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high frequency screen 4k

tci manufacturing high frequency screens

tci manufacturing high frequency screens

TCI high frequency screens, commonly referred to as "PEP screens", come in a variety of sizes, frequency levels and configurations. Fine material is best separated with high speed and a small stroke. They are available in single or double deck configurations, and are equipped with either electric or hydraulic vibration. The ratchet-type screen tensioning makes for easy screen panel changes.

does your gaming laptop need a high-refresh-rate screen? | pcmag

does your gaming laptop need a high-refresh-rate screen? | pcmag

Buying a gaming laptop has become one of the most complex decisions in all of consumer tech today, given the many component nuances and emerging features to factor in. Take, just for example, items like adaptive sync, the tricky-to-understand tiers of AMD and Intel laptop CPUs, and Nvidia's shades-of-grey GeForce RTX mobile graphics chips. And only then come the screens!

Today, gaming laptops are often advertised with high-refresh-rate displays, and these panels are now one of the key features that separate them from everyday non-gaming notebooks. Its implied that they improve the gaming experience, but the technicalities are often left unexplained. Let's deep-dive into the details on high-refresh displays: how they work, how they relate to other factors and specifications (such as screen resolution), and most important, how many hertz you really need on your next gaming laptop.

The screen on your laptop or computer monitor must redraw its picture many times per second to make fluid motion possible. How often the screen can redraw itself is determined by its refresh rate, which is measured in hertz (Hz). A screen with a higher refresh rate can redraw itself more frequently.

For a refresh-rate baseline, consider that most Hollywood movies are presented at 24 frames (or pictures) per second, just enough for smooth motion. For a screen to show the movie properly, it must redraw itself at least 24 times per second, or operate at 24Hz in refresh-rate terms. One hertz translates to one frame per second (fps).

The number of frames (or the frame rate) needed to experience the "illusion" of smooth motion depends on the scenario. Movies can get away with 24fps; PCs cant. If computer screens refreshed that slowly, your mouse would look like it was skipping rather than gliding across the screen. It would ruin the computing experience.

For that reason, the standard refresh rate for most laptop and desktop monitors is 60Hz, allowing them to show up to 60fps. Content played at that rate will appear truly smooth with no stuttering or jerking. And that might make you wonder: Why should I pay for anything higher?

High-refresh screens are broadly defined as those operating above 60Hz. High-refresh screens in gaming laptops start at 120Hz and top out, at this writing, at a blistering 300Hz, with in-between increments of 144Hz and 240Hz.

The primary benefit of a high refresh rate is that motion can appear more fluid. In a one-second scene where a car drives by, a 60Hz display would be limited to showing 60 frames, where a 120Hz screen could show 120 frames. (The assumption is that the content was produced at 120fps.) The scene will look smoother at 120Hz/120fps because there is a smaller time gap between frame changes. A frame endures just 1/120th of a second, versus 1/60th of a second on the 60Hz screen.

Computer screens are made of millions of pinprick-size elements called pixels that can independently change their color. Its easy to imagine how a picture, a game, or a movie requires pixels to act like a puzzle, each displaying the appropriate color to represent the image.

Response time, measured in milliseconds, is how quickly pixels react to change in color. Lower times are always better, but response time isnt always comparable across laptop makes (or standalone monitor makes, for that matter). Unlike refresh rate, there is no industry standard for measuring response time.

Screen makers commonly measure response time as the time it takes for pixels to change from gray to white to gray again, a transition that takes less time than the classic transition from black to white to black. But even if the measurement scenario were the same between two screens, there can still be variances in measurement method, due to the lack of an industry standard. In short, dont count out a laptop just because its screens response time is higher than anothers. As a guideline, response times of less than 5 milliseconds (5ms) are considered low for gaming laptops. Lower numbers are better, all else being equal.

Going back to refresh rate, response time is related in a practical sense. A screen with a high refresh rate but a comparatively slow response time would be pointless. That's because the pixels would have trouble keeping up with the quickly changing frames demands. Images on a screen with a slow response time will appear to smear or "ghost" in fast-motion scenes. To an extent, response time trumps refresh rate in importance, but a well-designed gaming laptop should not employ a high-refresh screen with a poor response time. Such a panel would be counter-productive.

Another variable that affects refresh rate is screen resolution, the measurement of how many pixels are in a screen. Running at the optimized, top resolution for a given panel is what is known as its native resolution.

