how many types of magnetic separators? - jxsc machine
Magnetic separation is an effective mineral processing method to separate the minerals based on the magnetism difference. Magnetic separator machine can effectively select a large number of magnetic minerals, such as magnetite, hematite, limonite, manganese siderite, wolframite, ilmenite, manganese ore, manganese carbonate, metallurgical manganese ore, iron ore, kaolin, manganese oxide ore, rare earth ore.
Wet type? Fine particle and coarse particle? Strong magnetic? . . How many kinds of magnetic separators equipment? Frankly, there are many classification methods of magnetic separator types, join us to solve the puzzle.
According to the state of the material, the magnetic separator is divided into dry type magnetic separator and wet type magnetic separator. Dry magnetic separator refers to the material keep dry, dont need to mix with water in the magnetic separation process. The material for wet magnetic separator must be mixed with water or other media.
The dry magnetic separator generally does not need a tank for accommodating the slurry, and the material is conveyed by a vibrating feeding device, and a dustproof device is often provided. The wet magnetic separator has a tank to accommodate the slurry to maintain the fluidity of the material, and the pump is usually transported by a slurry pump.
Dry magnetic separation function for bulk, coarse particle separation, but also fine mineral separation, while wet magnetic separator can not sort large bulk minerals, most are effective for fine or even fine particles, except for a few models that can select coarse particle. HGMS (high gradient wet magnetic separator) can sort micron-sized materials using a suitable magnetically permeable medium.
Dry magnetic separator requires low water content, dry materials, good liquidity, do not adhesion, agglomeration. The wet magnetic separation operation has certain requirements on the slurry concentration. There is no obvious limit on the concentration of coarse magnetic separation, but the material concentration should not be too low to effectively control the negative fluid force during the mineral processing operation. When magnetically selecting fine particles, the concentration is required to be high to ensure the recovery of magnetic minerals.
Dry weak magnetic separators have features like a simple process, low investment, low water consumer. However, the bottleneck of the dry cylinder magnetic separator is that the dust is difficult to control, so as the environmental protection requirements become stricter, the dry type magnetic separation is gradually replaced by the wet weak magnetic separator. At present, the fine-grained dry magnetic separation machine is only used in the water shortage area and severe cold area.
According to the magnetic field strength, magnetic separator is divided into three types: weak magnetic separator (low intensity magnetic separator), medium magnetic separator and strong magnetic separator (high intensity magnetic separator). The weak magnetic separator is from several hundred to 3000 Gs; the strong magnetic separator generally refers to 3000Gs to 6000 Gs, and the medium magnetic field magnetic separator between the two.
The reason why it is classified according to the strength of the magnetic field is related to the magnetic properties of various common minerals (another post Magnetic Mineral Classification). However, it is necessary to know that there is no absolute standard for different magnetic strength and their matched equipment.
In the actual magnetic separation machine, the magnetic field strength ranges from hundreds of Gauss to 20,000 Gauss, some even exceed 20,000 Gauss, but it is rarely used in general beneficiation production. Excessive magnetic field strength will lead to weak magnetic minerals to agglomerate that is not conducive to beneficiation. So the upper limit of the magnetic field strength of the strong magnetic separator is 20000Gs.
On the working surface of various magnetic separators, the magnetic field strength varies at different points and in different ranges, and the working magnetic field is a non-uniform magnetic field. Generally, the value of the magnetic field strength expressed refers to Max. magnetic strength, some factories may list the average value.
According to the type of magnetic field, the magnetic separator is divided into permanent magnet magnetic separator and electromagnetic magnetic separator. The permanent magnet magnetic separator uses a permanent magnet material such as ferrite or neodymium iron boron to generate a working magnetic field, and the electromagnetic magnetic separator uses a magnet with a yoke, a solenoid, and a magnet to generate a magnetic field.
The magnetic field strength of the permanent magnet magnetic separator is fixed, but the different action areas in the magnetic separation working surface can be designed to have different magnetic field strengths. The electromagnetic magnetic separator can adjust the whole magnetic field, but the magnetic field strength values in the working surface are a balanced, uniform magnetic field.
The magnetic energy of the permanent magnet magnetic separator is low, while the electromagnetic separation requires high energy consumption to generate the excitation current. The energy consumption per unit of the permanent magnetic separator is much lower than that of the electromagnetic magnetic separator.
According to the structure of the main working part of the magnetic separator, it is divided into cylindrical (drum) magnetic separator, roller magnetic separator, disc magnetic separator, ring magnetic separator, in addition, have rotor magnetic separator, belt magnetic separation, conical magnetic separator, but these types of magnetic separators have been used less.
According to the way the magnetic field strength changes: 1) Constant magnetic field magnetic separator. Using a permanent magnet material and a direct current electromagnet, a solenoid, or the like as a magnetic source, the magnitude and direction of the magnetic field strength do not change with time. 2) Alternating magnetic field magnetic separator. An electromagnet that is connected to an alternating current is used as a magnetic source. The magnitude and direction of the magnetic field strength changes over time. 3) Pulsating magnetic field magnetic separator. An electromagnet that simultaneously transmits direct current and alternating current is used as a magnetic source. The magnitude of the magnetic field varies with time, but the direction does not change. And pulse Similar to the dynamic magnetic separator, the use of pulsating water flow causes the slurry to pulsate, affecting the sorting force of the magnetically selected mineral. 4) Rotating magnetic field magnetic separator. A magnet is used as the magnetic source, and the magnetic pole rotates around the axis. The magnitude and direction of the magnetic field strength changes over time.
According to whether the magnetic mineral is reversed in the magnetic field of the magnetic separator, it is divided into a mineral reversal magnetic separator and Nonreversal magnetic separator. The mineral reversal magnetic separator can effectively improve the concentrate grade, and the Non-reversal magnetic separator can select the refractory weak magnetic minerals.
