flotation machine - zhongde heavy industries co.,ltd
Flotation machine is also called flotation cell, which is used in flotation separation process. It is equipped with automatic level control and electronic control device, easy to adjust, and impeller stirring force is strong.
The increase of the dispersion area of the slurry is beneficial to the improvement of the aeration capacity, and also to the weakening of the degree of floral turning. It has the advantages of simple structure, large handling capacity, convenient operation and easy maintenance. Reduction of precipitation, installed with automatic control of the level of the electronic device, easy to adjust the fine foam, flotation effect is good.
Application area / Applicable materials: non-ferrous metals, coal fluorite, talc lead, zinc, molybdenum, aluminum and other metal minerals; Quartz, floatable gold, silver, copper, iron and other optional minerals.
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flotation machine - hongsheng machine building co., ltd
Flotation Machine is suitable for separating non-ferrous metals, ferrous metals, precious metals, non-metallic minerals and raw materials, after rough selection, sweeping, selective or reverse flotation operations. Recover useful minerals.
The motor drives the main shaft through the V-belt to rotate the lower impeller to generate centrifugal force to form negative pressure. On the other hand, it can inhale enough air to mix with the pulp. On the one hand, the slurry is mixed with the drug, and the foam is refined to make the mineral bonded foam. . Adjust the height of the gate and control the liquid level so that the useful foam is scraped by the scraper.
flotation machines | mineral processing machine & solutions - jxsc
Flotation is the most widely used beneficiation method for fine materials, and almost all ores can be separated by flotation. Another important application is to reduce ash in fine coal and to remove fine pyrite from coal.
The flotation machine is mechanical equipment for realizing the froth flotation process and separating target minerals from ore. At present nearly 2 billion tons of ore in the world are treated by the froth flotation process. According to rough statistics, about 90% of non-ferrous minerals are recovered by the flotation method, accounting for 50% proportion in the field of ferrous metal mineral separation.
Sulfide minerals, oxide minerals, non-metallic minerals, silicate minerals, nonmetallic salt minerals, soluble salt minerals, rare earth minerals, etc., including gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, galena, zinc blende, chalcopyrite, pyroxene, molybdenite, nickel pyrite, malachite, cerussite, smithsonite, hematite, cassiterite, wolframite, Ilmenite, beryl, spodumene, brimstone, graphite, diamond, quartz, mica, feldspar, fluorite, apatite, barite, and so on.
The flotation machine is composed of single or multiple flotation cells, by agitating and inflating the chemical reagent treated slurry, some mineral ore particles are adhered to the foam and float up, and then be scraped out, while the rest remains in the slurry.
Industrial flotation machines can be divided into 5 classes, mechanical agitation flotation machine, pneumatic flotation machines, flotation column, airlift flotation machine, froth separation flotation machines.
At present, the mechanical flotation machine is the most commonly used in industry, followed by the column flotation which has recently set off hot spot, the pneumatic type and froth separation are not common.
Commonly used flotation models
TankCell series, Wemco series, Agitair series, SuperCells, RCS(reactor cell system), Denver laboratory flotation, KYF, and XCF series flotation devices, laboratory flotation machine.
Well-known flotation machine manufacturers have Outotec, Flsmidth, Metso, BGRIMM, JXSC flotation machine china; column flotation manufacturers or models have Jameson, CPT, Counter-flow inflatable flotation column.
Main parts: slurry tank, agitator device, mineralized froth discharging system, electromotor, etc.
1. Slurry tank: mainly consist of a slurry inlet, slurry tank and a gate device for controlling the slurry volume, welded with steel plate.
2. Agitator: slurry tank have a series of the mechanically driven impeller that disperses the air into the agitated pulp.
3. Mineralized forth discharging: the useful minerals are enriched in the foam, scraped out, dehydrated, and dried into concentrate products.
Whatever flotation machines design is selected, it must accomplish a series of complicated industrial requirements.
1. Good mixing function. a qualified flotation machine should mix the slurry uniformly and maintain the particles especially the target mineral particle in suspension with the pulp, maximum the froth-mineral probability.
2. Adequate ventilation and distribution of fine bubbles. Except for the flotation machine performance, the frother type and dosage also matter to the distribution of the bubbles.
3. Appropriate agitation control in the froth beds. It is should pay importance to keep froth zones smoothly, which ensures the suspension of collector coated particle.
1. The throughput capabilities of various cell designs will vary with the ore property (beneficiability, size, density, grade, pulp, PH, etc.). In the case of ore easy separated, and a small amount of air inflation required, may choose a mechanical flotation machine; if the minerals with coarse size, proper to choose the KYF, BS-F, ore CLF type; what's more, when in case of ore easy separated, fine particles, high grade, low PH, flotation column is the best, especially in the concentrating process.
2. There is a difference between the process of concentrating, rough selecting. Thin froth layer is better for separate mineral particles, thus may not choose a large air inflation flotation machine.
Mining Equipment Manufacturers, Our Main Products: Gold Trommel, Gold Wash Plant, Dense Media Separation System, CIP, CIL, Ball Mill, Trommel Scrubber, Shaker Table, Jig Concentrator, Spiral Separator, Slurry Pump, Trommel Screen.
As pneumatic and froth separation devices are not commonly used in industry today, no further discussion about them will be given in this module. The mechanical machine is dearly the most common type of flotation machine currently used in industry, followed by the column machine which has recently experienced a rapid growth.
A mechanical machine consists of a mechanically driven impeller that disperses air into the agitated pulp. In normal practice this machine appears as a long tank-like vessel having a number of impellers in series. Mechanical machines can have open flow of pulp between the impellers or can be of cell-to-cell design with weirs between them. Below is a typical bank of flotation cells used in industrial practice.
