direct reduced iron briquette machine,briquette equipment
Direct reduction iron(DRI) also named sponge iron, It is the raw material for electric furnace steelmaking. In the direct reduced iron production process, no matter what kind of production process is, all need use briquette machine to complete briquetting
Direct reduction iron(DRI) also named sponge iron, It is the raw material for electric furnace steelmaking. In the direct reduced iron production process, no matter what kind of production process is, all need use briquette machine to complete briquetting raw materials, mixing all materials such as iron ore, iron concentrates, coke, coal and bidner together, to press them into briquettes by briquette machine, then remove moisture, the drying briquettes can be smelted in furnace.
Zhongzhou briquette machine / briquetting machineis specifically designed for briquetting in DRI production process, it is high pressure, high product rate, working stably,low failure rate and easy maintenance, so Zhongzhou Direct reduction iron DRI briquette machine briquetting machine was welcomed by many enterprises at home and abroad.
Here we focus on the briquetting part in the Direct Reduced Iron production process, the DRI Briquettes production process generally include batching, grinding, mixing, briquetting and drying:
1. Hopper silo, or box type quantitative feeder, it load and convey raw materials to crusher evenly.
2. Two-stage crusher, the raw material be crushed in to the appropriate size, generally it is most suitable that not more than 5mm.
3. Liquid mixer, be used for mixing liquid binder, if use powdered binder, it should use a drying powder feeding equipment.
4.Horizontal two shafts mixer, evenly mixing raw materials, adhesives andwater together, the adhesive will be evenly distributed in the raw materials so that achieve better strength, making briquettes better.
5. carbon silicon briquette machine is a core of whole production line, it press materials into briquettes, the briquettes' size and shape can be customized, zhongzhou can produce various shapes of rollers.
6, vertical dryer, drying the wet briquettes which came from briquette machine,the briquettes can be dried to 3% water content, finished briquettes will put in storage or packaged.
7, belt conveyor, connected to devices, it is guanrantee for the whole manganese ore briquettes production line to realizes full automation.
The requirement for raw materials ofdirect reduced ironbriquette machine:
after the first pressurization, the materials between main and auxiliary rollers enter the place between two main rollers for a second pressurization, where the pressure will be twice of the type of two rollers.(the auxiliary roller pre-press the hemisphere on the amin roller to exhaust air, the hemisphere will be pressed again into briquettes fomation through two main rollers).
manufaturing by Dezhou oil pump company, using embolism type pump equipped with storage device which can be operation of protection briquette machine when the hydraulic moment fluctuation, the oil cylinder adopts compound type and be made of standard material 27SiMn, extremely good finish, wear resistance, having protective effect on seals.
Roller and wheel hub of briquette machine is processed into tamper structure, which shall be compacted firmly by bolts for stability and reliance, easy to replace roller,save time and efforts for users.
Rotary dryer is mainly applied to drying river sand, dry-mixed mortar, yellow sand, cement clinker, clay, coal gangue, mixtures, coal ash, gypsum, iron powder and other raw materials, widely used in building materials, chemical industry, casting industry and other industries.
Coal is the applicable and energy,so if waste the coal,it will be wasteful.So some people think that we can press coal into briquettes to storage for storage,thus coal is made full use and save energy,improve efficiency.Atthe same time,we need one machine to press coal into balls.Henan Kefan is the professional coal briquette machine supplier in China,we can supply other briquette makers,such as charcoal powder briquetting machine,etc.We can supply best products and best service,and customers who have brought our products all over the world give our products high praise.
Please enter your demand such as Raw material type, Capacity, Feeding material size, briquettes' size and shape. Any other requirements and questions about the machines, you can also contact online or leave a message, we will offer you a perfect proposal!