According to the minerals, it also can divide into such as magnetite magnetic separator, hematite magnetic separator, manganese ore magnetic separator, quartz sand magnetic separator, NdFeB magnet, nickel, etc.
In addition to the types listed above, there are many ways to classify magnetic separators. Although each manufacturer has a self-classification method, it lacks standards. In the magnetic separator model selection stage, most prefer using mixed name, such as the hematite wet magnetic separator, actually indicate that the sorting mineral is hematite, and the ore dressing method is wet type, but does not show us whether the magnetic separator is a permanent magnet type or an electromagnetic type, and neither indicate which magnetic separation structure the equipment is.
JXSC, 35 years Chinese magnetic separators manufacturer, provides laboratory use small machine, and industry use effective magnetic separators, widely used in the mining industry around the world (Successful cases in UK, South Africa, South Korea, Uganda, Pakistan, Zambia, Tanzania, India, Thailand and so on). Contact us for more details about working principle, specification, price list, dealer and oversea supplier, troubleshooting solutions, operation and installation guidance, etc.
magnetic separator - an overview | sciencedirect topics
As magnetic separators progress toward larger capacity, higher efficiency, and lower operating costs, some subeconomic iron ores have been utilized in recent years. For example, magnetite iron ore containing only about 4% Fe (beach sands or ancient beach sands) to 15% Fe (iron ore formations) and oxidized iron ore of only about 10% Fe (previously mine waste) to 20% Fe (oxidized iron ore formations) are reported to be utilized. They are first crushed and the coarse particles pretreated using roll magnetic separators. The magnetic product of roll magnetic separators may reach 2540% Fe and then is fed to mineral processing plants.
As shown in Figure5, slurry is fed from the top of an inclined screen in a low-intensity magnetic field, with the mesh size of screen sufficiently larger than those of particles in slurry. As the slurry flows down the above surface of screen, magnetic particles agglomerate with the size of agglomerations increasingly growing and roll down as magnetic concentrate at the lower end of screen. The less- or nonmagnetic particles pass through the screen as tailings. Figure5 shows the operation of screen magnetic separators for cleaning of magnetite.
Commercial magnetic separators are continuous-process machines, and separation is carried out on a moving stream of particles passing into and through the magnetic field. Close control of the speed of passage of the particles through the field is essential, which typically rules out free fall as a means of feeding. Belts or drums are very often used to transport the feed through the field.
As discussed in Section 13.4.1, flocculation of magnetic particles is a concern in magnetic separators, especially with dry separators processing fine material. If the ore can be fed through the field in a monolayer, this effect is much less serious, but, of course, the capacity of the machine is drastically reduced. Flocculation is often minimized by passing the material through consecutive magnetic fields, which are usually arranged with successive reversals of the polarity. This causes the particles to turn through 180, each reversal tending to free the entrained gangue particles. The main disadvantage of this method is that flux tends to leak from pole to pole, reducing the effective field intensity.
Provision for collection of the magnetic and nonmagnetic fractions must be incorporated into the design of the separator. Rather than allow the magnetics to contact the pole-pieces, which then requires their detachment, most separators are designed so that the magnetics are attracted to the pole-pieces, but come into contact with some form of conveying device, which carries them out of the influence of the field, into a bin or a belt. Nonmagnetic disposal presents no problems; free fall from a conveyor into a bin is often used. Middlings are readily produced by using a more intense field after the removal of the highly magnetic fraction.
Conventional magnetic separators are largely confined to the separation or filtration of relatively large particles of strongly magnetic materials. They employ a single surface for separation or collection of magnetic particles. A variety of transport mechanisms are employed to carry the feed past the magnet and separate the magnetic products. The active separation volume for each of these separators is approximately the product of the area of the magnetised surface and the extent of the magnetic field. In order for the separators to have practical throughputs, the magnetic field must extend several centimetres. Such an extent implies a relatively low magnetic field gradient and weak magnetic forces.
To overcome these disadvantages HGMS has been developed. Matrices of ferromagnetic material are used to produce much stronger but shorter range magnetic forces over large surface areas. When the matrices are placed in a magnetic field, strong magnetic forces are developed adjacent to the filaments of the matrix in approximately inverse proportion to their diameter. Since the extent of the magnetic field is approximately equal to the diameter of the filaments the magnetic fields are relatively short range. However, the magnetic field produced is intense and permits the separation and trapping of very fine, weakly magnetic particles (Oberteuffer, 1979).
The transport medium for HGMS can be either liquid or gaseous. Dry HGMS processing has the advantage of a dry product although classification of the pulverised coal is required to ensure proper separation. Small particles tend to agglomerate and pass through the separator. It has been shown that individual particles of coal in the discharge of a power plant pulveriser flow freely and hence separate well only if the material below about 10 m is removed (Eissenberg et al., 1979). Even then drying of that part of run of mine coal to be treated by HGMS may be required to ensure good flow characteristics.
A schematic representation of a batch HGMS process is shown in Figure 11.5 (Hise, 1979, 1980; Hise et al., 1979). It consists of a solenoid, the core cavity of which is filled with an expanded metal mesh. Crushed coal is fed to the top of the separator. Clean coal passes through while much of the inorganic material is trapped to be released when the solenoid is later deactivated.
Data from a batch HGMS process of one size fraction of one coal are plotted in Figure 11.6 as weight per cent of material trapped in the magnetic matrix, the product sulphur and the product ash versus the independent variable of superficial transport velocity. At low superficial transport velocities the amount of material removed from the coal is high partly due to mechanical entrapment. As the velocity is increased the importance of this factor diminishes but hydrodynamic forces on the particles increase. These hydrodynamic forces oppose the magnetic force and the amount of material removed from the coal decreases (Hise, 1979).
