government for some kind of protection. The British government constituted a Tariff board, which recommended the protection of the indigenous industry against the dumping of the imported cement. It recommended raising the customs duty to 41%, which was around 15% at that time, but this recommendation was not accepted by the government.
John Smeaton, who is also known as father of civil engineering and credited for designing many bridges, canals, harbors, etc. was the first proclaimed civil engineer and pioneered the use of hydraulic lime, which led to the discovery of modern cement.
In 1948, the government adopted the Cement Expansion Scheme, which envisaged new factories to increase production. New factories were established at Bagalkot, Jaipur, Orissa, Travancore, etc. In 1950-51, there were 22 operating units with an installed capacity of 3.3 million tons. Cement industry was given great importance in all the initial five-year plans. The target of the first five-year plan was to raise the installed capacity to 5.4 million tons which were achieved. The industry has grown manifold since then.
The first endeavor to manufacture cement dates back to 1889 when a Calcutta based company endeavored to manufacture cement from Argillaceous (kankar).But the first endeavor to manufacture cement in an organized way commenced in Madras. South India Industries Limited began manufacture of Portland cement in 1904. But the effort did not succeed and the company had to halt production.
Finally, it was in 1914 that the first licensed cement manufacturing unit was set up by India Cement Company Ltd at Porbandar, Gujarat with an available capacity of 10,000 tons and production of 1000 installed. The First World War gave the impetus to the cement industry still in its initial stages. The following decade saw tremendous progress in terms of manufacturing units, installed capacity and production. This phase is also referred to as the Nascent Stage of Indian Cement Industry.
Cement is an essential component of infrastructure development and the most important input of the construction industry, particularly in the governments infrastructure and housing programs, which are necessary for the countrys socio-economic growth and development. It is also the second most consumed material on the planet (WBCSD 2002). The Indian cement industry is the second-largest producer of cement in the world just behind China, but ahead of the United States and Japan. It is consented to be a core sector accounting for approximately 1.3% of GDP and employing over 0.14 million people. Also, the industry is a significant contributor to the revenue collected by both the central and state governments through excise and sales taxes.
With nearly 300 million tonnes (MT) of cement production capacity, India is the second largest cement producer in the world. By 2020, cement production is expected to reach 550 MT. The sector is dominated by private players. Of the total capacity, 98 percent lies with the private sector and the rest with the public sector. The cement production capacity was 247 MT in FY 12 and is estimated to touch 550 MT in FY 20.
Cement production in India increased at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 9.7 percent to 272 MT over FY 0613. As per the 12th Five Year Plan, production is expected to reach 407 MT by FY 17. Currently, India has 185 large and more than 365 mini cement plants spread across all states. Andhra Pradesh is the leading state with 40 large cement plants, followed by Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu with 20 and 21 plants, respectively.
The Government of India is focusing on infrastructure development to boost economic growth. It plans to increase investment in infrastructure to US$ 1 trillion in the 12th Five Year Plan (201217). Infrastructure projects such as Dedicated Freight Corridors as well as new and upgraded airports and ports are expected to further drive construction activity. All this brings about a tremendous scope for the cement industry in the country.
The North Eastern (NE) region in India has consistently been in cement deficit for several years. Cement manufactured locally is inadequate to meet the local demand for cement, and the deficit is met through cement purchased from other parts of India. Thus, there is a vast opportunity in this region for the cement industry to flourish. Also, the major policy and fiscal initiatives are expected to catalyze infrastructure and industrial development in the region, driving the demand for cement.
Used for general civil construction works under normal/mild environmental conditions. OPC 33 grade is normally not used where high-grade concrete is required due to limitations of its strength. Nowadays this variety is not generally produced.
PPC Cement has a greater degree of fineness, impermeable and corrosion-resistant quality that makes the concrete denser resulting in long-lasting structures. Since it has the high impermeable quality it is used in mass concreting work instead of ordinary cement due to adverse soil conditions.
PSC provides better protection against chloride and sulfate attack. PSC is preferred over OPC for usage in constructions where the structures are susceptible to sulfate and chloride attack. eg: Marine structure, structures near the sea, sewage disposal treatment works, water treatment plants, etc.
White Portland Cement is made from raw materials containing very little iron oxide and manganese oxide. Burning in the kiln is done with furnace oil or gas instead of coal. Limited quantities of certain chemicals, which improve the whiteness of cement, are added during manufacturing. This type of cement is generally meant for non-structural works. It is used for architectural purposes such as mosaic tiles, wall paintings, GRC, and special effects.
In SRC, amount of C3A is restricted to lower than 5% and 2C3A + C4AF lower than 25%. SRC can be used for foundation, piles, basements, underground structures, sewage, and water treatment plants and coastal works, where Sulphate attack due to water or soil is anticipated.
It is manufactured under the special requirement for high rainfall areas to improve the shelf life of cement. The cement particles are given a chemical coating during manufacturing, which provides water-repelling property, and the cement is not affected due to high humidity and can be stored for a longer period. Due to the abundant availability of cement in all parts of the country, this cement is very rarely produced these days.