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basic difference between dri and pellet binq mining
Pelletisation is a major process of agglomeration where micro fines, either in the The fundamental difference between sintering and pelletisation is that while the Iron Ore Pellets that can be fed in the blast furnaces or in the DRI kiln (DRI) .
conducted by dropping DRI pellets into molten slag at temperatures from temperature mainly influences the rate of the reaction between FeO and carbon inside the pellet. then transferred to the basic oxygen furnace (BOF) to remove the excess . difference between these two processes is the reducing agent source.
produce DRI (direct reduced iron) pellets with sufficient size, reduction degree, KEY WORDS: process waste; RHF; DRI; bursting; compressive strength; reduction; CO2. 1. .. initial carbon contents, the difference in the residual carbon
Direct-reduced iron (DRI), also called sponge iron, is produced from direct reduction of iron ore (in the form of lumps, pellets or fines) by a reducing of sintering or pelletization plants, coke ovens, blast furnaces, and basic oxygen furnaces.
In the following, the differences between the two types of products are discussed. Figure 1: Comparison of the structure of DRI pellets (left) and HBI (right). . The key component in hot briquetting is a specially designed roller press. Figures 4
Direct-reduced iron (DRI), also called sponge iron, is produced from direct or pelletization plants, coke ovens, blast furnaces, and basic oxygen furnaces. Direct Reduced Iron may be in the form of pellets, lumps or briquettes, and is used .. a tripartite agreement between the competent authorities of the ports of loading
Basically there are two main methods of agglomeration of iron ore fines, depending of using pellets in BF/DRI kilns are their uniform quality & superior chemistry which . Moisture content in the mix should be between 7 and 12%. . uniformly indurate all the pellets, thereby minimising the ball-to-ball quality differences
The concentrate must be pelletized in order to feed a blast furnace or a DRI plant. These plants produce pellets at a lower cost and higher quality than other The major areas or process are the concentrator, balling, induration and handling
20 Feb 2013 Direct reduced iron (DRI) is a type of alternative iron made by heating iron is also known as sponge iron and is sold as briquettes, lumps, or pellets. to tell the difference between pure iron and iron made the traditional way.
of raw materials quality required for producing DRI, especially in Rotary Kiln. . reduced pellets or sponge iron as feed for blast furnace, induction furnaces and basic difference is due to scarcity of natural gas and abundant availability of Iron Ore Fines: In rotary kiln, usually the ore of size between 5 to 18 mm are used.
Typical fuel pellets are about the size of a pinhead and contain around 10 milligrams Basic fusion; ICF mechanism of action; Issues with the successful Generally ICF systems use a single laser, the driver, whose beam is split up . is based on the temperature difference between the fuel and its surroundings,
Iron Ore basic raw material for iron and steel production together with metallurgical coal . DRI Direct reduced iron, iron ore pellets or lump ore that has been reduced For iron ore the natural moisture can vary between 2 and about 12%
hot briquetted iron, steel's most versatile metallic: part 3 - assessing product quality - midrex technologies, inc
This article is the third in a series that has appeared in DFM throughout 2018. In Part 1, we went back to the basics and described what is Hot Briquetted Iron (HBI), what makes it such a useful source of steelmaking metallics, how it became part of MIDREX Direct Reduction Technology, and where HBI plants are located. Part 2 in the series looked at where HBI can be sourced today and proposed considerations for where additional capacity could be built in the future. Part 3 discusses the parameters used to describe HBI quality and the various ways that HBI quality is determined.
*Note: This article is based on information contained in the IIMA Hot Briquetted Iron (HBI) Quality Assessment Guide, which is used with the permission and assistance of the International Iron Metallics Association (IIMA).
Look at a definition of quality and most likely it will include the word standard. One source defines a standard as an idea or thing used as a measure, norm, or model in comparative evaluations. Another describes it as a set of specifications that are adopted within an industry to allow compatibility between products. In the case of Hot Briquetted Iron (HBI), both are relevant.
HBI has been manufactured commercially by four direct reduction processes: FIOR and FINMET, both fluidized-bed processes using iron ore fines, and MIDREX and HYL/ Energiron, which are shaft furnace processes using iron ore pellets and lump ores. All four processes primarily use natural gas as reductant and as fuel.