The procedure by which air is introduced into a mechanical machine falls into two broad categories: self-aerating, where the machine uses the depression created by the impeller to induce air, and supercharged, where air is generated from an external blower. The incoming feed to the mechanical flotation machine is usually introduced in the lower portion of the machine. At the very below is shown a typical flotation cell of each air delivery type (Agitair & Denver)
The most rapidly growing class of flotation machine is the column machine, which is, as its name implies, a vessel having a large height-to-diameter ratio (from 5 to 20) in contrast tomechanical cells. This type of machine provides a counter-current flow of air bubbles and slurry with a long contact time and plenty of wash water. As might be expected, the major advantage of such a machine is the high separation grade that can be achieved, so that column cells are often used as a final concentrate cleaning step. Special care has to be exercised in the generation of fine air bubbles and the control of the feed rate to the column cell for such cells to be effective. Column cell use is often of limited value in the recovery of relatively coarse valuable particles; because of the long lifting distances involved, the bubbles can not carry large particles all the way to the top of the cell.
Probably the most significant area of change in mechanical flotation cell design has been the dramatic increase in machine cell volume with a single impeller. The idea behind this approach is that as machine size increases (assuming no loss of recovery performance with the larger machines), both plant capital and operating cost per unit of throughput decrease. In certain industrial applications today, cells of even a thousand cubic meters in volume (a large swimming pool) are being used effectively.
The throughput capabilities of various cell designs will vary with the flotation machines residence time and pulp density The number of cells required for a given operation is determined from standard engineering, mass balance calculations. In the design of a new plant, the characterization of each cells volume and flotation efficiency is generally calculated from data gathered on a laboratory scale flotation using the same type of equipment for the same material mixture in question. This procedure is then followed by the application of semi-empirically derived scale-up factors. Research work is currently under way to improve the understanding and performance of commercial flotation cells.
Currently, flotation cell design is primarily a proprietary material of the various cell manufacturers. Flotation plants are built in multiple cell configurations (called banks), and the flow through the various banks is adjusted in order to optimize plant recovery of the valuable as well as the grade of the total recovered mass from flotation. Up above is a typical flotation bank scheme. The total layout of a given flotation plant (including all of the various banks) operating on a given feed is called a flotation circuit.
The application of the air-lift to flotation is not new, but the first attempts to make use of the principle were not successful because the degree of agitation in the machine was insufficient to enable the heavy oils then in use as collecting reagents to function effectively. The advent of chemical promoters, however, made agitation of secondary and aeration of primary importance, with the result that the application of the air-lift principle became practicable and led to the introduction of the Forrester and the Hunt matless machines. South western Engineering Corporation are the owners in most countries of the rights to license and manufacture these and other types operating on the air-lift principle, and they have developed a machine based chiefly on the Welsh and Hunt patents which may be considered as representative of the type that is now most commonly used.
The Southwestern Air-Lift Machine, as it is called, consists of a V-shaped wood or steel trough of any length but of the standard cross-section shown in Fig. 40, the area of which is 9.85 sq. ft. and the interior depth 36 in. Low- pressure air is delivered from a blower through a main supply pipe to an air-pipe or header which runs longitudinally over the top of the machine. The air enters the trough itself through a seriesof vertical down-pipes , which are screwed into sockets welded tothe underside of the header at 4-in. intervals along its length and are open at their lower ends. They are from to 1 in. in diameter for roughing machines and from to in. for cleaners, and they reach to within 6 in. of the bottom. The air-lift chamber is formed by two vertical partitions, one on each side of the line of down-pipes, both of which extend from one end of the trough to the other, forming a compartment 6 in. wide. The lower edges of the partitions are an inch or two above the ends of the down-pipes and their upper edges are about level with the froth overflow lips at each side of the machine. A few inches above the top of the air-lift chamber is a deflector cap which serves to direct the rising pulp outwards and downwards against two vertical baffles. These extend the length of the trough parallel to and outside the partitions, their loweredges being several inches below the normal pulp level. The spacebetween the baffles and the sides of the machine forms two spitzkasten- shaped zones of quiet settlement where the froth collects.
The feed enters near the bottom of one end of machine and the tailing is discharged over an adjustable weir at the other end. The air, issuing in a continuous stream from the open ends of the down-pipes, carries the pulp up the central chamber on the principle of an air-lift pump. The air is subdivided into minute bubbles and more completely mixed with the pulp as the rising mass hits the cap at the top and is deflected and cascaded on to the baffles at each side, which direct it downwards, distributing the bubbles evenly throughout the pulp in the body of the machine and giving them ample opportunity to collect a coating of mineral. Rising under their own buoyancy, the bubbles enter the spitzkasten zones, up which they travel without interference, dropping most of the gangue particles mechanically entangled between them as they ascend. They collect on the surface of the pulp at the top as a mineralized froth, which is voluminous enough to pass over the lip into the concentrate launders without the need of scrapers. The pulp, on the other hand, continues its downward passage and enters the air-lift chamber again. In this way a continuous circulation of the pulp is maintained, its course through the machine being more or less in the form of a double spiral.
The aeration is generally controlled by a single valve in the header of each machine, but for selective flotation the machine is sometimes divided by transverse partitions into sections 4 ft. long, the header over each section being provided with a separate air-valve. The depth of the froth is regulated by means of the adjustable gate of the tailing weir. If difficulty is likely to be experienced in making a clean tailing with the normal amount of aeration, it is preferable to use two machines. The second one is run as a scavenger with an excess of air as compared with normal requirements, the low-grade froth so produced being pumped back to the head of the primary or roughing machine, in which the aeration is more normal in order that a comparatively clean concentrate may be produced. It is often possible to take a concentrate off the first few feet of the rougher rich enough to be sent to the filters as a finished product, the froth from the rest of the machine being pumped back to the head. When this method of flotation is adopted, it is an advantage to have the header divided into sections, each with its own valve, so that the aeration can be varied along the length of the machine. By increasing the volume of air at the discharge end the froth can be given a slight flow towards the head of the machine, with the result that the minerals are concentrated there to the exclusion of partially floatable gangue which might otherwise enter any bubbles not fully loaded with mineral.