For comparison, Figure 11.7 shows data from a specific gravity separation of the same size fraction of the same coal. While the sulphur contents of the products from the two separation processes are similar the ash content of the HGMS product is considerably higher than that of the specific gravity product. It should be emphasised that this comparison was made for one size fraction of one coal.
More recently dry HGMS has been demonstrated at a scale of 1 t/h on carousel type equipment which processes coal continuously (Figure 11.8; Hise et al., 1981). A metal mesh passes continuously through the magnetised cavity so that the product coal passes through while the trapped inorganics are carried out of the field and released separately.
Wet HGMS is able to treat a much wider range of coal particle sizes than dry HGMS. The efficiency of separation increases with decreasing particle size. However, depending on the end use a considerable quantity of energy may have to be expended in drying the wet, fine coal product. Wet HGMS may find particular application to the precleaning of coal for use in preparing coal water mixtures for subsequent combustion as both pulverising the coal to a fine particle size and transporting the coal in a water slurry are operations common to both processes.
Work at Bruceton, PA, USA has compared the pyrite reduction potential of froth flotation followed by wet HGMS with that of a two stage froth flotation process (Hucko and Miller, 1980). Typical results are shown in Figures 11.9 and 11.10. The reduction in pyritic sulphur is similar in each case although a greater reduction in ash content is achieved by froth flotation followed by HGMS than by two stage froth flotation. However, Hucko (1979) concludes that it is highly unlikely that HGMS would be used for coal preparation independently of other beneficiation processes. As with froth flotation there is considerable variation in the amenability of various coals to magnetic beneficiation.
In the magnetic separator, material is passed through the field of an electromagnet which causes the retention or retardation of the magnetic constituent. It is important that the material should be supplied as a thin sheet in order that all the particles are subjected to a field of the same intensity and so that the free movement of individual particles is not impeded. The two main types of equipment are:
Eliminators, which are used for the removal of small quantities of magnetic material from the charge to a plant. These are frequently employed, for example, for the removal of stray pieces of scrap iron from the feed to crushing equipment. A common type of eliminator is a magnetic pulley incorporated in a belt conveyor so that the non-magnetic material is discharged in the normal manner and the magnetic material adheres to the belt and falls off from the underside.
Concentrators, which are used for the separation of magnetic ores from the accompanying mineral matter. These may operate with dry or wet feeds and an example of the latter is the Mastermag wet drum separator, the principle of operation of which is shown in Figure 1.43. An industrial machine is shown in operation in Figure 1.44. A slurry containing the magnetic component is fed between the rotating magnet drum cover and the casing. The stationary magnet system has several radial poles which attract the magnetic material to the drum face, and the rotating cover carries the magnetic material from one pole to another, at the same time gyrating the magnetic particles, allowing the non-magnetics to fall back into the slurry mainstream. The clean magnetic product is discharged clear of the slurry tailings. Operations can be co- or counter-current and the recovery of magnetic material can be as high as 99.5 per cent.
An example of a concentrator operating on a dry feed is a rotating disc separator. The material is fed continuously in a thin layer beneath a rotating magnetic disc which picks up the magnetic material in the zone of high magnetic intensity. The captured particles are carried by the disc to the discharge chutes where they are released. The nonmagnetic material is then passed to a second magnetic separation zone where secondary separation occurs in the same way, leaving a clean non-magnetic product to emerge from the discharge end of the machine. A Mastermagnet disc separator is shown in Figure 1.45.
The removal of small quantities of finely dispersed ferromagnetic materials from fine minerals, such as china clay, may be effectively carried out in a high gradient magnetic field. The suspension of mineral is passed through a matrix of ferromagnetic wires which is magnetised by the application of an external magnetic field. The removal of the weakly magnetic particles containing iron may considerably improve the brightness of the mineral, and thereby enhance its value as a coating or filler material for paper, or for use in the manufacture of high quality porcelain. In cases where the magnetic susceptibility of the contaminating component is too low, adsorption may first be carried out on to the surface of a material with the necessary magnetic properties. The magnetic field is generated in the gap between the poles of an electromagnet into which a loose matrix of fine stainless steel wire, usually of voidage of about 0.95, is inserted.
The attractive force on a particle is proportional to its magnetic susceptibility and to the product of the field strength and its gradient, and the fine wire matrix is used to minimise the distance between adjacent magnetised surfaces. The attractive forces which bind the particles must be sufficiently strong to ensure that the particles are not removed by the hydrodynamic drag exerted by the flowing suspension. As the deposit of separated particles builds up, the capture rate progressively diminishes and, at the appropriate stage, the particles are released by reducing the magnetic field strength to zero and flushing out with water. Commercial machines usually have two reciprocating canisters, in one of which particles are being collected from a stream of suspension, and in the other released into a waste stream. The dead time during which the canisters are being exchanged may be as short as 10 s.
Magnetic fields of very high intensity may be obtained by the use of superconducting magnets which operate most effectively at the temperature of liquid helium, and conservation of both gas and cold is therefore of paramount importance. The reciprocating canister system employed in the china clay industry is described by Svarovsky(30) and involves the use a single superconducting magnet and two canisters. At any time one is in the magnetic field while the other is withdrawn for cleaning. The whole system needs delicate magnetic balancing so that the two canisters can be moved without the use of very large forces and, for this to be the case, the amount of iron in the magnetic field must be maintained at a constant value throughout the transfer process. The superconducting magnet then remains at high field strength, thereby reducing the demand for liquid helium.
Micro-organisms can play an important role in the removal of certain heavy metal ions from effluent solutions. In the case of uranyl ions which are paramagnetic, the cells which have adsorbed the ions may be concentrated using a high gradient magnetic separation process. If the ions themselves are not magnetic, it may be possible to precipitate a magnetic deposit on the surfaces of the cells. Some micro-organisms incorporate a magnetic component in their cellular structure and are capable of taking up non-magnetic pollutants and are then themselves recoverable in a magnetic field. Such organisms are referred to a being magnetotactic.
where mpap is the inertial force and ap the acceleration of the particle. Fi are all the forces that may be present in a magnetic separator, such as the magnetic force, force of gravity, hydrodynamic drag, centrifugal force, the friction force, surface forces, magnetic dipolar forces, and electrostatic forces among the particles, and others.