The physical and chemical properties of the HBI produced by the four processes are similar but not identical due to different feed-stocks and processing parameters. Typical HBI chemical specifications are listed in TABLE I.
HBI, CDRI (cold DRI), and pig iron are known as ore-based iron metallics because they are manufactured from naturally-occurring iron ores. When these metallics are produced specifically to be traded and shipped, they are known as merchant iron.
International Iron Metallics Association (IIMA), the trade association for the various forms of ore-based iron metallics, has updated and posted on its website (www.metallics.org) a guide for assessing the quality of HBI, which was originally published in 2011 by HBI Association (HBIA), a predecessor of IIMA. The original guide was developed to better inform those involved in HBI production, trade, and use of the procedures and methods for sampling and testing the physical and chemical properties and the reactivity of the material. A goal of HBIA was to achieve consensus on a comprehensive set of standards through active involvement with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) to establish quality criteria for all HBI traded globally.
IIMA has adopted the definition of HBI that is used by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) in its International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes Code (IMSBC Code), in which HBI is designated Direct Reduced Iron (A) Briquettes hot-moulded and defined as follows:
Direct reduced iron (A) is a metallic grey material, moulded in a briquette form, emanating from a densification process whereby the direct reduced iron (DRI) feed material is moulded at a temperature greater than 650C and has a density greater than 5,000 kg/m3. Fines and small particles (under 6.35 mm) shall not exceed 5% by weight.
HBI samples for analysis should be drawn and prepared in accordance with the following international standard: ISO 10835: 2007 Direct Reduced Iron and Hot Briquetted Iron Sampling and sample preparation (last reviewed and confirmed in 2016). This standard provides the underlying theory and the basic principles for sampling and preparation of samples, as well as the basic requirements for the design, installation, and operation of the systems for mechanical sampling, manual sampling, and preparation of samples taken from a lot under transfer to determine the chemical composition, moisture content, and physical properties of the lot.
The methods specified in ISO 10835:2007 are applicable to both the loading and discharging of DRI and HBI by means of belt conveyors or other ore-handling equipment to which a mechanical sampler may be installed or where stopped-belt sampling may be safely conducted. In the ISO standard, DRI includes both reduced pellets and reduced lump ore.
If it is not possible to perform sampling and sample preparation in accordance with ISO 10835:2007, sampling and sample preparation should be performed in accordance with the equivalent national standard or other relevant and applicable standards. In such circumstances, it is strongly recommended that the contractual parties first agree upon and document the sampling and sample preparation standards and procedures to be followed.
Sampling normally should be done by cutting a complete cross-section of the HBI stream at a transfer point while the material is being conveyed to or from a ship, stockpile, or container, using a mechanical sample cutter. The cutter aperture of the primary sampler should be at least three times the longest dimension of the HBI; i.e., at least 300 mm/11.8 in.
Increments also may be taken by stopped-belt sampling (see Figure 1). The conveyor must be shut down to sample manually and the location and procedure must be well defined in advance to ensure the safety of personnel. A cut is made to obtain material from across the full width of the belt, using a shovel and broom to collect fines. It is not recommended to sample from piles since obtaining a completely representative sample is difficult to achieve.
Often, flow of material along a belt will be started and stopped due to the upstream handling; for instance, a bucket is being emptied into a hopper feeding over the belt. The sample cut should not be taken near the beginning or near the end of flow. As a guideline, the sample should be taken from the middle third of flow.
The number of sample increments will depend on the size of the shipment, the quality variation, and the desired sampling precision. HBI is normally shipped in vessels in the range of 15,000-40,000 tons (all tons are metric). The number of increments can be estimated using TABLE II as a guideline.