If the froth from the feed end of the rougher is not of high enough grade, it must be re-treated in a separate cleaning machine, the length of which usually varies from one-quarter to one-half of the total length ofthe roughing and scavenging machines according to the amount of concentrate to be handled. Should still further cleaning be necessary, it is performed in a recleaner, which is generally of the same length as the cleaner. The tailings from these operations are often, but not necessarily, returned to the head of the rougher.
It is usual to prepare the pulp for flotation by adding the reagents to the grinding circuit or in a conditioning tank ahead of the flotation section, but soluble frothers such as pine oil and quick-acting promoters such as the xanthates can be added at the head of the machine if desired, since the air-lift provides enough agitation to emulsify and distribute them throughout the pulp. It is not as a rule advisable to introduce reagents into the air-lift chamber itself ; should it be necessary to do so to obtain a satisfactory recovery of the minerals, it is best to employ separate roughing and scavenging machines and to make the extra additions at the head of the scavenger.
Southwestern Air-Lift Machines are made of standard cross-section, as already stated, and in a series of lengths ranging, for ordinary purposes, from 4 to 48 ft. There is no limit to the possible length, however, and 100-ft. machines are in actual use. The tonnage capacities under different conditions will be found in Table 26. The pressure of air needed at the machine is from 1.6 to 1.7 lb. per square inch, which under normal conditions requires a pressure of about 2 lb. per square inch at the blower. It is usual to allow 75 to 100 cu. ft. of free air per minute at this pressure per foot of rougher and 45 to 70 cu. ft. per minute per foot of cleaner and recleaner. From these figures the approximate volume of air required for a machine or machines of any given length can be calculated. The power necessary to supply the air can then be found from Table 30.
The Callow Cell consists of a shallow horizontal trough, the bottom of which is covered with a porous medium, usually termed a blanket, consisting of a few layers of canvas or of a sheet of perforated rubber. Air is introduced at low pressure under the blanket, and, in passing through it, is split up into minute bubbles, which rise through the pulp in the cell, collecting a coating of mineral in the process.
Fig. 41 shows a section of the type of cell commonly employed. Its width is usually from 24 to 36 in., and its interior depth from 18 to 22 in. measured from the overflow lip ; the length varies according to requirements and is generally a multiple of the width. On the bottom are placed, side by side, the square open-topped cast-iron blanket frames or pans . The blanket covering the top of each pan is securely held in place by flat iron strips bolted round the edges, while one or two pipe grid-bars across the top prevent it from bulging. This arrangement allows a blanket to be changed in a few minutes should it becomedamaged. The air inlet to each pan projects through the bottom of the cell and is connected by a pipe and regulating valve to a header, which is provided with a main control valve.
The pulp enters one end of the cell through a feed opening and is discharged over an adjustable weir at the other end. There is no agitation, but the continuously rising stream of air bubbles keeps the particles of ore in suspension and induces a certain amount of circulation as the pulp passes along the cell. In this way the minerals are given many chances of becoming attached to the bubbles and thus of being carried over into the concentrate launder. The froth that forms on the surfaceof the pulp, usually to a depth of 8 to 10 inches, is voluminous enough to overflow the lips on each side of the cell without the use of mechanical scrapers.
For estimating purposes the average capacity of a Callow Cell may be taken as 2.5 tons of feed per square foot of blanket area per 24 hours and the air consumption as 9 cu. ft. of free air per minute per square foot of blanket at a pressure of 4 lb. per sq. in. A greater pressure is likely to be required if the blankets become blinded .
The Callow Cell has proved satisfactory for many types of ores, but it has the disadvantage that coarse or heavy sand settles on the blankets, and can only be kept in motion by flogging the latter with short rubber-buffered poles. Moreover, if lime is employed in the circuit, the blankets become impregnated and clogged with calcium carbonate, which necessitates periodical acid treatment for its removal. The use of perforated rubber sheets in place of canvas in the Callow Cell mitigates without entirely curing these difficulties, which at one time were thought to be inherent in the use of a porous medium. They have been overcome, however, by the development of the Callow-Maclntosh Machine.
The Callow-Maclntosh, or the Macintosh Machine, consists of a shallow trough or cell at the bottom of which is a hollow revolving rotor covered with a porous medium. Fig. 42 shows its construction. The pulp enters through a feed opening at one end, and is discharged at the other in much the same way as in a Callow Cell. The rotor, made of seamless steel tubing with a cast-steel ring welded in each end, is perforated with -in. holes at 7-in. centres; it is about 8 in. shorter than the length of the cell and is usually 9 in. in diameter. Its weight is taken by two hollow shafts, each fitted with a flange, which are bolted to the ends of the rotor by means of four studs. This method of attachment enables the rotor to be changed and a new one inserted with little loss of time, usually not more than 15 minutes. The shafts project through the ends of this cell and are supported on self-aligning ball and socket bearings outside, so placed that the rotor itself is a few inches clear of the bottom of the trough. A rubber gasket, shown in Fig. 43, seals the opening at each end by simple pressure on a cone-faced disc mounted on the shaft. The joint is not completely watertight and a slight leakage takes place through it at the rate of about one quart per minute. At the discharge end this escaping pulp gravitates to the tailing launder, while at the feed end it is usually led to one of the pumps returning a middling product to the roughing circuit. The gasket is preferable to a stuffing-box, as it contains no grease and requires no gland water.
The rotor covering consists of a canvas sock or of a single sheet of perforated rubber. The latter is now far more commonly employed, since it lasts five times as long as the other, its life generally exceeding 18 months ; moreover it seldom becomes blinded withcalcium carbonate, and requires an air pressure of only 2 lb. per square inch instead of the 3-lb. pressure needed for canvas. The rubber sheets are made of pure gum about 5/64 in. thick with 225 holes per sq. in., the holes being made so as to allow the air to pass through while preventing the percolation of the pulp into therotor in the event of a temporary shut-down. Two scraper bars of angle iron, 1 by 1 in., are bolted to opposite sides of the rotor on the top of the covering. They project 2 in. beyond the ends of the rotor, and their purpose is to keep in circulation any sand that settles on the bottom of the cell, at the same timeprotecting the porous medium from undue wear by contact withsuch material. Air is introduced into the rotor through one or bothof the hollow shafts, which are connected by special inlet joints with themain supply. When both ends are employed for the admission of air,the rotor is usually divided into two sections by a central partitionto enable each half to be controlled separately. The rotor is driven ata speed of about 15 r.p.m. by an individual motor connected with theshaft at one end of the cell; either a worm drive directly coupled to themotor or a chain drive coupled to the motor through a speed reducercan be employed.
