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graphite flotation processing plant

graphite ore flotation processing flow chart

graphite ore flotation processing flow chart

Graphite ore can be divided into crystalline graphite, flake graphite and graphite ore with a variety of gangue. The graphite ore beneficiation process is mainly for the graphite ore with different crystal forms, such as graphite ore, pyrite or mica. It adopts multi-stage grinding multi-stage flotation and re-election flotation combined with two beneficiation processes.

Graphite is a kind of high-energy crystalline carbon material. Due to its unique structure and conductivity, thermal conductivity, lubrication, high temperature resistance and stable chemical properties, it has high application value in high performance materials. It is widely used in metallurgy, machinery, In the fields of environmental protection, chemical engineering, fire resistance, electronics, medicine, military industry and aerospace, it has become an indispensable non-metallic material for modern industry and the development of high, new and cutting-edge technologies.

The flotation method is a relatively common method for purifying minerals. Since the graphite surface is not easily wetted by water, it has good floatability and is easily separated from impurity minerals. The flotation of graphite ore is generally carried out by positive flotation followed by reverse flotation of the flotation concentrate. A higher grade graphite concentrate can be obtained by flotation. Flotation graphite concentrate grades can usually reach 80% to 90%, using multi-stage grinding; the purity can reach 98%. The commonly used collectors for flotation crystal graphite are kerosene, diesel oil, heavy oil, sulfonate, sulfate, phenol and carboxylate. The common foaming agents are 2# oil, 4# oil, pine oil, ether alcohol and Butyl ether oil, etc., the adjusting agent is lime and sodium carbonate, and the inhibitors are water glass and lime. The common collector for flotation of cryptocrystalline graphite is coal tar. Commonly used foaming agents are eucalyptus oil and pine oil. The commonly used regulator is sodium carbonate. The commonly used inhibitors are water glass and sodium fluorosilicate.

This graphite ore flotation plant including: (1) Preparation processing: first and second crushing, and coarse milling. (2) Flotation processing: rough separating, sweeping separating and fine separating. (3) Concentrates treatment: dewatering, drying, screening and packing. The raw ores are mainly flake graphite, gaugue minerals are calcite, chlorite, tremolite, plagioclase, garnet, kaolinite and etc. Flotation separation process with 4 stages of milling process and 5 times fine separating is adopted. The collecting agents are terpenol and triethoxy butane. Lime is used to adjust the PH value of the ore pulp to 8-9. In the raw ore, the grade is 4%-5%, but after this flotation separation process, the grade should be 89% and the recovery rate is about 80%. To get high purity graphite and high carbon graphite products, the fine concentrates should go through wet process chemical purification to reach the grade of 98%. (4)Amorphous graphite ore beneficiation processing. Amorphous graphite ores has high grade of 30%-90%, but due to the fineness of inserted graphite particles, it is difficult to improve the grade. Separating process is not needed when dealing with high grade graphite ore, and most graphite ores in China are with high grade. So the ore beneficiation process goes: raw ore-crushing process-milling process-flotation process-dewatering process-drying process-powder making process-classifying process and packing process. Cryptocrystalline graphite ore beneficiation process in Kayserberg, Austria includes the direct powder making dry process and flotation wet process. Its raw ores contains carbon of 30%-80%. In this flotation process, the coal oil is used as collecting agent, pain oil and flotation oil as foaming agent; PH value of ore pulp is 8, and the carbon content in the concentrates is 90%-92%; while the direct powder making dry process is for low carbon content graphite.

graphite beneficiation process

graphite beneficiation process

Graphite is an important industrial mineral. Two types occur in nature, crystalline and amorphus. Crystalline graphite is used principally for crucibles and shaped structures. Amorphus graphite is used extensively in the steel and lubrication industries.

Most low grade graphite ores are crystalline and respond very well to flotation treatment for graphite recovery. Where a fairly high percentage of the graphite in the comminuted ore is in the +100 mesh it is possible and sometimes desirable to screen out and recover the coarse fractions to market them as such. Coarse flake graphite generally commands a much higher price. On the otherhand, where a maximum percentage of graphite in the concentrate is desired, the coarse fraction is recovered as soon and as coarse as possible and returned to a later point in the flotation circuit, thus avoiding overgrinding the coarse fraction.