Workable models of particle motion in a magnetic separator and material separation must be developed separately for individual types of magnetic separators. The situation is complicated by the fact that many branches of magnetic separation, such as separation by suspended magnets, magnetic pulleys, or wet low-intensity drum magnetic separators still constitute highly empirical technology. Hesitant steps have been taken to develop theoretical models of dry separation in roll and drum magnetic separators. Alternatively, open-gradient magnetic separation, magnetic flocculation of weakly magnetic particles, and wet high-gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) have received considerable theoretical attention. A notable number of papers dealing with the problem of particle capture in HGMS led to an understanding of the interaction between a particle and a matrix element. However, completely general treatment of the magnetostatic and hydrodynamic behavior of an assembly of the material particles in a system of matrix elements, in the presence of a strong magnetic field, is a theoretical problem of considerable complexity which has not been completed, yet. Detailed description of particle behavior in various magnetic separators can be found in monographs by Gerber and Birss (1983) and Svoboda (1987, 2004).
The brick material ratio was: Slag(1.0mm<): Grog (3.0mm<): Ceramic Gravel (1.0mm<): Clay (1.0mm<) at 20 : 35 : 25 : 20. To this mixture, 2% of pigment were added. Kneading and blending was done by a Mller mixer for 15 minutes. Molding was done by a 200 ton friction press, and the bricks were loaded onto the sintering truck.
This paper presents preliminary results using the Magnetic Micro-Particle Separator, (MM-PS, patent pending) which was conceived for high throughput isothermal and isobaric separation of nanometer (nm) sized iron catalyst particles from Fischer-Tropsch wax at 260 oC. Using magnetic fields up to 2,000 gauss, F-T wax with 0.30.5 wt% solids was produced from 25 wt% solids F-T slurries at product rates up to 230 kg/min/m2. The upper limit to the filtration rate is unknown at this time. The test flow sheet is given and preliminary results of a scale-up of 50:1 are presented.
Most loads for flap valves, conveyors, vibrating feeders, crushers, paddle feeders, magnetic separators, fans and trash screens generally are supplied at 415 V three-phase 50 Hz from the 415 V Coal Plant Switchboard, although 3.3 kV supplies may be used when the duty demands. Stacker/reclaimer machines are supplied at 3.3 kV. Electrical distribution is designed to safeguard the independent operational requirements of the duplicated coal plant facilities and to ensure that an electrical fault will not result in the total loss of coal supplies to the boilers.
The first step in any form of scrubbing unit is to break the lumpy materials and remove tramp elements by a magnetic separator. The product is then led into the scrubbing unit. The dry scrubbing principle is to agitate the sand grains in a stream of air so that the particles shot-blast each other. A complete dry scrubbing plant has been described in a previous book of this library in connection with sodium silicate bonded sands.* For clay-bonded sands the total AFS clay content in the reclaimed sand varies from 05% to 25% clay depending on the design of the plant.
intensity magnetic separator - an overview | sciencedirect topics
The Jones wet high-intensity magnetic separator (WHIMS) was developed in 1956. The structure of the Jones separator is shown in Figure 9.6 and consists mainly of an iron-core electromagnet, a vertical shaft with two (or more) separating rings, a driving system, and feeding and product collection devices. Grooved plates made of magnetic conductive iron or stainless steel serve as a magnetic matrix to enhance the field gradient of the electromagnet. The plates are vertically arranged in plate boxes that are placed around the periphery of the rotors. When the Jones magnetic separator is operating, its vertical shaft drives the separating rings with the matrix plates rotating on a horizontal plane.
When a direct electric current passes through the energizing coils, a high magnetic field with a high gradient is established in the separating zone located in the electromagnetic system, with the focused magnetic field at the teeth top of the grooved plates reaching 0.82T, which is adjustable. The slurry is gravity fed onto the matrix at the leading edge of the magnetic field where the magnetic particles are captured on the teeth top of the grooved plates, while the nonmagnetic fraction passes through and is collected in a trough below the magnet. When the plate boxes reach the demagnetized zone half-way between the two magnetic poles, where the magnetic field changes its polarity, the magnetic field is essentially zero and the adhering magnetic particles are washed out with high-pressure water sprays.
In the past, cross-belt and rotating disc high-intensity magnetic separators were used for concentration of relatively coarse weakly magnetic particles such as wolframite and ilmenite, etc., under dry conditions. In the operation of these two magnetic separators, material is distributed onto the moving conveyor belt in a very thin layer, through a vibrating feeder. Such magnetic separators are not effective even inapplicable for the treatment of fine materials.
With the increasing reduction in liberation size of valuable components in magnetic ores, the conventional cross-belt and rotating disc high-intensity magnetic separators are almost replaced by gravity and flotation, particularly by high-gradient magnetic separators, as a result of its effectiveness to fine materials and high solids throughput. In the recent years, however, a wet permanent disc high-intensity magnetic separator as shown in left Figure7 seems applicable in recovering fine magnetic particles from tailings. In this disc separator, slurry is fed across a round tank, in which vertically rotating discs with permanent magnet blocks pick up fine magnetic particles, and they are brought up and scraped down by rotating scrapers, near the top of discs. Nonmagnetic particles are discharged at the bottom of tank.
And, a dry high-intensity roll magnetic separator as shown in right Figure7 is replacing the conventional roll magnetic separators and is used for concentration of relatively coarse magnetic particles. The design of such a roll magnetic separator is similar to that of the conventional roll magnetic separator, but it achieves a higher magnetic induction and its installation requires a much smaller occupation for space.