The principle on which theCallow-Maclntosh Machine worksis very similar to that of a CallowCell. The air bubbles actuallyissue from the top of the rotor,where the hydraulic pressure islowest, and spread out as theyrise, their distribution throughthe pulp being quite as even andeffective as when a flat blanket isused. The cell never needs flogging since the movementof the rotor prevents sand fromsettling on it, and the scraperbars keep in circulation theheavy particles that would otherwise settle on the bottom. Themachine can, if necessary, handle ore as coarse as 20 mesh at a W/Sratio of 1/1 without choking.
The control of a pneumatic cell is different from that of a machine of the mechanically agitated type, of which each cell is capable of performing the function of a high-speed conditioner. Little conditioning takes place once the pulp has entered a pneumatic cell, and provision must therefore be made for its proper preparation when employing heavy oils or chemical reagents which need a long contact period. The froth is usually maintained at a depth of 8 to 10 in., giving an effective pulp depth of 18 to 20 in. The very large volume of air bubbles released enables flotation to be effected more rapidly than in any other type of machine, the actual time required depending mostly on the degree to which the minerals have been rendered floatable. The upward stream of bubbles is so voluminous that, under ordinary conditions, the froth overflows the lips on both sides of the cell without the need of scrapers. For the same reason a considerable quantity of gangue is often carried over into the concentrate launder by mechanical entanglement with the bubbles, and one, sometimes two, subsequent cleaning operations are generally necessary in consequence. This, however, is by no means therule ; a concentrate of high enough grade to be sent to the filtering section as a finished product can sometimes be made in a single rougher- cleaner cell. When the Callow-Macintosh Machine is run in this way (counter-current operation) a partitioned rotor is employed, since, by increasing the volume of air at the tailing-discharge end, the froth can be made to flow towards the head of the cell with the result that the minerals are concentrated there to the exclusion of gangue particles. The same effect can be obtained in a Callow Cell by regulating the admission of air to the individual pans in a similar way. If is often the practice, especially in counter-current operation, for the rougher to be followed by a scavenging cell, which is run with an excess of air as compared with the former, the froth being returned to the head of the first cell.
Callow-Macintosh Machines are made in lengths of 10, 15, and 20 ft. and in widths of 24, 30, and 36 in. with a rotor 9 in. in diameter. The vertical distance from the centre-line of the rotor to the overflow lip is about 24 in. The design of the machine, however, lends itself to the construction of larger sizes for big scale operationsi.e., up to a 30-ft. cell 48 in. wide with one or two 9-in. rotors. The 30- and 36-in. cells are sometimes fitted with rotors up to 15 in. in diameter to meet special requirements.
The capacity of the standard machine varies considerably according to the grade and character of the ore. The average capacity of a rougher or rougher-cleaner cell is from 8 to 12 tons of dry feed per foot of rotor length per 24 hours. When cleaning is practised, the tonnage per foot of total rotor length (roughers, scavengers, and cleaners) may vary from 4 tons for a slow-floating ore needing double cleaning to 10 tons for an easily-floated ore with single cleaning, the average being about 6 tons per foot of total rotor length. The cleaning section usually amounts to between one-quarter and one-half of the combined length of the roughing and scavenging cells. The width of cell employed depends on the character of the ore, the time of treatment, and the tonnage.
The quantity of air necessary varies from 5 to 7 cu. ft. per minute per square foot of aerating surface at 2- to 2-lb. pressurethat is, from 12 to 16.5 cu. ft. per minute per linear foot of rotor. With a Roots type blower the power consumption in respect of the air supply is about 12 h.p. per 1,000 cu. ft. of free air per minute at a pressure of 2 lb. per square inch. The power needed to turn the rotor averages 0.5 h.p.
flotation machines & flotation cells
In small plants, it is common practice to include conditioners following the last stage of grinding. Additional conditioners are normally required between flotation operations which produce individual mineral concentrates. Each conditioner stage should consist of a minimum of two separate agitated tanks. Provision must be made to drain and clean conditioner tanks to appropriate flowsheet locations. This is particularly important in the case of conditioners which follow the grinding circuit since these tanks tend to accumulate oversize material produced during grinding circuit upsets.
Conditioners provide positions in the plant flowsheet wherein changes to the ore slurry are brought about by the addition of reagents and pH modifiers. Conditioners must always be designed to provide adequate time for chemical or physical changes induced by reagent additions to proceed to completion. Conditioners also serve a useful function in that swings in ore grade, particle size distribution, or other flotation variable tend to be partially homogenized and dampened during the conditioning unit operation. For example, in small installations it is not unusual to experience wide swings in feed grade. The conditioning unit operation provides the operator an opportunity to modify reagent additions in order to maximize recovery during periods of process instability. If possible, conditioner tanks should be arranged in tiers so that slurry overflows between sequential tanks under the influence of gravity.
The selection of flotation cell size and configuration can have a substantial influence upon installed cost and can contribute to operational efficiency. Two possible flotation configurations for a 500 metric ton per day installation are presented in Figure 5. The computational basis assumes 30 percent solids in rougher flotation, 20 percent solids in cleaner, recleaner and cleaner-scavenger flotation, a ratio of concentration in rougher flotation of 3.07 an overall ratio of concentration of 5.0, and an ore specific gravity of 2.9. This representation indicates that the flotation bay layout employing the larger flotation cells, in this case 2.83 cubic meter (100 cubic feet) machines, occupies less area and reduces installed capital cost by about 25 percent. However, there are instances when the first illustration (selection of small flotation cells) would be chosen for reasons of compactness and symmetry.