Sampling for analysis of particle size distribution may be performed in the field either during vessel discharge or following reload to conveyor belts for transport to the final customer (Figure 2). Typically, these are collected, photographed, and presented to the client along with size fraction percentage data and graphs to substantiate cargo quality guarantees by the supplier. Suitable sub-sample size fraction increments are: +37.5mm/+1.48 in, + 25mm/+0.98 in, +19mm/+0.75 in, +12.5mm/+0.5 in, + 9.5mm/0.37 in, +6.3mm/+0.25 in, +4.0mm/0.16 in, and 4.0mm/-0.16 in.
(Note: Sampling for physical analysis can be considerably more stringent than sampling for chemical analysis. Therefore, it is recommended to refer to the ISO Manual for Sampling of Bulk Solids prior to attempting such sampling.)
The physical quality of an HBI briquette is mainly determined by its apparent density and strength. The water absorption also may be measured, although this is less frequently used. These properties and the relevant test methods are described in the following ISO standards:
In general, apparent density is determined in accordance with the Archimedes principle, which states that the apparent weight of an object when immersed in a liquid decreases by an amount equal to the weight of the volume of the liquid that it displaces. Since 1 ml (0.03 oz) of water has a mass equal to 1 g/0.04 oz when the object is immersed in water, the difference between the two masses (in grams) will equal almost exactly the volume (in ml/oz) of the object weighed. Therefore, knowing the mass and the volume of an object allows the density to be calculated.
Preparation of the test sample is of special importance in the case of HBI. This differs from the well-known Archimedes method for solid and non-porous test pieces in that the remaining open pores must be soaked in water before determining the apparent density. The main steps according to ISO 15968 are:
Further details concerning the relevant procedures are described in the ISO standard ISO 15968. Figure 3 is based on a diagram in this standard and illustrates the determination of the apparent density of briquettes in a water bath. As far as is known, all operating HBI plants utilize this procedure for the determination of briquette density.
There are different options for the determination of briquette strength. In each case the intention is to simulate the briquette breakage and fines loss to be expected during transport and handling of the product.
An ISO standardized procedure is described in ISO 15967 direct reduced iron determination of tumble and abrasion indices of hot briquetted iron (HBI). According to this standard, an abrasion drum with a diameter of 1,000 mm/39.37 in and a width of 500 mm/19.69 in with two lifters is used. Similar equipment is also used to test iron ore pellets and is illustrated in Figures 4 and 5. The rotational speed is 25 rpm. The test is finalized after 200 revolutions. According to ISO 15967 the following data are recorded or indicated:
ISO 15967 does not contain a list of definitions but includes a cross reference to another standard, ISO: 11323 iron ore and direct reduced iron vocabulary. Relevant definitions are included at the end of this article.
These are non-standardized drop tests, varying from one plant to another, with different drop heights and number of drops. Results are recorded and documented based on a screen analysis of the material after testing.
The chemical composition of HBI can vary depending on its origin. The iron ore used to produce HBI has the largest impact, but other factors such as the process technology also can influence its chemistry. This section presents the ISO standards and internationally recognized testing procedures that, when properly applied, define the chemical composition of HBI as a manufactured product.
The chemical composition of interest to the consumer includes iron (total iron, metallic iron), carbon, sulfur, phosphorus, and gangue (primarily CaO, SiO2, MgO and Al2O3), as they will impact how the HBI is melted and performs in subsequent products.
Reference: (ISO 14284:1996, Steel and iron Sampling and preparation of samples for the determination of chemical composition) A representative sample (as described earlier in the Sampling and Sample Preparation section) of the HBI lot is further prepared for chemical analysis by grinding and splitting down to a size suitable for chemical analysis. HBI is a solid, non- homogeneous manufactured product so there is an inherent variability within a lot; careful sampling and sample preparation are critical to maintaining statistical representation necessary to the validity of the reported analyses. In addition, improper sample preparation techniques can alter the sample, leading to false results for example, excessive heating of the sample during grinding will re-oxidize the metallic iron to iron oxide.