Low heat Portland cement is particularly suitable for making mass concrete for dams and many other types of water retaining structures, bridge abutments, massive retaining walls, piers, and slabs, etc.
is the largest manufacturer of grey cement, RMC, and white cement in India. It is also one of the leading cement producers globally. UltraTech as a brand embodies strength, reliability and innovation. Together, these attributes inspire engineers to stretch the limits of their imagination to create homes, buildings, and structures that define the new India. The company has a consolidated capacity of 102.75 MTPA of grey cement. The company has 20 integrated plants, 1 clinkerisation plant, 25 grinding units and 7 bulk terminals. Its operations span across India, UAE, Bahrain, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka. It is also Indias largest exporter of cement, reaching out to meet the demand in countries around the Indian Ocean and the Middle East. In the white cement segment, UltraTech goes to market under the brand name of Birla White. It has a white cement plant with a capacity of 0.68 MTPA and 2 wallcare putty plants. The company plans to expand cement capacity from nine MTPA to 14 MTPA in Anantapur district and Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh in 2020.
The Indian cement industry is the second-largest producer of cement in the world just behind China, but ahead of the United States and Japan. It is consented to be a core sector accounting for approximately 1.3% of GDP and employing over 0.14 million people.
Indias potential in infrastructure is huge. The country is expected to become the worlds third-largest construction market by 2025, adding 11.5 million homes a year to become a US$ 1 trillion a year market, according to a study by Global Construction Perspectives and Oxford Economics.
In November 2012 the India Brand Equity Foundation (IBEF) said that it expected double-digit growth in the cement industry for the 2013 and 2014 fiscal years, which end on 31 March 2013 and 31 March 2014 respectively. It reported that the cement industry would increase production by around 71Mt/yr. over the same time-frame to reach over 300Mt/yr. in 2014.
Meanwhile, the Indian Governments 12th Five-Year Plan, which runs for 2013 to 2017, states that India will require a cement capacity in the region of 480Mt/yr. by the end of 2017.12 It states that a further 150Mt/yr. of capacity will be required to accomplish this. Separately, ACC expects India to have a capacity of 500Mt/yr. by 2020.
The government promises significant investment in infrastructure, although bureaucracy has hampered such investments in the past. With prices remaining low due to overcapacity and low demand, the potential for future collusion between producers and the difficulty of setting up new capacity, it is possible that producers, under pressure to meet the expectations placed on them by the Five-Year Plan, will see increased pressure on margins in the next few years, especially if fuel prices continue to rise.
The eastern states of India are likely to be the newest and virgin markets for cement companies and could contribute to their bottom line in the future. During the next 10 years, India could become the main exporter of clinker and gray cement to the Middle East, Africa, and other developing nations of the world. Cement plants near the ports, for instance the plants in Gujarat and Visakhapatnam, will have an added advantage for export and will logistically be well armed to face stiff competition from cement plants in the interior of the country. Indias cement production capacity is expected to reach 550 MT by 2025.
Due to the increasing demand in various sectors such as housing, commercial construction, and industrial construction, cement industry is expected to reach 550-600 million tonnes per annum (MTPA) by the year 2025.
In the midst of this, smaller companies are likely to suffer more than most, possibly making them acquisition targets for better-equipped multinationals. Indeed, in January 2013 Prism Cement, one of Indias smaller cement producers actually reported a net loss for the quarter to 31 December 2012.
It cited low demand, high fuel costs and increased electricity prices. How long can such producers continue as the Ultratechs, ACCs and Ambujas of this world keep adding new capacity? An academic report carried out for the Competition Commission of India in 2012 hints at this possibility of future consolidation in the industry. The study found that, despite capacity utilization falling across all cement producers in India from 2006 to 2011, it was those with the smallest market share that experienced by far the worst reduction.
Binani Cement, for example, recorded utilization rates of only around 55-60%. Conversely, mega-players like Ultratech have been more stable, with rates of 80-95%. In January 2013 India Ratings reported that smaller businesses were less likely to benefit from the expected improvement in the industry. Smaller local producers are less well equipped to deal with expansion and their relative size will gradually diminish compared to the top 12 producers. As this happens, it is likely that they will become the acquisition targets of the larger firms.
In Union Budget 2020-21, the Government of India has extended benefits under Section 80 IBA of the Income Tax Act till March 31, 2020, to promote affordable housing in India.The Union Budget has allocated Rs 139 billion (US$ 1.93 billion) for Urban Rejuvenation Mission: AMRUT and Smart Cities Mission. The governments infrastructure push combined with housing for all, Smart Cities Mission and Swachh Bharat Abhiyan is going to boost cement demand in the country. The move is expected to boost the demand of cement from the housing segment. As per Union Budget 2019-20, Government planned to upgrade 1,25,000 km of road length over the next five years.An outlay of Rs 27,500 crore (US$ 3.93 billion) has been allotted under Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana in the Union Budget 2020-21.
We hope you find detailed information about the answer to the question of How many cement plants are producing in INDIA 2020 in this article.Datis Export Group supplies all types of Portland Cement (Grey, and White) and Cement Clinker. Our sales team will manage to export the Cement to any destination port for Bulk and Bagged containerized cargoes.