Complex multiple product flotation installations usually require a high degree of sophistication regarding operational control. Many times, in small flotation concentrators this level of sophistication is not available. If the facility is located in a remote area, experienced operational personnel may be impossible to acquire. Consequently, the flotation circuits should be as simple as possible. For an installation producing a single mineral product, the flotation scheme illustrated in Figure 6 is recommended. This system, which is compatible with configuration 2 on Figure 5, is simple to operate and eliminates the build-up of a large circulating load of scavenger concentrate. This system is also flexible in that various produced concentrates can be subjected to regrinding should changes in mineralogy or primary grind so dictate.
It must be recalled that the weight of rougher and cleaner concentrates produced from high-grade ores can be substantial. Provision to remove froth by the use of froth paddles on all flotation cells should be included in the original design. The additional capital cost required for froth paddles is a reasonable investment since these devices tend to negate errors in flotation pulp level or frother addition. The open circuit flotation system presented can be operated by individuals having minimal training. The advice of Taggart regarding the inclusion of a small pilot table as a visual sample on rougher tailings is still legitimate.
In almost all new flotation installations, the use of launders fabricated from sheet rubber is recommended. Care must be taken to insure that all launders are sloped properly. In addition, launders must be provided with appropriate sprays and sluice lines to facilitate concentrate transport. The launder water system must be carefully designed to insure functionality without excessive concentrate dilution.
In recent years it has become popular to use vertical pumps for both concentrate and tailing transport in smaller circuits. It is usually possible to employ only one, or at the most two, pump sizes for all of the required flotation pumping installations. The same size vertical pump may also be used in various locations about the plant for cleanup duty. The usage of vertical pumps reduces seal water requirements, and eliminates concrete pump bases, fabricated sumps, and the valving associated with horizontal pumps.
For the past 35 years Sub-A Flotation Machines have been serving faithfully in all parts of the world. Anniversaries of progress such as this make reminiscing very interesting and we thought you would enjoy seeing some of the Firsts in the flotation machine industry as pioneered by the Sub-A.
1928was a pioneer in the use of V-belt drives in the flotation industry. This high-head machine also had wide-spaced greaseless lower bearings. At one time this was the largest flotation machine in the world.
1930 First steel tank flotation machine. Earlier machines had wood tanks. Steel tanks met great opposition at first, later became standard. This high-head, all-steel Sub-A marked the introduction of anti-friction lower bearings.
1932 First low-head flotation machine marked a radical departure from the then accepted principle that the space between bearings must be greater than the distance beyond the lower bearing. This machine was of the cell-to-cell pulp flow design and used a quarter-turn flat belt line-shaft drive.
1933 First steel tank low-head, low-level flotation machine. It had an individual motor and a V-belt drive. This design became very popular with mill operators and thousands of cells were sold similar to those pictured above.
Laboratory Flotation Machines have made progress, too. In our early days the cast-iron tank machine with its round-belt mule drive was the latest word. Contrast it with todays modern Sub-A Laboratory Flotation Machine with its heavy glass tank and stainless steel parts.
1961 Todays demands for Sub- A Flotation Machines keep our modern factory busy. Today more Sub- A Flotation Machines are specified than all competitive makes and is the unquestioned First Choice in Flotation.
jjf type flotation machine
Improvement: Shallow groove, the stator lower than the impeller, large slurry circulation volume, low energy consumption; the stator is a cylinder with an elliptical hole which is conducive to the dispersion and mixing of pulp and air. Umbrella shaped dispersion cover with hole keeps the pulp surface stable.
JJF flotation machine(floatation cell) is a new type of flotation equipment advanced in China. It can be widely used in the selection of non-ferrous metals, ferrous metals and non-metallic minerals. It is suitable for rough selection and sweeping of large and medium-sized flotation plants.
Large clearance between impeller and stator, the stator is a cylinder with elliptic hole, and it is good for mixing and dispersing the gas and pulp. The height of stator is lower than the impeller, pulp circulation volume is large, and it can be reached at 2.5 times of others.
When the impeller rotates, eddy current is generated in the vertical cylinder and the draft tube. The eddy current forms a negative pressure, and the air is sucked from the intake pipe and sucked in the impeller and stator regions and through the draft tube. Mix the pulp. The slurry gas mixing flow is moved by the impeller in a tangential direction, and then converted into a radial motion by the action of the stator, and uniformly distributed in the flotation tank. The mineralized bubbles rise to the foam layer, and the unilateral or bilateral scraping is the foam product.
gomaco, manufacturer of concrete slipform paving equipment: t/c-400 texture/cure machine
Curing assembly includes a reservoir with hydraulic motor, pump, and controls. The spray bar has nozzles spaced 12 inches (305 mm) apart and adjustable height above the surface of the concrete for even coverage. The optional transverse curing system allows you to simultaneously texture and cure, saving you time and money.
The texturing assembly travels transversely across the width of the concrete slab. Carriage speed is variable, up to 168 feet per minute (51 mpm). Texturing wire tine members automatically pivot to trail at the end of each pass, and adjustable pressure on surface contact between the texturing member and the concrete controls the depth and angle of the wire tines. Longitudinal texturing is available where required by project specifications.
GOMACOs T/C-400 texture/cure machine is available with a skewed tining option. The skewed tining option allows the travel of the tining bars to run a skewed path while the frame of the machine is square to the slab. It simplifies the ability to transverse tine on newly paved streets and highways requiring a skew texture.
The GOMACO Texture/Cure Machines are carefully designed to give years of dependable and safe service. The emergency stop buttons are on the operators console, and on corners of the machine, which are easily accessible from the ground level. Another safety feature is a backup alarm, which is designed to alert personnel around the machine when the tracks are set to operate in reverse. Machine decals are shown as internationally recognized symbols. Other safety features include track guards, warning decals, an operators manual, and a safety manual.