Ferromagnetic solids of high magnetic permeability can be separated in a Low Intensity Magnetic Separator (LIMS) using permanent magnets of less than 2 T (see Figure 1.56). A typical unit operates continuously and comprises a rotating non-magnetic drum inside which four to six stationary magnets are placed. The wet or dry feed contacts the outer periphery of the drum and the magnetically susceptible particles are picked up and discharged leaving the weakly or non-magnetic material to pass by largely unaffected. Alternative designs include the disc separator and the cross-belt separator where dry solids are conveyed towards a cross-belt which moves across a series of permanent magnets.
The efficiency of magnetic separation is generally improved by maximising both the intensity and the gradient of an applied non-uniform field. By doing so paramagnetic material of low magnetic permeability can be separated in a High Intensity Magnetic Separator (HIMS). Electromagnets, with intensities in excess of 2 T, are used in continuous equipment such as the Jones rotating disc separator to affect separations of dry feeds down to 75 m and wet feeds to finer sizes. Very weakly paramagnetic material cannot usually be separated satisfactorily with a HIMS, and a High Gradient Magnetic Separator (HGMS) must be used (Figure 1.56). In these units a matrix of fine stainless steel wool is placed between the poles of either electromagnetic or superconducting magnets, the latter generating magnetic intensities up to 15 T. Very high magnetic gradients are produced adjacent to the wool fibres and this allows for the separation of very fine particulates. Although the capital cost of HGMS can be relatively high compared with more conventional equipment, commercial units are readily available.
Iron ore processors may also employ magnetic separation for beneficiation of classifier output streams. Wet high-intensity magnetic separators (WHIMS) may be used to extract high-grade fine particles from gangue, due to the greater attraction of the former to the applied magnetic field.
In addition to beneficiating the intermediate middlings streams from the classifier, WHIMS may be used as scavenger units for classifier overflow. This enables particles of sufficient grade to be recovered that would otherwise be sacrificed to tails.
Testwork has been performed on iron ore samples from various locations to validate the use of magnetic separation following classification (Horn and Wellsted, 2011). A key example was material sourced from the Orissa state in northeastern India, with a summary of results shown in Table 10.2. The allmineral allflux and gaustec units were used to provided classification and magnetic separation, respectively.
The starting grade of the sample was a low 42% Fe. It also contained significant ultrafines with 58% passing 20m. This is reflected in the low yield of allflux coarse concentrate; however, a notable 16% (abs) increase in iron grade was eventually achieved. The gaustec results for the middlings and overflow streams demonstrate the ability to recover additional high-grade material. With the three concentrate streams combined, an impressive yield of almost 64% was achieved with minimal decline in iron grade.
Various classification schemes exist by which magnetic separators can be subdivided into categories. Review of these schemes can be found in monographs by Svoboda (1987, 2004). The most illustrative classification is according to the magnitude of the magnetic field and its gradient.
Low-intensity magnetic separators (LIMS). They are used primarily for manipulation of ferromagnetic materials or paramagnetic of high magnetic susceptibility and/or of large particle size. These separators can operate either in dry or wet modes. Suspended magnets, magnetic pulleys, and magnetic drums are examples of these separators. Operation of a dry drum separator is shown in Fig. 3.
High-intensity magnetic separators. They are used for treatment of weakly magnetic materials, coarse or fine, in wet or dry modes. Induced magnetic rolls (IMR), permanent magnet rolls and drums, magnetic filters, open-gradient (OGMS) and wet high-intensity magnetic separators (WHIMS) are examples of this class of separators.
Weakly paramagnetic minerals can only be effectively recovered using high-intensity (B-fields of 2T or greater) magnetic separators (Svoboda, 1994). Until the 1960s, high-intensity separation was confined solely to dry ore, having been used commercially since about 1908. This is no longer the case, as many new technologies have been developed to treat slurried feeds.
Induced roll magnetic (IRM) separators (Figure 13.19) are widely used to treat beach sands, wolframite and tin ores, glass sands, and phosphate rock. They have also been used to treat weakly magnetic iron ores, principally in Europe. The roll, onto which the ore is fed, is composed of phosphated steel laminates compressed together on a nonmagnetic stainless steel shaft. By using two sizes of laminations, differing slightly in outer diameter, the roll is given a serrated profile, which promotes the high field intensity and gradient required. Field strengths of up to 2.2T are attainable in the gap between feed pole and roll. Nonmagnetic particles are thrown off the roll into the tailings compartment, whereas magnetics are held, carried out of the influence of the field and deposited into the magnetics compartment. The gap between the feed pole and rotor is adjustable and is usually decreased from pole to pole (to create a higher effective magnetic field strength) to take off successively more weakly magnetic products.
The primary variables affecting separation using an IRM separator are the magnetic susceptibility of the mineral particles, the applied magnetic field intensity, the size of the particles, and the speed of the roll (Singh et al., 2013). The setting of the splitter plates cutting into the trajectory of the discharged material is also of importance.
In most cases, IRM separators have been replaced by the more recently developed (circa 1980) rare earth drum and roll separators, which are capable of field intensities of up to 0.7 and 2.1T, respectively (Norrgran and Marin, 1994). The advantages of rare earth roll separators over IRM separators include: lower operating costs due to decreased energy requirements, less weight leading to lower construction and installation costs, higher throughput, fewer required stages, and increased flexibility in roll configuration which allows for improved separation at various size ranges (Dobbins and Sherrell, 2010).
Dry high-intensity separation is largely restricted to ores containing little, if any, material finer than about 75m. The effectiveness of separation on such fine material is severely reduced by the effects of air currents, particleparticle adhesion, and particlerotor adhesion.
Without doubt, the greatest advance in the field of magnetic separation was the development of continuous WHIMSs (Lawver and Hopstock, 1974). These devices have reduced the minimum particle size for efficient magnetic separation compared to dry high-intensity methods. In some flowsheets, expensive drying operations, necessary prior to a dry separation, can be eliminated by using an entirely wet concentration system.
