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diy shaker table

how to build a mining shaker table | sciencing

how to build a mining shaker table | sciencing

Though the days of the California gold rush are long behind us, the idea of finding this valuable element on your own still sparks wonder in the minds of young and old alike. People have used everything from simple pans with holes in the bottom to pan for gold, to mining shaker tables, which allow for much faster separating of materials.

A shaker table is an apparatus used in the gold mining industry that helps to separate out heavy metals from other fine constituents. It consists of a slightly slanted table that has side panels to help contain washed materials. Pulverized rock is water washed onto the table where vibration shakes out heavy gold that remains and lighter materials get washed away.

Early miners used manual shaker tables driven by pulley systems. But modern ones run on generators or electric power. It doesnt take much effort to make one from commonly available materials and recycled parts.

There are many forms of shaker tables. These include a Keene shaker table, a gold shaker table with a riffle design, a gold shaker dancer table, or a piece of furniture to your own liking and specifications. To make a table of your own, follow the steps outlined below.

Find an old washing machine that is operational and can still agitate. Search at used appliance outlets or ask friends for one they no longer want. Dont be concerned with dents or dings, but make sure the enamel casing is still on to serve as a platform for the table. When its turned on, the washer will also act as an agitator to shake the table.

Use the lumber to make a frame that will fit snugly around the outside of the washing machine. Cut two lengths of lumber to fit along the sides of the washer and allow the wood to extend about 10 inches above it. Bolt the lumber onto sides of the washer with the help of a power drill.

Cut a piece of lumber to fit across the top of the washer and between the two poles. Allow the wider side to rest flat in front of the washer opening if you have a top loader. Bolt the wood onto the existing poles.

Make a wood frame by connecting two 4-1/2 foot lengths of lumber to each edge of the flat wood section. Slant them slightly downward so that water can pour out easily. Orient them so the wider sides are vertical and secure them with bolts. Finish the frame by attaching timber to form a rectangle. Cut and bolt two lengths of timber to the far end to serve as legs.

Erin Moseley is an advocate for science education. Since 1985, she has written numerous technical, user and training manuals for major corporations, public agencies and universities. She holds a Bachelor of Science in geology.

gold shaking table

gold shaking table

A Gold Shaking Table are basically low-capacity machines used as last step in the gold upgrading process. Theshakingtable is a thin film, shear flow process equipment, that separatesparticlegrains of its feed material based on thedifferences in their specific gravity, density, size and shape. Mineral rich particles, from light to heavy and fine to coarse will be sorted by net effective weight. Finely crushed or ground ore material goes as feed mixed with water to form a pulp (mud) andfed as slurry of an average about 2025% of solids by weight onto the highest point of the table deck. The gold tables deck hasa reciprocal movement along its main axis that is given using a vibrator or an eccentric head motion. The table surface is manufactured and fitted with several tapered strips called riffles or grooves, often made with of yellow pine (way back in time that is), low-density polythene or aluminum surfacing.Shaking tables and other thin film separating plant recover finely divided gold under conditions of subcritical laminar and supercritical laminar regimes of flow, which may occur only where there is a very thin depth of fluid.

Agold shaking tables riffles taper downwards in elevation in the direction the gold (and all heavies), precious metals concentrate discharge end of the table. This facilitates the ease with which mineral particles can move transversal to the tables axis or shaker-line, therefore helpingseparation over the complete tablelength. Riffle heights and pattern designs are selected based on the desired and required duty/function expected.

Preparing several size fractions for tabling is usually achieved in a hydrosizer. Ifgold is present in both coarse and finely divided sizings at least three, or perhapsfour separate size fractions must be treated, each under a different set of operatingconditions. Tables operate most efficiently with a closely sized feed. The slurry fansout across a smooth section of the surface until it reaches the riffles. The lighterand very fine particles are washed over the riffles and moved along the riffles by thereciprocating motion imparted to the deck while the heavier particles are held back. The concentrates of heavy mineral and gold are discharged over the end of thedeck. Tailings are washed over the lower edge and a middlings fraction is taken offbetween the lower edge of the concentrate strip and the higher edge of the tailingstrip.