These test methods specify titrimetric methods for determination of total iron in iron ore but are commonly used for HBI as well. The ISO standard specifies a maximum iron content of 72% whereas the ASTM standard goes up to 95%.
Both test methods specify titrimetric methods for determination of the mass fraction of metallic iron in reduced iron ores such as HBI and DRI. The ferric chloride method is applicable to mass fraction of metallic iron range 57.5-90.5% but is reliably used in higher range.
The bromine methanol method is applicable to a concentration range of 15-95% of mass fraction of metallic iron. The bromine methanol method is not recommended due to the hazards associated with bromine methanol and waste products, but it is useful for precision analysis on claims or clarification issues.
In the IR combustion method, the sample is burned in an oxygen atmosphere in an induction furnace. The carbon in the sample is oxidized to carbon dioxide (CO2) while the sulfur is converted to sulfur dioxide (SO2). Both CO2 and SO2 are then measured by infrared detectors. Several equipment manufacturers supply dedicated equipment for carbon/sulfur determination. HBI samples must be in powder form and of small size; sample uniformity is critical, and the test is often performed in replicates.
There are no standards for the direct determination of cementite. It is possible to estimate the amount of cementite in HBI by subtracting the free carbon measured using ISO 10719:2016 from the total carbon measured using ISO 15350:2000. The former standard is developed for cast iron and specifies a maximum of 3% carbon. Cementite also can be estimated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) but this method is considered semi-quantitative.
Both methods were developed for iron ore but apply also to HBI. The X-ray fluorescence method is commonly used for routine analysis, but the accuracy depends on the quality of the calibration curves. The spectrophotometric method is used determine phosphorus when analyzing unknown samples.
Analysis of all gangue components in HBI such as CaO, SiO2, MgO and Al2O3 is performed primarily using the x-ray fluorescence (XRF) method developed for iron ore. Various other methods, such as titration, atomic absorption or inductively coupled plasma also exist, but are becoming obsolete.
HBI is produced by compacting Direct Reduced Iron (DRI) in a roller press at elevated temperature
(> 650C/1202F). This is done to reduce the reactivity of the DRI and to minimize yield loss in the form of fines during shipping, handling and storage. DRI reactivity consists of two main reactions: oxidation and hydrogen generation. Both reactions are accelerated by the porous structure of DRI (i.e. very high surface area):
Depending on the conditions, both reactions can happen simultaneously, where oxygen is both consumed and generated, and hydrogen is produced. Reaction 1 raises the temperature while Reaction 2 cools the DRI.
Hot briquetting reduces available inner surface and porosity. At an apparent density of 5,000 kg/m3 or higher, the IMO in effect deems the reactivity to be sufficiently reduced for safe shipment of HBI as per the IMSBC Code schedule for DRI (A). The remaining porosity in HBI is mostly a function of pressing force and temperature and is lower than DRI. Because of the drastic reduction in the exposed surface area, the kinetic rate of the chemical reactions above is reduced significantly, making HBI much less reactive than DRI.
There are currently no standard methods for testing HBI reactivity specifically. Most of the test protocols were developed for DRI but have not been standardized by ISO or other organizations. IIMA can provide reference to these tests if requested: the more common are the Nagel tests and the reactivity tests developed by technology providers Midrex and Tenova/HYL.
A material must be classified as MHB if the material possesses one or more of these chemical hazards. When a test method is prescribed in the Code, representative samples of the cargo to be carried must be used for testing, samples to be taken 200-360 mm/7.87-14.17 in inward from the surface at 3 m/9.8 ft intervals over the length of a stockpile.
The IMO requires testing for these hazards in accordance with the United Nations publication Recommendations on the TRANSPORT OF DANGEROUS GOODS: Manual of Tests and Criteria. In some cases, these tests have been shown not to be wholly reliable for assessment of MHB hazards for some cargoes and IIMA therefore recommends caution.