The flowsheet is for a mill of 125 tons ore per day capacity. One objective of the flowsheet is to attain maximum recovery of the graphite in a concentrate assaying about 84-85 percent graphite carbon, and having approximately the following screen analysis: Minus 100 plus 200 mesh. 10-11% Minus 200 plus 325 mesh. 20-21% Minus 325 mesh. 60-70%

Many ores of this nature will assay about 20 percent graphite carbon. The gangue is normally siliceous, but may contain a small amount of pyrite. The specific gravity of this type of ore generally will run about 2.62. The ore would be classed as a medium ore to grind.

Crushing is desired to be accomplished with the least reduction of the graphite particle size. To this end, a Forced Feed JawCrusher set at 1 inches is used for primary crushing.A Grizzly ahead of the crusher will by-pass minus 1 inch material directly to screening and secondary crushing along with crushed ore. The crushed ore is conveyed over a double deck Dillon Vibrating Screen with -inch cloth. Undersize drops by gravity to a 200 ton Fine Ore Bin. Plus -inch oversize is passed through a set of Crushing Rolls which provide secondary crushing with a minimum size reduction of graphite particles. The crushing section is operated on an 8-hour per day basis, while the balance of the plant operates 24 hours per day.

A Rod Mill is used to achieve the requisite grinding with minimum graphite particle size reduction. Grinding density should be uniformly maintained at above 65% solids. The discharge passes through a Spiral Screen with the minus fraction going to a Sub-A Unit Cell.

The Unit Cell is installed in the Rod Mill-Classifier circuit to recover an important amount of the graphite at a relatively coarse particle size, which may be marketed as a separate product as desired or the Unit Cell concentrate may be blended into the flotation circuit at a later point. In either case this graphite is thereby recovered as soon as freed without further treatment cost and without objectionable particle size reduction.

Where short conditioning times are sufficient, this may be accomplished in the first cell of the rougher flotation section. Longer conditioning periods require a conditioner such as the Super Agitator and Conditioner. Conditioning generally requires about 0.08 pounds fuel oil and 0.05 pounds frother, such as Dowfroth No. 250 per ton solids.

The Unit Cell and rougher concentrates are combined and flow by gravity to the cleaner, a 6-cell Sub-A Flotation Machine arranged for triple cleaning. This arrangement is accomplished without pumps, a typical illustration of the great flexibility of the Sub-A Flotation Machine. No additional reagents are required in the cleaner section.

The flotation concentrated is retreated by a Wilfley Concentrating Table for the gravity removal of gangue which cannot be removed by flotation. The table treatment with recirculation of the high grade table middlings is effective in raising total recovery within market limitations. The retreatment of the low grade table middlings by regrinding in a Steel Head Ball Mill and combining the ball mill discharge with the classifier overflow will often increase the final recovery to approximately 90 percent.

The production of a coarse, tough flake product with the desired impurity removal is necessary. Flotation is successful, but special reagents may be necessary to depress gangue particles that may become coated with some graphite in grinding. Stage grinding in closedcircuit with vibrating screens may remove much gangue as oversize.

Silica Sand: More rigid specifications for glass sand requiredin optical and high-grade glass has resulted in use ofSub-A Flotation Machines to remove very fine particles ofiron. This installation, through tabling andSub-AFlotation reduces the Fe2O3 content from approximately .40%to .03%.

Alcohol or pine oil frother alone, or with a mineral oil collector such as kerosene, is generally used. Acid or alkali reagents may be necessary to depress gangue. Graphite is one of the easiest minerals to float, even in flakes up to 10 mesh and coarser.

graphite flotation plant,graphite mining processing line | prominer (shanghai) mining technology co.,ltd

graphite flotation plant,graphite mining processing line | prominer (shanghai) mining technology co.,ltd

Location: China Mineral Ore Type: Graphite ore Raw Ore Grade: 5.8% above Final Product: 92% concentrate Recovery Rate: 88% Plant Capacity: 1500 t/d Technological Process: crushing & sieving + ball mill stage grinding & classification + stage flotation + thickening & filtering

Normally flotation is applied for graphite processing, but the big flake should be preserved. The Owner comes to Prominer for help to preserve as much as big flake as it can be. So after the dressing test stage grinding and stage flotation process is determined. Prominer supplies equipment of the plant and send our chief engineer to supervise on the installation and commissioning.