Wash water usage is dependent upon the particle diameter and varies from aslow as 0.7 m/t/h of solids for slime decks, up to 56 m/t/h for coarse solidsseparation. Coarse fractions are usually treated at feed rates of up to 1 t/h using approximately 15 to 20 mm stroke lengths at around 280 rpm (Wilfley table data). Thestroke lengths of finer fractions are reduced to 915 mm with increased speeds ofup to 325 rpm but, because of the corresponding lower film, thickness capacitiesmay fall to around 0.25 t/h. The inclination of the deck is adjusted during operationusing a hand-operated tilting device. It is important following each adjustment toallow the table operation to settle down before making a fresh adjustment. The correct inclination is reached when the ribbon of concentrates is clearly defined andremains steady.

The extreme sensitivity of water depths and corresponding current depths to obtain F = 1, and the use of stationary tables as primary concentrating units, was probably the main reason for the consistently low (R.E. 6065%) gold recoveries of early dredgers. For such table types, the fluid forces are applied to the stream-beds as a whole and ripples form, which keep the sand in orbital motion and provide for the denser particles to sink to the bed. Deposition is most favoured by anti-dune conditions produced by free-surface flow at or near the supercritical state. Such bed forms are in phase with the water surface and are produced in the rapid flow conditions of Froude Number F = 1. In this state of flow, the bed forms of the upper flow regime are stable. Below F = 1 the flow is tranquil and shear forces are reduced. In reviewing recovery distributions of certaindredgers it wasnoted that some coarse gold reported with the tailing after passing through two stages of tabling and that fine gold did not concentrate noticeably down the line.

I consider the gold shaker table to be a shaking sluice box OR self cleaning sluice as they both essentially are classifiers used as heavy gold concentrating devices. Apart from nuggets; generally the valuable minerals like heavy precious metals like platinumandpalladium thatcan berecovered by tables and sluices, are found in one size range (generally the finest) and the waste minerals in another. On agold sluice, large particles (gravel) travel by sliding and rolling over the riffles, with finer particles travelling by saltation. Sand travels by a combination of modes described earlier with some saltation over the riffles.Very fine particles are maintained in suspension by turbulent and inter-particle collision.

Riffles function properly only if in the space between them and the slurry is sufficiently live (turbulent) to reject the lighter particles, but not so lively that the gold cannot settle. On a gold shaker table, those particles are allowed to settle as they will get transported to the other end by the vibrating/shaking back-and-forth motion. Lower grade, light pieces, will be able to escape the table a the riffles becomes shorter along the tables length.Once the particle has started to move, the coefficient of friction changes to a dynamic coefficient of friction. In fact, because the fluid push on the particles is larger at the top of the particle than at the bottom, the particle rolls, largely according to the shape of the particle and according to the speed. At low speeds, the effective friction is the relatively large coefficient of dynamic sliding friction, and at high speeds it is the lower coefficient of rolling friction. The change probably takes place partly continuously and partly discontinuously. As a first approximation, the dynamic coefficient of friction may, however, be regarded as constant.

In a sluice box, the settling of heavy minerals between the riffles requires frequent stirring to prevent the riffle spaces from blinding. This also disturbs the gold, which then moves progressively down-sluice. Frequent clean-ups are needed to avoid excessive loss. Boxes may be used in parallel to avoid loss of production time. One box is kept in operation while cleaning up in the other.

Effect of Deck Roughness: The foregoing analysis is based on the postulate that the deck is perfectly smooth. If the deck is rough, i.e., if it has at its surface some recesses capable of partly shielding fine particles from the rub of the fluid, the slope required to move the particles by either rolling or sliding will be increased. At the same time such an effect, while present also for large particles, may be so much smaller for them as to be imperceptible. The relationship of critical angle to size obtained above will therefore not hold for rough surfaces. The problem is analytically complex and it is nevertheless a problem that might well be explored further if a full insight is desired into the mechanism of flowing-film concentration.

Adjustments are provided in all tables for the amount of wash water, the cross tilt, the speed, and the length of the stroke. The speed of the table ranges usually from 180 to 270 strokes per minute, and the strokes are from 1/2 to 1 1/2 long.

Variations in character of feed require variations in operation. The operators duty is to take care of them by adjusting the tilt, the wash water, and the position of the splitters that control discharge of table into concentrate, middling, and tailing launders. One man may look after 10 to 100 tables, depending upon the regularity of the feed and the difficulty of the task assigned to the table.

A coarse feed can be treated in larger amounts than a fine feed. It would seem that the treatable tonnage increases at least as the square of the average size (theory indicates that it increases as the cube of the particle size).