Perhaps the most well-known WHIMS machine is the Jones separator, the design principle of which is utilized in many other types of wet separators found today. The machine has a strong main frame (Figure 13.20(a)) made of structural steel. The magnet yokes are welded to this frame, with the electromagnetic coils enclosed in air-cooled cases. The separation takes place in the plate boxes, which are on the periphery of the one or two rotors attached to the central roller shaft and carried into and out of the magnetic field in a carousel (Figure 13.20(b)). The feed, which is thoroughly mixed slurry, flows through the plate boxes via fitted pipes and launders into the plate boxes (Figure 13.21), which are grooved to concentrate the magnetic field at the tip of the ridges. Feeding is continuous due to the rotation of the plate boxes on the rotors and the feed points are at the leading edges of the magnetic fields (Figure 13.20(b)). Each rotor has two feed points diametrically opposed to one another.
The weakly magnetic particles are held by the plates, whereas the remaining nonmagnetic particle slurry passes through the plate boxes and is collected in a launder. Before leaving the field any entrained nonmagnetics are washed out by low-pressure water and are collected as a middlings product.
When the plate boxes reach a point midway between the two magnetic poles, where the magnetic field is essentially zero, the magnetic particles are washed out using high-pressure scour water sprays operating at up to 5bar. Field intensities of over 2T can be produced in these machines, although the applied magnetic field strength should be carefully selected depending on the application (see Section 13.4.2). The production of a 1.5T field requires electric power consumption in the coils of 16kW per pole.
There are currently two types of WHIMS machines, one that uses electromagnetic coils to generate the required field strength, the other that employs rare earth permanent magnets. They are used in different applications; the weaker magnetic field strength produced by rare earth permanent magnets may be insufficient to concentrate some weakly paramagnetic minerals. The variables to consider before installing a traditional horizontal carousel WHIMS include: the feed characteristics (slurry density, feed rate, particle size, magnetic susceptibility of the target magnetic mineral), the product requirements (volume of solids to be removed, required grade of products), and the cost of power (Eriez, 2008). From these considerations the design and operation of the separator can be tailored by changing the following: the magnetic field intensity and/or configuration, the speed of the carousel, the setting of the middling splitter, the pressure/volume of wash water, and the type of matrix material (Eriez, 2008). The selection of matrix type has a direct impact on the magnetic field gradient present in the separation chamber. As explained in Section 13.4.2, increasing magnetic field can in some applications actually cause decreased performance of the magnetic separation step and it is for this reason that improvements in the separation of paramagnetic materials focus largely on achieving a high magnetic field gradient. The Eriez model SSS-I WHIMS employs the basic principles of WHIMS with improvements in the matrix material (to generate a high field gradient) as well as the slurry feeding and washing steps (to improve separation efficiency) (Eriez and Gzrinm, 2014). While this separator is referred to as a WHIMS, it is in fact more similar to the SLon VPHGMS mentioned in Sections 13.4.1 and 13.5.3. Further discussion on high-gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) may be found in Section 13.5.3.
Wet high-intensity magnetic separation has its greatest use in the concentration of low-grade iron ores containing hematite, where they are an alternative to flotation or gravity methods. The decision to select magnetic separation for the concentration of hematite from iron ore must balance the relative ease with which hematite may be concentrated in such a separator against the high capital cost of such separators. It has been shown by White (1978) that the capital cost of flotation equipment for concentrating weakly magnetic ore is about 20% that of a Jones separator installation, although flotation operating costs are about three times higher (and may be even higher if water treatment is required). Total cost depends on terms for capital depreciation; over 10 years or longer the high-intensity magnetic separator may be more attractive than flotation.
In addition to recovery of hematite (and other iron oxides such as goethite), wet high-intensity separators are now in operation for a wide range of duties, including removal of magnetic impurities from cassiterite concentrates, removal of fine magnetic material from asbestos, removal of iron oxides and ferrosilicate minerals from industrial minerals such as quartz and clay, concentration of ilmenite, wolframite, and chromite, removal of magnetic impurities from scheelite concentrates, purification of talc, the recovery of non-sulfide molybdenum-bearing minerals from flotation tailings, and the removal of Fe-oxides and FeTi-oxides from zircon and rutile in heavy mineral beach sands (Corrans and Svoboda, 1985; Eriez, 2008). In the PGM-bearing Merensky Reef (South Africa), WHIMS has been used to remove much of the strongly paramagnetic orthopyroxene gangue from the PGM-containing chromite (Corrans and Svoboda, 1985). WHIMS has also been successfully used for the recovery of gold and uranium from cyanidation residues in South Africa (Corrans, 1984). Magnetic separation can be used to recover some of the free gold, and much of the silicate-locked gold, due to the presence of iron impurities and coatings. In the case of uranium leaching, small amounts of iron (from milling) may act as reducing agents and negatively affect the oxidation of U4+ to U6+; treatment via WHIMS can reduce the consumption of oxidizing agents by removing a large portion of this iron prior to leaching (Corrans and Svoboda, 1985).
At the CliffsWabush iron ore mine in Labrador, Canada (Figure 13.22), the cyclone overflow from the tailings of a rougher spiral bank is sent to a magnetic scavenger circuit utilizing both low-intensity drum separation and WHIMS. This circuit employs the low-intensity (0.07T) drum separators to remove fine magnetite particles lost during the spiral gravity concentration step, followed by a WHIMS step using 100th1 Jones separators which are operated at field strengths of 1T to concentrate fine hematite. Cleaning of only the gravity tailings by magnetic separation is preferred, as relatively small amounts of magnetic concentrate have to be handled, the bulk of the material being essentially unaffected by the magnetic field. The concentrate produced from this magnetic scavenging step is eventually recombined with the spiral concentrate before feeding to the pelletizing plant (Damjanovi and Goode, 2000).