A T/C-400 applies a transverse tine to this runway on the Central International Airport in Japan. The runway was 24.6 feet (7.5 m) wide and thickness varied between 16.5 to 18.1 inches (420 to 460 mm).
Curing assembly includes a 250 gal. (946 L) reservoir with hydraulically driven cure pump, filter, gauges and controls. The spray bar has nozzles spaced 12 in. (305 mm) apart and 18 in. (457 mm) above the surface of the concrete.
AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM
Controls: GOMACOs exclusive G+ control system features forward and reverse steering and grade control. It is sensored off stringline or other methods from our sensor library. This provides ease of operation and accuracy in texturing and curing.
Construction: All-steel welded frame, pin-connected main frame sections.
Width: Adjustable from 12 ft. (3.66 m) up to 48 ft. (14.63 m). Standard width is 32 ft. (9.75 m). Consult for wider width needs.
Optional frame extensions: Available in 2 ft. (.61 m), 4 ft. (1.22 m), 8 ft. (2.44 m), and 12 ft. (3.66 m) lengths.
Optional power transition adjuster: Hydraulically adjusts for crown height and permits on-the-go crown adjustments.
Optional: Off set jack mounts, four to allow 2 ft. (.61 m) more between end cars without extending the main frame.
10 ft. (3.05 m) wide with 5 in. (127 mm) long wire tines spaced to meet specification requirements.
Optional: Wire tine texturing members, fast change, and built to specifications.
250 gal. (946.4 L) reservoir, pump with hydraulic motor and controls. Includes spray bar, windshield, and work platform.
Optional: 350 gal. (1324.9 L) reservoir.
Optional: Platform assembly for reusable totes provides a quick cure tote exchange.
Optional: Spray bar, windshield, and work platform extensions are available in 2 ft. (.61 m), 4 ft. (1.22 m), 8 ft. (2.44 m), and 12 ft. (3.66 m) lengths.
WEIGHT (approximate) (at 32 ft. (9.75 m) standard width)
T/C-400: Basic unit 14,100 lbs. (6396 kg).
Note: Transport and operational weights and dimensions are variable, depending on the number of machine options.
POLY-ROLL ATTACHMENT (optional)
Poly-roll attachment is pin-connected for quick attaching to the front of the T/C-600 texture/cure machine and is sectional for variable widths. Hydraulically driven variable speed motor, up to 40 rpm, powers the poly-roller to match ground speed. Motor is reversible or can be disconnected to allow roller to free wheel when unrolling. The poly-roller has a minimum length of 14.75 ft. (4.5 m) and can handle up to 500 ft. (152.4 m) of poly-roll depending on thickness and width of poly.
dissolved air flotation (daf) systems p-tec daf systems manufacturer
All P-TEC DAF Systems utilize proven DAF system concepts and designs combined with innovative features that yield cost effective, heavy duty, high performance systems that span from 5 GPM to over 3,000 GPM in a single DAF system. Our manufacturing is top-of-the-line, utilizing laser cutting as one of the most cost-effective and versatile technologies with increased flexibility and amazing accuracy. This combined with CNC braking, CNC punching and some of the most talented stainless steel welders in the business, and you get a precision-made DAF system that is second-to-none in the industry (and proudly-built in the USA).
P-TEC MD Series MicroDAF systems have been deployed around the world for over 20 years and are still unique in their design. The MD Series MicroDAF is specifically designed utilizing a tilted, open-tank design and can be used to treat waste streams in both primary and secondary applications. Combining characteristics from both the HR and HS Series designs, the MD Series is ideally suited for applications with smaller flow rates. Designed to handle both floating and settling solids effectively, the MD Series DAF is a very versatile machine for many different applications.
The unique tank design of these machines allows for a very cost-effective manufacturing process which is a challenge for small DAF designs. When you have a small flow rate and small budget, the MD Series MicroDAFs are the way to go!
P-TEC HS Series MacroDAF systems are specifically designed utilizing an open-tank design and can be used to treat waste streams in both primary and secondary applications. The HS Series units are large in size relative to their HR Series counterparts. This increased size allows for large Free Surface Areas to handle very high solids loadings. Designed to handle both floating and settling solids effectively, the HS series DAF is a versatile machine for many different applications.
The HS Series utilizes the unique P-TEC Skimmer System that is known for reliability and low maintenance. The settled solids removal system is simple with low-to-no maintenance. These characteristics, heavy-duty design, and treatment efficiencies, allows these machines to be the safest and best place to spend your capital when considering DAF for your application.
P-TEC HR Series MacroDAF systems are specifically designed utilizing inclined plate technology and can be used to treat waste streams in both primary and secondary applications. The HR Series units are compact in size relative to the amount of flow they can treat. Designed to handle both floating and settling solids effectively, the HR series DAF is a very versatile machine for many different applications.
The inclined plate design of the HR Series allows for the utilization of effective surface area to significantly increase the hydraulic capacity of these machines while preventing solids build-up often found in systems with plates or media. Coupled with our P-TEC Skimmer System, settled solids removal system is simple with low-to-no maintenance. Field tested, reliable, and heavy-duty, the HR Series gets the job done right, every time.
P-TEC PF Series Flocculators are designed for effective chemical addition and monitoring of the Floc building process ahead of any of the P-TEC DAF systems. This simple pipe based design allows for versatility and low to no maintenance.
Standard materials of construction are SCH 80 PVC with alternative materials available for special applications. With over 25 years of experience with Pipe Flocculators, P-TEC also knows when this technology is not the best method for the Floc building process and therefore also offers conventional tanks and mixers as well.
If you have gained special knowledge of a particular application that calls for something unique, or you simply want your DAF to have special features that are important to you, P-TEC can help. We can custom fabricate DAFs and other Separators to your specifications while maintaining key fundamental design features to ensure the end product works for you as intended. Whether you need special materials of construction, specific controlling dimensions, or application-based special needs, let us know what you need and we will quote accordingly.