A roughing operation is preferably conducted on a fully riffled deck. These decks have a greater capacity because the particles are treated throughout the deck in the form of a teetering suspension many particles deep instead of as a restive layer one particle deep. Such decks do not provide flowing-film concentration but some sort of jigging. On the other hand, a cleaning operation is preferably performed on a partly riffled deck.

It is clear that minerals of different specific gravity must be present the greater the spread in specific gravity between minerals, the greater the capacity since that sort of condition permits crowding without considerable penalty.

The effect of locked particles on capacity of tables should also be recognized. These particles behave in a fashion intermediate between that of pure particles of their constituent minerals. It is as if a three-product separation were sought in which one of the products would guide-in specific gravity between the two other.

Table capacity may be as high as 200 tons per 24 hr. on a fully riffled deck 4 by 12 ft. treating minus 3-mm. sulphide ore having a specific gravity of about 3.0 (roughing duty), or 500 tons per 24 hr. But table capacity may be as low as 5 tons per 24 hr., or even less, for fine ore (minus 0.3 mm.) if there is only a small specific-gravity differential between minerals.

Operating a shaking table is cheap as power requirement per table are typically low. Most of the energy is expended to move the deck, which must therefore be as light as is consistent with rigidity. Laboratory gold shaking table testingreport.

There are a few steps that need to be taken in order to get yourgold shaker table to work efficiently. The first step that aspiring gold miners must take would be to make sure that all four corners of the table are level from forward to back. It is very important to anchor the bolts so that the shaking of the gold goes to the table and not through the frame. After you begin running your table, you may need to adjust your table from side to side to maintain an even flow of materials on both sides of the table.

A gold shaker table contains a water access point where you can fill it with clean water, which can be seen right under the control area. Alternatively you can directly fill the tank of the shaker table with clean water. The water access point allows you to connect a clean water system through a garden hose. The valve that is right behind the tank is then turned off and the pump system is not running during the process of running fresh water. When clean washing water is distributed at the top of the table at right angles, particles are moved diagonally across the deck and separate from each other according to their size and density. During the fast shaking process, you will gradually begin to see the separation of materials. For example, when you have dirt and rocks that contain materials like lead, sulfides and gold, because of the varying weights of these different materials, you will see these materials venture off in different directions on the shaker table. The lead and the sulfides will be carried over to the right side of the table while the pure gold will be carried over to the far left side of the table.

There is one term to remember when professional gold miners describe the actions of a gold shaker table. When professional gold miners say that small particles of gold are being carried through the grooves, they are referring to the ripples that you can plainly see on the shaker table. When they say that there is an overflow of materials like Black Pyrrhotite, White Quartz, silver and gold on the grooves, then this is a good thing.

When materials are washed by the clean water they are supposed to drop into 3 hoppers/launders underneath the table. There is a centre launderthat will gather the purest portions of gold while the two outside launders will gather some gold, though not as much.

It is crucial to remember to plug the cable of your shaker table into a GFCI (Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter) outlet. Most shaker tables will not work if they are plugged into any other kind of outlet.

In aPercussion Gold Shaker Table,the work of keeping the pulp in a state of agitation, done by the rakes or brushes in the German and Cornish buddies described above, is affected by sudden blows or bumps imparted sideways or endways to the table. The table is made of wood or sheet metal, the surface being either smooth or riffled.

End-bump tables are hung by chains or in some similar manner, so as to be capable of limited movement, and receive a number of blows delivered on the upper end. These blows are given by cams acting through rods, or else the table is pushed forward against the action of strong springs by cams on a revolving shaft, and then being suddenly released is thrown back violently by the springs against a fixed horizontal beam. The movement of the pulp depends on the inertia of the particles, which are thrown backward up the inclined table by the blow given to the table, the amount of movement varying with their mass, and depending, therefore, both on their size and density. The vibrations produced by the percussion also perform the work of the rakes in destroying the cohesion between the particles, and a stream of water washes them down. The result is that the larger and heavier particles may be made to travel up the table in the direction in which theyare thrown by the blow, by regulating the quantity of water, while the smaller and lighter particles are carried down. These machines yield only two classes of material, headings and tailings. One such machine, the Gilpin County Gilt Edge Concentrator was devised in Colorado, and has displaced the blanket sluices atalmost all the mills at Blackhawk. It consists (Fig. 46) essentially of a cast-iron or copper table, 7 feet long and 3 feet wide, divided into two equal sections by a 4-inch square bumping-beam. The table has raised edges, and its inclination is about 4 inches in 5 feet at its lower end, the remaining 1 feet at the head having a somewhat steeper grade. The table is hung by iron rods to an iron frame, the length of the rods being altered by screw threads, so as to regulate the inclination to the required amount. A shaft with double cams, A, making 65 revolutions per minute, enables 130 blows per minute to be given to the table in the following manner; onbeing released by the cam, the table is forced forward by the strong spring, B, so that its head strikes against the solid beam,C, which is firmly united to the rest of the frame.