Prominer has been devoted to mineral processing industry for decades and specializes in mineral upgrading and deep processing. With expertise in the fields of mineral project development, mining, test study, engineering, technological processing.

graphite processing,extraction,crushing&grinding plant design | prominer (shanghai) mining technology co.,ltd

graphite processing,extraction,crushing&grinding plant design | prominer (shanghai) mining technology co.,ltd

With the fast development of the refractory material and new energy vehicles, graphite resources are focused in recent years. There are two different type graphite: Artificial graphite and Natural graphite. Prominer provides the complete solution of graphite processing plant including crushing, grinding and flotation plant to make natural flake graphite concentrate. For graphite concentrate deep processing for anode material, we can also supply spherical graphite spherical grinding & shaping production system and spherical making test service. Besides, Prominer has various resources linking to chemical & thermal purification technology, coating technology, carbonization technology and half cell & full cell testing to make Li-battery anode materials and expandable / expanded graphite.

Every graphite mine has unique characteristics which need to be determined in advance. Therefore, it is of crucial importance to determine graphite flake morphology, primary flake size and liberation size. Typical flake graphite deposits are gneissic and consist mainly of feldspar, quartz and mica. The size of the graphite flake is a very important fact under commercial consideration. Therefore, it is in the best interest of a flake graphite producer to maximize the amount of large flake. Prominer is experienced in choosing the suitable grinding mill to reserve high yield rate of big flake graphite.

With the development of expanded graphite and anode materials industry, there is much requirement on high purity graphite product. It is very hard to reach the grade above TGC 96% just by the stage grinding and flotation processing. To get higher grade above TGC96% or even above TGC 99.95%, deep processing should be applied. General processing technologies for graphite ore are summarized as below:

It is necessary to undertake the lab test or even pilot test for determining primary flake size and liberation size, improving the TGC grade as high as possible, meanwhile to find the suitable grinding-flotation way to reserve the big flake size graphite. It means that any processing reducing the size of constituent flake must be minimized. The ball mill is used for the primary grinding stage, thereafter the vertical stirred mill with ceramic grinding media is the best choice for intermediate regrinding stages.

Graphite purification furnace is used for continuous high temperature purification of graphite powder to match increasingly stricter environmental protection requirements. We have continuous type and pusher type for different purpose purification process. It is continuous loading and discharging under high temperature reducing the energy consumption and shortening the production cycle. The furnace adopts electrical resistant or induction heating that the temperature can reach up to more than 2600C. Most of the impurities become gas, but the graphite will remain because of its heat resisting property. Both high temperature and chemical method can be used to satisfy the high purity requirement. The furnace uses high efficiency filter system, which can trap the dust and corrosive gases coming from the purification process.

Graphite used for high tech products such as Lithium ion batteries or fuel cells demands higher purity than typically upgraded by flotation. The chemical purification technology should be considered for further purification of graphite concentrate to TGC 99.99%. A basic process is thermal treatment in the presence of caustic reagents to dissolve siliceous impurities such as quartz, feldspar or mica. The graphite concentrate is mixed with caustic reagent and calcined at elevated temperatures. After calcination the graphite is leached with water washing away dissolved impurities. In order to get ultra-high purity graphite, the fine intergrown minerals residing between the graphite layers have to be removed. Thus, one or multi-stage acid washing with different acids or combinations is applied to remove impurities that are insoluble at alkaline conditions.

The spheroidization process is the most important step for making cathode & anode materials. Prominer has the ability to provide the complete spherical graphite grinding system including primary crushing mill, shaping mill, air classifier and dedusting system. It is widely used for processing cathode materials such as lithium iron phosphate, cobalt acid lithium, lithium manganate and Li-NiCoMn Lithium ion materials, and anode materials including natural graphite & synthetic graphite grinding and spheroidization processing. It is highly efficient to get potato-shaped graphite particles with high yield rate between 40-70%. We do also have the batch type shaper mill to improve the tap density.

For making the natural graphite anode materials, the coating and carbonizatino treatment are the key processing steps to determine the cathode and anode materials performance for rechargeable battery. Prominer maintains a good relationship with the suppliers that can provide coating and carbonization system.