Our manufacturing is top-of-the-line, utilizing Laser cutting as one of the most cost effective and versatile technologies with increased flexibility and amazing accuracy. This combined with CNC braking, CNC punching and some of the most talented stainless steel welders in the business, and you get a precision-made system that is second-to-none in the industry.
design flotation plant
The flowsheet was based on laboratory tests wherein troublesome factors were eliminatedahead of design and construction. The flowsheet provides for unit arrangement of equipment and for added flexibility. Two-stage closed circuit crushing (with an apron feeder for control to the jaw crusher), provides ore for grinding circuit. Crushed material is conveyed to a Screen and the oversize is returned to the secondary cone crusher. The screened fraction drops to a reversible conveyor, thence to fine ore bins.
Adjustable stroke belt ore feeders regulate the feed to two 5 x 10 Steel Head Ball Mills in closed circuit with Cross-flow Classifiers. Each classifier discharge flows by gravity to two banks of 6 Cell No. 18 Sp. Sub-A Flotation Machines. The grind, 65 mesh is held as coarse as possible to reduce grinding costs and still attain maximum recovery. Each flotation section provides six cells for roughing and three cleaning stages with provisions for elimination of one or more stages for cleaning when type of ore permits (flexibility incorporated in Sub-A Machines).
The flotation concentrates are pumped to a regrind circuit to produce desired final size meeting specifications. The final ground concentrates are thickened and filtered. Filters are directly above concentrate storage bins.
The mill site near the mine is accessible to water, power, labor and supplies, and includes adequate space for expansion and tailings disposal. The topography makes gravity flow through the mill possible and allows for delivery of ore direct from mine cars to mill.
Equipment selected gives simplicity and flexibility in operation and allows for changes in tonnages and character of ore. Due to class of labor available, complicated controls and adjustments were eliminated where possible. The machinery selected and installed permits duplication of units for expansion.
As field welding was not available, bolted steel ore bins were installed. The machinery foundations, building foundations, retaining walls and floors are concrete. The flotation machines are mounted on low piers to allow for drainage. An operating platform of wood was installed between flotation machines to give clear working space. The flotation machine launders were designed to permit changes in cleaning stages without shut-downs or prolonged delays, and permits circuit adaptation to changes in ore characteristics. A tailings thickener permits partial reclaiming of water, in dry seasons.
The correct design of a milling plant can mean its success or failure when in operation, the difference between profit and loss. Maximum metallurgical results with low operating and maintenance costs requires thorough study and sound planning. Selection of equipment and construction features must be balanced with available finances and a minimum sacrifice in operating efficiency. Here is a typical small plant where proper design resulted in a successful operation.
This 75-ton, lead-zinc-gold-silver mill was based on a flowsheet developed through batch and continuous laboratory tests. These studies showed single stage crushing and grinding to 65 % minus 65 mesh was adequate for this operation. Tests indicated that over 70% of the gold, 40% of the silver and 60% of the lead was recoverable in the grinding circuit. Therefore Unit Cell and a Mineral Jig section were installed. Adequate flotation capacity to selectively float the lead and zinc was provided, together with a small concentrating table to visually show results of flotation. The zinc and lead concentrates are pumped v direct to a 4-foot by 4-disc Filter with two compartments. This filter was placed on top of the concentrate bin which location provides desirable operating room around the filter and could be seen from almostanywhere in the mill. The concentrate bins were of laminated wood constructionsturdy and inexpensive. Filtered concentrates drop directly into the bins.
Thickeners were eliminated due to initial installation expense and extra housing required because of climate. Low dilution, by keeping sprays in flotation launders to a minimum and ability of Vertical Pump to handle frothy pulps makes this possible.
The mill site was selected several miles from the mine at a point where water, power and tailing disposal area were available, and where it was accessible even during the heavy snow season. The site is on a natural slope, permitting gravity flow in the mill with minimum pumping requirements.
Equipment is arranged as compactly as possible without crowding and without sacrifice of working space, in order to keep the mill building to minimum size. This keeps capital investment low, and reduces heating costs during cold weather. The mill building, of wood construction with laminated wood roof trusses with one-quarter pitch, was covered with insulating material and corrugated sheet material. This construction was most suitable due to the climate and
low cost of lumber in the area. A small steam boiler and unit heaters were installed for heating. Mill and crushing buildings are on concrete foundations extending about four feet below the ground line. Concrete floors of 4 to 6 thick are sloped per foot, permitting slushing down with a hose.
Crushed ore conveyor is enclosed in a conveyorway for weather protection. Fine ore bin is housed within the mill building to prevent freezing. An inclined belt feeder with variable speed drive gains elevation to grinding mill. Feeder was designed with sloping hopper to reduce load on the belt of feed discharging from the bin.
Foundation for Ball Mill was made of reinforced concrete and cast in one section to prevent distortion and misalignment due to possible settlement or shifting of the foundation. Ball mill, unit flotation cell, jig, and classifier were arranged for easy access and operation. The ball mill was equipped with a spiral discharge screen to remove oversize material ahead of unit cell and jig. The 30 spiral classifier was equipped with a rotating motor-driven paddle to remove troublesome wood chips from classifier overflow screen.
The two six-cell No. 18 (2828) Sub-A Flotation Machines were elevated on timber bents with operating platforms between the machines; this gave space belowmachines for pipe lines, launders and concentrate pumps. Reagent feeders were grouped together above flotation machines and conditioners at elevation of filter floor for gravity flow of reagents, and for accessibility.
The mill control office located in the center of the mill, was designed with large windows so almost every machine in the mill could be seen. Operating floors most frequently used were kept as nearly as possible on the same level to reduce stair climbing for the operators. Mill was designed so two men per shift could handle this plant very well.
A gallery was provided in the trussed-roof section, the length of the building, for the installation of main electrical circuits, safety switches, and magnetic motor controls. This kept most of the electrical items away from splash and dirt. All wiring was selected oversize to reduce voltage drop, giving higher operating efficiency and reduced electrical maintenance. Totally enclosed motors were used for reduced maintenance. Push button start-stop controls were placed at the machines and in the mill control office, so that any machine could be controlled from either place.