The pulp coming from the copper plates is fed on to the table near its upper end by a distributing box, D, and is spread out and kept in agitation by the rapid blows. Thesulphides settle to the bottom of the pulp, and are thrown forward by the shock, and eventually discharged over the head of the table at the left hand of the figure, while the gangue is carried down by the water and discharged at the other end. One machine is enough to concentrate the pulp from five stamps. If the table consists of amalgamated copper plates, it is of some use for catching free gold also, treating about 8 cwts. of ore per hour. This machine is not so effective in saving slimed pyrites as the Wilfley table or the vanners.

Gold shaker tables are environmentally friendly (chemical free) for recovering pure gold as they can play an important part in reducing the use of mercury by gold miners. With gold shaker tables miners dont need to resort to mercury amalgamation or cyanide to recover gold. The filter will constantly need to be removed and cleaned as it will get dirty even after using the table a few times.

Miners can design and construct a basic shaking table out of cheap materials that are affordable in local stores, including a drive mechanism that contains bicycle gears, chains and rubber bands that are made from car tire inner tubes. The drive mechanism for a gold shaker table can be a hand crank or it can contain parts of a motorcycle frame and engine. If one prefers to use a motor for his or her table, either an electric motor or a motor that runs on diesel fuel would be the ideal options.

It is important to keep in mind that there is no one specific way to create your own gold shaker table system. Many professional gold mining organizations will create tables of different shapes and sizes to cater to the needs of their customers. Some shaker table systems will feature machines that can crush hard rocks, which are referred to as jaw crushers. The speeds of shaker table systems will vary as they can shake from hundreds to thousands of pounds of materials per hour.

shaker table plans - diy projects - nugget shooter forums

shaker table plans - diy projects - nugget shooter forums

I am looking for plans to build a shaker table. I saw one on Chris Ralphs web site, but there are no actual plans posted, just a general description. I would like to build one that is smaller in size. If anyone has any ideas, I would appreciate the help. Thanks.

Down sizing it would not be a problem as long as we keep the size proportions in order. I've checked my files and I am having my hard rock partner check his for the plans. There are a couple companies that make a small lab table, 2 foot by 4 foot, that might be right for you. I'll check the Mining Journal for their phone numbers.

Thanks for your help. We have a claim in AZ that produces well, but it is very fine gold and a shaker table would be very helpful in our recovery process. Looking forward to heraring from you. Thank you again and have a great new year.

4.The cam I would use for such a small table would be nothing more than a good quality pulley. Drill a hole close to the outside of the pully, that way you can use different size weights to control the amount of bounce you want. Simple bolt with lead weights will work. When you get the right bounce you wont be changing it all the time anyway. The pulley is fastened to the underside of the table.

I do know one thing for sure!! there not that easy to build. I had a hell of a time trying to figure it all out. If you break it down into each assy. and use quality stuff you will find that it is a great project for the guy who likes to tinker. The little tables dont sell for a grand because there easy!!If you start one and have a question, give me a call 253-299-6423 SteveT

Thank you all for your efforts and information. I will look into the premade ones and see if I can get one for a good price. I see them from time to time on the internet, I will keep my eyes open for used ones as well. Thanks again and Happy New Year to all!

I've been searching for the plans that the British Geological Society said they have for the shaker table. They do not have it on their site anymore and I noticed you have them. Would you share them with me? I would appreciate it very much.

4.The cam I would use for such a small table would be nothing more than a good quality pulley. Drill a hole close to the outside of the pully, that way you can use different size weights to control the amount of bounce you want. Simple bolt with lead weights will work. When you get the right bounce you wont be changing it all the time anyway. The pulley is fastened to the underside of the table.