For this reason, the indirect approach for determining critical limits for safe shipping of HBI in bulk as specified in the Direct Reduced Iron (A) schedule of the IMSBC Code continues to be the preferred approach for the HBI industry. This schedule defines the much simpler and more reliable measurable parameters of density (>5,000 kg/m3), proportion of fines below 6.35 mm/0.25 in (maximum 5% by weight) and briquetting temperature (>650C/1202F). These limits reflect not only research by industry prior to the introduction of HBI as a commodity, but also the many subsequent years of experience with global shipment of HBI.
Mass in air of a unit volume of particles of iron ore or direct reduced iron as aggregate, which includes the voids between and within the particles.
NOTE 1: Bulk density is referred to as b and expressed in kilograms per cubic metre.
NOTE 2: In industrial practice, the bulk density of iron ore or direct reduced iron is expressed as the ratio of the mass to the volume of a measuring container filled under specified conditions.
Relative measure of the amount of metallic iron (8.5) in the total iron content of direct reduced iron.
NOTE 1: ISO 11257, applicable to direct reduction feedstocks, determines the degree of metallization, referred to as M, expressed as the ratio of the metallic iron content at a reduction time of 300 min, to the total iron content, as a percentage by mass. NOTE 2: ISO 11258, applicable for direct reduction feedstocks, determines the degree of metallization referred to as MR,expressedas the ratio of the metallic iron content at a reduction time of 90 min, to the total iron content, as a percentage by mass.
Extent to which oxygen has been removed, under specific reduction conditions, from iron oxides, expressed as the ratio of oxygen removed by reduction to oxygen originally combined with iron.
NOTE 1: ISO 7215, applicable to blast furnace feedstocks, determines for a reduction time of 3 hours the degree of reduction referred to as the final degree of reduction expressed as a percentage by mass.
NOTE 2: ISO 11258, applicable to direct reduction feedstocks, determines for a reduction time of 90 min the degree of reducion referred to as the final degree of reduction expressed as a percentage by mass.
NOTE 3: The final degree of reduction is generally denoted by Rf.
Test used to determine the physical strength of bulk materials, such as coal, coke, sinter, iron ore pellets, and HBI. Material is dropped from a certain height a certain number of times and the fraction of +20mm/0.79 in is screened out. The percentage of material larger than 20mm/0.79 in is reported as the drop strength.
Known as Direct Reduced Iron (A) Briquettes, hot-moulded in the IMO IMSBC Code. HBI is produced by reducing iron oxide lumps, pellets, or fines, and compressing the material at a temperature of at least 650C/1202F to achieve an apparent density of at least 5,000 kg/m3.
DRI, HBI, and pig iron, which are manufactured, traded, and shipped internationally (typically by ocean transport) for use in making steel. Most merchant iron is produced by plants dedicated to exporting the material; however, some direct reduction plants and blast furnaces export when they have excess iron capacity.
Resistance of lump ore, agglomerates or hot briquetted iron to size degradation by impact and abrasion, when subjected to tumbling in a rotating drum under specific conditions.
NOTE: In ISO 3271 and ISO 15967, tumble strength is referred to as the tumble and abrasion indices:
a. the tumble index is a relative measure of the resistance of lump ore, agglomerates or hot briquetted iron to size degradation by impact, referred to as TI and expressed as the percentage by mass of the 6.30 mm/0.25 in fraction generated in the test portion after tumbling.
b. the abrasion index is a relative measure of the resistance of lump ore, agglomerates or hot briquetted iron to size degradation by abrasion, referred to as AI and expressed as the percentage by mass of the 500 m fraction generated in the test portion after tumbling.
Test in which material is rotated in a drum and the fraction of 6.35 mm is screened out. The percentage of the material larger than 6.35 mm/0.25 in is reported as the tumble strength. The fines fraction (less than 0.5 mm/0.02 in) is reported as the abrasion index.
IIMA Disclaimer The information presented in the IIMA guide is intended as general information only and should not be relied upon in relation to any specific application. Those making use thereof or relying thereon assume all risks and liability arising from such use or reliance.