Prominer has been devoted to mineral processing industry for decades and specializes in mineral upgrading and deep processing. With expertise in the fields of mineral project development, mining, test study, engineering, technological processing.

graphite ore flotation process introduction--cfccarbon ltd

graphite ore flotation process introduction--cfccarbon ltd

Graphite ore flotation process is an efficient graphite ore deep processing technology, it can greatly increasethe application of graphite ore area, selected graphite ore concentrate, canmeet the diverse needs of various fields of production. In this case,Graphite natural floatability is very good, generally use the flotation method, with neutral oil can be harvested. But we should pay attention to the following points in the flotation: (1) first we should knowthe type of graphite ore. Graphite ore is divided into crystlegraphite ore and earth-like graphite ore. Flake graphite ore is characterized by scaly or leaf-like graphite, ore grade is not high, generally 3% to 5%, the maximum not more than 20% to 25%. This type of graphite floatability is good, the flotation, the grade up to 90% or more, so the ore grade 2% to 3% can be mined. Flake graphite performance, generally used in the manufacture of advanced carbon products. Earth-like graphite is also called cryptocrystalline graphite ore. The graphite crystal of this ore is small, generally less than 1m, the surface was soil-like, lack of luster, industrial performance than scaly graphite. The graphite ore ore grade higher, generally 60% to 80%, but the floatability is poor, the flotation, the grade will not be significantly improved, therefore, less than 65% of the grade of ore, generally not mining , Grade in 65% to 80%, after sorting can be used. Therefore, for the graphite ore, we shoud not only see the content grade of its ore, but should first clarify the type, and then decide whether to use flotation program. (2) sorting process we should pay attention to the protection of large scales flakes. Flake graphite is widely used, it has fewer resources, higher value, so the production must be taken to protect the large scalesflakesnot broken. Usually large scale is +50 mesh, +80 mesh, +100 mesh scaly graphite. Protection of large phosphorus tablets in the process of sorting is used in the process of multiple grinding multiple selection process. Each time the grinding of the monomer dissociation of the graphite to be elected in time, such as the ore once to a very fine grain size, it will destroy the large scale. For example, Chinas large-scale graphite mine Nanshu graphite mine, which uses a rough election, a sweep, four grinding, six selection process, both to protect the large scales are not damaged, and concentrate grade 90% . (3) the product quality requirements. Graphite products on the higher grade requirements, such as the general requirements of flake graphite grade in more than 89%, pencil graphite grade requirements in 89% to 98%. Some electric carbon graphite required grade of 99% and so on. In order to obtain high-grade graphite concentrate, graphite flotation, the number of selection are generally more. Graphite beneficiation processing method 1. The processing of crystalline graphite mineral processing Crystal graphite natural floatability is better in China this is the use of flotation method for beneficiation. As the graphite flake size is one of the most important quality indicators, so in the sorting method using multi-stage grinding, multiple sorting process in order to select the flake graphite as soon as possible. Flotation commonly used collector for the kerosene, diesel, etc., foaming agent for the second oil, fourth oil, adjusting agent for the lime, sodium carbonate, inhibitor for the water glass. 2. Aphanitic graphite beneficiation processing methods Aphanitic graphite crystal is very small, it is also called microcrystalline graphite, graphite particles are often embedded in the clay, the separation is very difficult. As the ore grade high (usually 60% to 80% carbon), so many of the graphite ore mining will be directly crushed stone processing, the sale of graphite powder products. Hunan Lu Tong graphite mine was in the 50s to establish flotation plant flotation microcrystalline graphite, but the cost is too high and stop production. At present, some units are still conducting micro-crystal graphite flotation process (such as oil reunion flotation, etc.) research. 3. Purification of graphite products processing Modern industrial requirements for the development of graphite products to two aspects: First, the requirements of crystal scale to achieve high purity, the second is to require ultra-fine particles of graphite products (such as less than 1m or 0.5m). China has established a graphite refining and fine powder processing production line in Nanxu, Beishu, Liumao, Xinghe and other graphite processing plants. The purification method is mainly chemical purification. Graphite chemical purification of the most mature process is the use of caustic and graphite melting at 700 , after washing to neutral, plus processing, washing, so that graphite carbon content of 98% to 99%. Some manufacturers use hydrofluoric acid to produce high-purity graphite.

ADD: Yizhuang Economic Development Zone, Beijing 100176, China. Fax: +86 10 80828912 Website: www.cfccarbon.com Email: [email protected] Marketing center: Human Resources:

CFC CARBON CO., LTD/ HTMAGROUP ADD: Yizhuang Economic Development Zone, Beijing 100176, China. Fax: +86 10 80828912 Website: www.cfccarbon.com Email: [email protected] Marketing center: Human Resources:

graphite mining | processing equipment | flow chart | cases - jxsc

graphite mining | processing equipment | flow chart | cases - jxsc

Description Pure graphite is a mineral form of the element carbon (element #6, symbol C). It forms as veins and disseminations in metamorphic rocks as the result of the metamorphism of organic material included in limestone deposits. It is an extremely soft mineral and it breaks into minute, flexible flakes that easily slide over one another. This feature accounts for graphites distinctive greasy feel. This greasy characteristic makes graphite a good lubricant. Because it is a solid material, it is known as a dry lubricant. This is useful in applications where wet lubricants, such as oil, cannot be used. Graphite is the only non-metal element that is a good conductor of electricity. Natural graphite is used mostly in what are called refractory applications. Refractory applications are those that involve extremely high heat and therefore demand materials that will not melt or disintegrate under such extreme conditions. One example of this use is in the crucibles used in the steel industry. Such refractory applications account for the majority of the usage of graphite.

From 1890 to 1920, underground mining of graphite was practiced in New York and Pennsylvania. From 1942 until the end of World War II, only open-pit methods were used, because working weathered rock was relatively easy. Graphite was mined underground at Dillon, Montana, during World War II, but shortly thereafter mining ceased because it was too costly to compete with Sri Lankan graphite.

Madagascar operations are entirely open pit, but in Bavaria, Korea, Mexico, and Sri Lanka, because of the depth and physical characteristics of the deposits, underground mining is practiced. Mexican underground mining operations are 100400 m below the surface, measured on the angle of the vein. Some of the older mines in Sri Lanka reached depths in excess of 450 m on a vertical plane. For many years, mining operations in Sri Lanka were primitive and ore extraction was slow and cumbersome. The mines were mechanized after World War II.

Madagascar operations also were primitive because low labor costs prohibited mechanization. After 1938 the mines began to use mechanical equipment to remove the overburden, and bulldozers and tractors easily removed the graphite-bearing schists.

Worldwide demand for graphite steadily increased throughout 2012 and into 2013. This increase resulted from the improvement of global economic conditions and its impact on industries that use graphite.

Principal import sources of natural graphite were, in descending order of tonnage, China, Mexico, Canada, Brazil, and Madagascar, which combined accounted for 97% of the tonnage and 90% of the value of total imports. Mexico and Vietnam provided all the amorphous graphite, and Sri Lanka provided all the lump and chippy dust variety. China, Canada, and Madagascar were, in descending order of tonnage, the major suppliers of crystalline flake and flake dust graphite.

During 2013, China produced the majority of the worlds graphite. Graphite production increased in China, Madagascar, and Sri Lanka from that of 2012, while production decreased in Brazil from 2012 production levels.

Uses Because graphite flakes slip over one another, giving it its greasy feel, graphite has long been used as a lubricant in applications where wet lubricants, such as oil, can not be used. Technological changes are reducing the need for this application.

Natural graphite is used mostly in what are called refractory applications. Refractory applications are those that involve extremely high heat and therefore demand materials that will not melt or disintegrate under such extreme conditions. One example of this use is in the crucibles used in the steel industry. Such refractory applications account for the majority of the usage of graphite.

Mining Equipment Manufacturers, Our Main Products: Gold Trommel, Gold Wash Plant, Dense Media Separation System, CIP, CIL, Ball Mill, Trommel Scrubber, Shaker Table, Jig Concentrator, Spiral Separator, Slurry Pump, Trommel Screen.

graphite processing - froth flotation (sulphide & oxide) - metallurgist & mineral processing engineer

graphite processing - froth flotation (sulphide & oxide) - metallurgist & mineral processing engineer

Can anyone suggest what will be the next process after processing and beneficiation of low grade graphite ore by froth flotation? What flowsheet is my plant needing and how I remove coated graphite form the clay particle after flotation?

Normally the flotation process is what is used to separate the graphite from the clay, if this is not happening you may need to adjust your reagents. Alternatively, if the clay is finely disseminated, classification will work after flotation.

What do you mean by coated graphite? Do you mean clay coated graphite or graphite coatings on other minerals? If it is the former, as Wesley has suggested, very gentle attrition in the presence of a dispersant (e.g. sodium silicate, etc.). But then, how did it float - unless it was only a partial coating?

I would think that you are not too worried about maximising the size of the graphite particles so gentle attrition is the way forward. You need to have a way to physically separate the clay from the graphite before attempting the separation, which would probably consist of classification (depending how fine the graphite has become) then flotation in the presence of dispersant at low percent solids.

It's a matter of how you design grinding and classification process before the flotation. If there is overgrinding problem in the process you will have graphite slime coating on clay particles and this makes those clay particles behave like graphite particles and will report to the floated products.

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