The paramagnetic properties of some sulfide minerals, such as chalcopyrite and marmatite (high Fe form of sphalerite), have been exploited by applying wet high-intensity magnetic separation to augment differential flotation processes (Tawil and Morales, 1985). Testwork showed that a Chilean copper concentrate could be upgraded from 23.8% to 30.2% Cu, at 87% recovery.
By creating an environment comprising a magnetic force (Fm), a gravitational force (Fg), and a drag force (Fd), magnetic particles can be separated from nonmagnetic particles by MS. Magnetic separators exploit the differences in magnetic properties between particles. All materials are affected in some way when placed in a magnetic field.
where V: particle volume (determined by process); X: magnetic susceptibility; H: magnetic field (created by the magnet system design) in mT; GradH: magnetic field gradient (created by the magnet system design) in mT (mT: milli Tesla, 1kGauss=100mT=0.1T). Materials are classified into two broad groups according to whether they are attracted to or repelled by a magnet. Non/diamagnetics are repelled from and ferro/paramagnetics are attracted to magnets. Ferromagnetic substances are strongly magnetic and have a large and positive magnetism. Paramagnetic substances are weakly magnetic and have a small and positive magnetism. In diamagnetic materials, the magnetic field is opposite to the applied field. Magnetisms are small and negative. Nonmagnetic material has zero magnetism. Ferromagnetism is the basic mechanism by which certain materials (such as Fe) form permanent magnets, or are attracted to magnets. Ferromagnetic materials can be separated by low-intensity magnetic separators (LIMSs) at less than 2T magnetic intensity. Paramagnetic materials can be separated by dry or wet high-intensity magnetic separators (HIMSs) at 1020T magnetic intensities. Diamagnetic materials create an induced magnetic field in the direction opposite to an externally applied magnetic field, and are repelled by the applied magnetic field. Nonmagnetic substances have little reaction to magnetic fields and show net zero magnetic moment due to random alignment of the magnetic field of individual atoms. Induced roll separators, with field intensities up to 2.2T, and Permroll separators can be used for coarse and dry materials (>75m). Fine materials reduce the separation efficiency due to particlerotor and particleparticle agglomeration. For wet HIMS, Gill and Jones separators are used at a maximum field of 1.4 and 1.5T, at 150m size . Dry LIMSs are used for coarse and strongly magnetic substances. The magnetic field gradient in the separation zone (approximately 50mm from the drum surface) ranges between 0.1 and 0.3T. Below 0.5cm, dry separation tends to be replaced by wet LIMS. Concurrent and countercurrent drum separators have a nonmagnetic drum containing three to six stationary magnets of alternating polarity. Separation depends on the pick up principles. Magnetic particles are lifted by magnets and pinned to the drum and then conveyed out of the field. Field intensities up to 0.7T at the pole surfaces can be used. Coarse particles up to 0.56mm can be tolerated. The drum diameter is 1200mm and the length 6003600mm. Concurrent operation is normally used as a primary separation (cobber) for large capacities and coarse feeds. Countercurrent operation is used as a rougher and finisher for multistage concentration.
Moderately magnetic dry substances on a conveyor/belt can be collected by overhead, cross-belt, or disc separators using magnetic field intensities between 0.8 and 1.5T. Very weakly paramagnetic substances can only be removed if field intensities are greater than 2.0T. At 5200mm size fractions, overhead permanent magnets are used to remove ferromagnetics. Magnetic separators, such as dry low-intensity drum types, are widely used for the recovery of ferromagnetic materials from nonferrous metals (Al and Cu) and other nonmagnetic materials (plastic and glass) at 5mm in size. The magnetic field may be generated by permanent magnets or electromagnets. There have been many advances in the design and operation of HIMS due mainly to the introduction of rare-earth alloy permanent magnets with the capability of providing high field strengths and gradients. There are, however, some problems associated with this method. One of the major issues is agglomeration of the particles, which results in the attraction of some nonferrous fractions attached to the ferrous fractions . This leads to low efficiency of this method. Through the process of MS, it is possible to obtain two fractions: the magnetic fraction, which includes Fe, steel, Ni, etc., and the nonmagnetic fraction, which includes Cu . For WEEE, MS systems utilize ferrite, rear-earth or electromagnets, with high-intensity electromagnet systems being used extensively. Veit et al.  employed a magnetic field of 0.60.65T to separate the ferromagnetic elements, such as Fe and Ni. The chemical concentration of the magnetic fraction was 43% Fe and 15.2% Ni on average. However, there was a considerable amount of Cu impurity in the magnetic fraction as well. Yoo et al.  used a two-stage MS for milled PCBs. The milled PCBs of particle size >5.0mm and the heavy fraction were separated from the <5.0mm PCB particles by gravity separation. In the first stage, a low magnetic field of 0.07T was applied, which led to the separation of 83% of Ni and Fe in the magnetic fraction and 92% of Cu in the nonmagnetic fraction. The second MS stage was conducted at 0.3T, which resulted in a reduction in the grade of the NiFe concentrate and an increase in the Cu concentrate grade.
Magnetic separations depend on a particle's magnetic susceptibility in a magnetic field. Based on magnetic susceptibility, materials can be one of two types: paramagnetic (those attracted by a magnetic field) and diamagnetic (those repelled by a magnetic field). It is usual to consider strongly magnetic materials as being in a separate category called ferromagnetic.
Magnetic separators are divided into low-intensity and high-intensity separators, the former being used for ferromagnetic minerals (and some paramagnetic minerals of high magnetic susceptibility) and the latter used for paramagnetic minerals of (lower) magnetic susceptibility. (In effect, a third category of separator exists: that used for removing tramp iron from process streams.) High- and low-intensity separation can be carried out wet or dry: tramp separators operate only on dry streams.