A typical problem confronting a mining operation of moderate production is how to design a mill at a reasonable cost incorporating modern equipment and essential basic principles of materials handling with the minimum construction and mill costs.
The first step in mill design is the flowsheet based on reliable ore tests.
The mill capacity and equipment sizes as shown has been selected as an example for treating 500-550 short tons of ore per 24 hours per day. Two-stage grinding is to all minus 65 mesh for an average ore. Sufficient flotation capacity is included for a medium to slow floating ore. Thickening and filter capacity is selected for a 10 to 1 ratio of concentration as would be the case when treating a 3% copper ore with the copper mineral being chalcopyrite. In such case it would be necessary to filter 50 to 55 tons of concentrates each day. The use of a mineral jig or flotation unit cell in the grinding circuit is recommended. A simple test in our laboratory can tell you whether a coarse product can be recovered easily in the mill circuit.
The general design will apply to other ores with slight modification. The arrangement provides for ultimate use of gravity flow as is noted by the absence of pumps and elevators. The basic machines in plan and elevation are shown along with a flowsheet of the crushing,grinding and mill recovery circuits.
Mine run ore is fed to the primary jaw crusher by a heavy duty apron ore feeder over a grizzly. Crushed ore from the primary crusher is fed over a vibrating screen ahead of the cone crusher to remove fines. The crushing plant is normally designed to crush the entire daily mill tonnage in one shift or, at the most, 2 shifts.
Two- stage grinding provides the grinding economies outlinedin DECO Bulletin B2-B13. In the wet grinding circuit, a rod mill takes the entire feed at and reduces it to approximately 14 to 20 mesh. This mill is normally operated in open circuit with the classifier and ball mill. Usually there is a power saving with this grinding arrangement and often a substantial saving in the cost of the entire mill can be effected by reducing to a minimum some of the requirements in the crushing plant due to this method.
The ground ore overflows the classifier at -65 mesh and approximately 25% solids and is shown being conditioned ahead of flotation. Two parallel banks of Sub-A Flotation Machines on the same floor level are shown for roughing, scavenging, cleaning and recleaning. This arrangement in the flotation circuit provides maximum flexibility in the flow of material, high grade selective concentrates, and low final tailings.
Normally 10 square feet of thickener area is provided for each ton of concentrates per 24 hours which gives reserve capacity to accommodate normal filter maintenance without shutting down the flotation circuit.
In thedesign of any milling operation, continuity of flow should be given first consideration and all weak links eliminated. The old saying an hours delay means no profits today is even more important in our modern milling circuits where labor costs are high.
Many typical design plans and flowsheets are available for your use. Templates of all basic machines, scaled to 1-foot in plan and elevation facilitate laying out these plants.
Free tests are made by the Laboratory to check your grinding, thickening and filtering requirements.
If you have a mill design problem, large or small, it will pay you to consult with us. We want to help your engineers in their design work. This service will enable your engineers to lay out your mill at the millsite thus saving design, construction and operating expense. Your completely designed basic plant may already be available in our files with only minor changes necessary to modify it to fit your specific application.
flotation machine for mineral & metallurgy - jxsc machine
Application copper sulfide, gold sulfide, zinc, lead, nickel, antimony, fluorite, tungsten, and other non-ferrous metals, and also be used for coarse selection for ferrous metals and nonmetals. Type Agitating flotation machine, Self-priming, aeration flotation, flotation column. ModelXJK, SF, GF, CHF, XJC, etc. Contact us for specific & quick selection.
Flotation machine (floatation machine, planktonic concentrator) in the mineral processing plant, mainly used for separating copper, zinc, lead, nickel, gold, and other non-ferrous metal. TypeXJK series agitation impeller flotation machine (Seldom used, small capacity); SF flotation machine (Larger volume, better flotation effect); Pneumatic flotation machine (aeration and agitation, high capacity). Corollary equipmentIn front: one or two sets of mixing tank for flotation agent agitation and slurry pulp agitation. Behind: concentrate pond, thickener or filter Flotation cell According to the ore grade, mineral type and processing capacity to choose, determine the number of the flotation cells. It is recommended that carrying out the mineral flotation tests to obtain the best procedure plan, like pulp density, time, reagent selection, etc. Flotation reagentfoaming agent, collecting agent, activating agent, inhibitor, etc. BrandsWemco flotation unit, Fahrenwald Denver, Callow, BGRIMM, etc. How to select mining flotation machine1. According to the nature of the ore (washability, feed particle-size, density, grade, pulp, pH, etc.) and flotation plant scale choose the appropriate flotation machine. 2. The concentration operation is mainly to improve the ore concentrate grade. The flotation foam layer should be thin so that separates the gangue. It is not appropriate to use a flotation machine with a large aeration volume. Therefore, there are differences between the froth flotation machine of concentration, roughing and scavenging. 3. JXSC engineer team here to help do flotation mining machine selection, price inquiry, flowsheet design.
Flotation machine structureThe metallurgist flotation mainly made up of slurry tank, mixing device, aeration device, mineralized bubble discharging device and motor. Flotation machine working principleFlotation process refers to the flotation separation in mineral processing. In the flotation machine, the ore slurry treated with the added agent, by aeration and stir, some of the ore particles are selectively fixed on the air bubbles and floats to the surface of the slurry and is scraped out. The rest is retained in the pulp, thus achieve the purpose of separating different minerals. The complete froth flotation process in metallurgy consists of rougher flotation, concentrate flotation and scavenging flotation. Flotation methodFroth flotation of sulphide ores, mainly have differential flotation and bulk flotation process, improve the flotation recovery rate of fine - particle. Flotation cell manufacturerJXSC specializes in the production of a full set of mineral processing equipment, and cooperates with the Mining Research Institute to design a scientific and reliable mineral processing flowsheet, supply gold flotation, copper flotation, zinc flotation, and the like ore flotation units.