I do know one thing for sure!! there not that easy to build. I had a hell of a time trying to figure it all out. If you break it down into each assy. and use quality stuff you will find that it is a great project for the guy who likes to tinker. The little tables dont sell for a grand because there easy!!If you start one and have a question, give me a call 253-299-6423 SteveT

I noticed you have experience with making a shaker table. Detailed info is so hard to find. I'm curious to know what works for you. The table layout, riffle details, angles, depth, shape, location, length, etc. are all somewhat mysterious. I'm a machinist and can do it all nicely but want to get it done right the first time.

free woodworking plans: more depth on the shaker furniture download | popular woodworking magazine

free woodworking plans: more depth on the shaker furniture download | popular woodworking magazine

If you have found your way onto the Woodworking Daily blog list, it may have been via our free woodworking plans page. If not, be sure to check it out and download a few more, especially the latest one on Shaker style furniture that is packed with general information on end table plans, coffee table plans, dining table plans and an overall table plan template.

I like Shaker furniture because it plays well with other styles. That means it will withstand the style test over many years, no matter what other furniture you acquire or make. And if you make it right, Shaker style furniture will of course withstand the other damages that come with time. I mean wear and tear.

When it comes to tables, knowledge of basic woodworking joints is key to preventing wear and tear. Dont worry. Im not going to go into a treatise on joinery. But I do want to point you to a helpful blog post from Glen Huey for this particular Shaker table project. There are dozens of ways to complete mortise and tenon furniture. Glen has created a mortise and tenon jig that is cheap, works well and speeds the building process. So be sure to visit that post and download the tenon jig plan (free).

Once youve completed that dining table, come back to the original free download and re-read Bob Langs section on mortise and tenon furniture. I always find that these abstract views make a lot more sense after I have built something that includes the technique in question. This section on different types of tenons for furniture is valuable. Bob discusses not only the types, but why a woodworker uses them. Note for example that the mitered-end variety is not for creating a mitered joint within the joint, but rather to relieve a little extra space within the leg.

The other big takeaway from this project plan, in my opinion, is the discussion of wood movement. Wood movement always matters, but especially when dealing with a wide piece of stock or edge-joined surface. This section of the download can be useful not only in building tables, but also when you start to look at how to build a desk.

So, in summary, we have a few well-curated freebies on the download page from woodworking ideas to wood furniture design and we are adding more every few weeks. Ill follow each upload with a post like this one to offer you a little more depth. Be sure to share this post with your woodworking friends so they can stay in the loop!

Here are some supplies and tools we find essential in our everyday work around the shop. We may receive a commission from sales referred by our links; however, we have carefully selected these products for their usefulness and quality.

You are not talking liquid moisture when you talk wood movement. You are talking humidity. All wood regardless of age and degree of dryness has a residual moisture level. Common numbers thrown about is 19% and 6%. The percentage is the percent volume by weight that the moisture makes up of the wood. So at 19% moisture content, 19% of the roughly 25 pounds per cubic foot of wood of your table is actually water. If your table weighs 100lbs then 19 pounds of that is water. As that water leaves the wood, the wood tends to move (shrink or swell). The opposite is also true. If your wood was very dry, say 6% MC then if your house is humid and the table absorbs some of that humidity, then the wood again tends to move. There are no coating systems completely impervious to moisture and most of us dont coat the unseen sides thoroughly enough to make the wood completely impervious. Even then, the relative difference between the moisture level inside the wood and the atmosphere could cause problems.

I have seen in a number of publications eg Flexner on Finishing that applying a varnish finish seals the timber and does not let liquid furniture polish/cleaner into the pores. If this is so, then how is it that moisture enters and causes seasonal expansion/contraction?

new portable shaker table - gold prospecting - nugget shooter forums

new portable shaker table - gold prospecting - nugget shooter forums

It is homemade with lot's of care. I am making a new video showing the table and how I use it. first part kinda sucks I am rerunning the dirt from the last video and the fox got most of it out plus the sun in now making it hard to see the gold on the table . So needless to say the first part doesn't so a lot of gold on the table. but the second half I clean a snuffer bottle out and it still works just fine. The table works a lot better bolted to concrete and not a 1/2 board staked to the ground. It moves the dirt faster down the table when mounted firmly. Once I get the table back to the shop better videos to come.

So let me get this straight...Jarrod you made this?? (not the video, but the shaker table??) you definitely need to back that camera up so we can see the whole thing, preferrably with camera on a tripod. I would like to size this up a bit further before congratulating you on one of the hardest gold classifiers to duplicate or make "homemade". A homemade shaker...wow!!

There is no molds or fibreglass work in this table. But I am working on a way smaller one that I may make a mold of the top. Ether way the top's have a lot of money in them. machine time or man hour's=$$$$$

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