The most common separator, the wet low-intensity, consists of a revolving drum partly submerged in a suspension. An arc of magnets within the drum pulls the magnetically susceptible material against the drum, lifting it out of the slurry and over a discharge weir. Permanent ceramic magnets are now typical in these units.
Dry high-intensity separators use powerful electromagnets that induce a magnetic field in a comparatively small diametered roll, against which the magnetically susceptible particles are held until they pass a suitable discharge point.
where r=radial distance; V=particle volume; p, m=magnetic susceptibility of particle and medium, respectively. This shows that the force depends on both the strength and the gradient of the magnetic field. The latter component is especially significant in WHIMS, where high curvature ferromagnetic surfaces (e.g., wire, balls) are used to produce very high gradients.
An indication of the lower limits of particle size that can be treated in a magnetic separator can be obtained by balancing the magnetic force against the likely opposing forces (usually fluid drag and gravitation), but with the addition of centrifugal forces in drum separators. Mechanical considerations usually determine the upper particle size limit.
In principle, separability and performance curves can be used to predict separator performance. However, difficulties arise in determining properties independent of experimental conditions, so the approach has not been widely used.
Two simple models of wet low-intensity drum separators have been described. One uses a probability concept while the other empirically correlates losses of magnetic material near the drum take-up and discharge with feed rate and drum speed.
Nanomaterials have also been prepared by ball milling the parent materials. High-energy ball milling not only prepares nanoparticles quickly but it also uses little chemicals as compared to the sol-gel methods. However, it has low energy efficiency because it dissipate a lot of energy in form of heat.
Planetary ball mill was used to synthesize iron nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles were subjected to the characterization studies by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques using a SIEMENS-D5000 diffractometer and Hitachi S-4800. For the synthesis of iron nanoparticles, commercial iron powder having particles size of 10m was used. The iron powder was subjected to planetary ball milling for various period of time. The optimum time period for the synthesis of nanoparticles was observed to be 10h because after that time period, chances of contamination inclined and the particles size became almost constant so the powder was ball milled for 10h to synthesize nanoparticles . Fig. 12 shows the SEM image of the iron nanoparticles.
The next step involved the crushing of the pyrite particle by high-energy ball milling at a rate of 320rpm for various periods of time, that is, 2, 4, and 6h which ultimately resulted in the formation of pyrite nanoparticles.
The process of ball milling was employed under controlled parameters about 298K temperature and 760 torr pressure. Stainless steel made ball and bowl were utilized for the process. In the process, ball:pyrite ratio of 10:1 was selected and at varying time periods of 2h, the samples were removed. The method was named as interrupted milling. The synthesized nanoparticles were washed with ethyl alcohol thrice to eradicate contamination. The nanoparticles were dried in an oven for 4h at 50C [12,13]. Fig. 13 shows the SEM image of the nanoparticles.
Jaw and cone crushing was performed on the martite ore until they became within the size range of 0.52cm. The sample was further crushed by ball and rod milling until the particles size was reduced to 3050lm. Ultimately, the particles were subjected to interrupt high-energy planetary ball milling for different time durations, that is, 2, 4, and 6h to get the nanoparticles of martite. The ball:martite ratio of 10:1 was selected and a rotation speed of 320rpm was chosen . Fig. 14 shows the SEM images of martite nanoparticles.
Caron onions preparation was carried out by employing graphite carbon having high purity. A reported method was used to synthesize AlCuFe quasicrystal. The synthesis of alloy was carried out under ambient environment. The percentage composition of alloy material was set to be Al64Cu24Fe12. The alloy was solidified under ambient conditions. Annealing of the synthesized alloy was performed under argon environment at 700C for 96h. The synthesized composite material is brittle and inclines to be fractured when subjected to ball milling process. In this typical procedure, the reaction of moisture with aluminum in the composite results in the formation of aluminum oxide film over the surface but simultaneously, the release of atomic hydrogen incites cleavage fracture of the composite material and occasionally it was observed that the whole material got converted into fine powder after a few days. Graphite and the composite materials were mixed in 1:1 ratio and then high-energy ball milling was performed on the mixture under ambient environment. Ball milling was performed for various time periods of 1.5, 3, 6, and 10h. The ball milling media was composed of hard steel vials and balls having a ratio of powder:ball to be 1:7. The mixture was grinded using a grinding medium size of 12.7mm. The synthesized nanocomposites were characterized using various techniques including XRD, Raman spectroscopy, TEM, and the size of the nanoparticles was observed to be within 412nm . Fig. 15 shows the TEM image of the nanoparticles.
A modified ball milling device having assistance of ultrasonication was employed in the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles. The synthesis of nanoparticles involved analytical grade zinc acetate dihydrated salt as the zinc precursor material. Ball milling medium of stainless steel with diameter of balls of 2mm was employed. The ratio of milling balls to the zinc precursor was set to be 1:100. The frequency and power of the microwave were 2450MHz and 0.8kW, respectively. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy, XRD, TEM, fluorescence measurements, and electroconductivity detections. The average size of the nanoparticles was observed to be 15nm . Fig. 16 shows the TEM image of the nanoparticles.
The synthesis of Na3MnCO3PO4 nanoparticles involved dry ball milling of the precursors. The precursors of the nanoparticles were Mn(NO3)2.4H2O (A), Na2HPO4.2H2O (B), and Na2CO3.H2O (C). The concentrations optima were evaluated by doing extensive preliminary experiments and the amount of 8mmol of A and B and 12mmol of C. Planetary ball milling of the mixture was performed by keeping a ball: mixture ratio of 30:1. The mixture was ball milled for different time periods, that is, 15, 30, 60, and 180min at a rate of 300rpm. The synthesized billed nanoparticles were then added into deionized distilled water under continuous stirring so that the nanoparticles can be separated from impurities. The nanoparticles were separated and characterized by various techniques . SEM image of the nanoparticles are provided in Fig. 17.