The resolution is listed as the number of pixels that span horizontally by the number that span vertically. Todays gaming laptops usually stick with a 1,920-by-1,080-pixel native resolution, better known as full HD or simply 1080p. Screens with a 2,560-by-1,440-pixel resolution (QHD or 1440p) are also starting to appear in a few 2021-model gaming laptops. (See, for example, our review of the 2021 version of the MSI GS66 Stealth.)

Full HD is the resolution of choice for most gaming laptops, since it offers sufficient detail while being relatively easy for laptop graphics chips to drive. Higher resolutions require more graphics-card processing power; a computer will be able to run a game at full HD with higher frame rates than it would at QHD. For this reason, gaming laptops are not often equipped with UHD/4K (3,840-by-2,160-pixel) screens. Hitting high frames in demanding games at 4K and high detail settings is beyond the reach of most gaming laptops.

Both full HD and QHD screen resolutions are available with refresh rates up to 240Hz, and 1080p up to 300Hz. Refresh rates fall off after that; UHD/4K screens are predominantly 60Hz, with 120Hz making limited appearances. Dont count on UHD/4K screens with a 300Hz refresh rate showing up anytime soon; no current monitor connection offers enough bandwidth to make it possible. Its a moot point, anyway; even top-end gaming laptops struggle to maintain smooth gameplay at UHD/4K in the latest games.

A traditional screens refresh rate is constant, which is to say, it will always operate at its rated frequency. For gaming, this can be problematic, since the computer may not be producing frame rates that are evenly divisible by the refresh rate, resulting in a phenomenon known as tearing.

Suppose a laptop produces 73fps in a certain game, but its screen has a 144Hz refresh rate. This means that each time the screen redraws itself, it may not have a complete, new frame from the GPU. However, the GPU must continuously send frames to maintain a picture (144 per second, in this hypothetical scenario), so it may be forced to send part of the previous frame and part of the next frame, in some instances, to keep up. Thus, the frame can look torn, with portions at top and bottom briefly mismatched or out of alignment.

Not every gamer will notice tearing, especially on screens with triple-digit refresh rates. However, that doesnt mean tearing doesnt occur. The modern solution is frame-rate syncing, or adaptive sync, which allows the screen to dynamically alter its refresh rate to match the frame rates coming from the graphics card. Nvidia G-Sync is by far the most common one in laptops; hit that link to get a primer on it. AMDs version is FreeSync. The term Variable Refresh Rate (VRR) is also making the rounds, more in association with TVs. That said, many mainstream gaming laptops don't support any adaptive sync.

Frame-rate-syncing technology is uncommon on gaming laptops since it usually involves some cost to the laptop maker. However, for the ultimate smooth experience, these technologies are worth consideration. The downside is that they will limit your notebook choice.

The last refresh-rate-related topic to know is the acronym often advertised next to a laptops screen, such as IPS or IGZO. It refers to the screens technology, or panel type, which affects refresh rate and response time.

Todays most popular panel technology for gaming-laptop screens is in-plane switching (IPS). It has almost completely taken the place of the twisted nematic (TN) technology that most gaming laptops relied on until the early-to-mid-2010s. By comparison, it offers superior color range and wider viewing angles than TN, the latter preventing the picture from washing out or inverting when viewed off-center.

The transition from TN to IPS was slow, since early IPS screens suffered from long response times, making them unsuitable for fast-paced gaming. Modern gaming IPS displays are down to just a few milliseconds.

An IPS alternative is indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO). Its comparable to IPS in almost every way, from color reproduction to viewing angles, and it offers similar refresh rates. IPS is more popular since the panels themselves are more widely produced, and in a greater variety, than IGZO ones.

This isnt an exhaustive list of panel technologies (for that, see our computer monitors guide), but one more that sometimes appears in high-end laptops is organic light-emitting diode (OLED). Screens using OLED technology are rarely seen in gaming laptops since their refresh rates generally dont exceed 60Hz. Without stealing too much of the next sections thunder, that is the bare minimum for gaming. (That said, the OLED scene may change in 2021 with Samsungs announcement of 90Hz OLED laptop screens; see our favorite OLED laptops to date.)

The screens on the lowest-priced gaming notebooks usually have a 60Hz refresh rate, the same that youll find on non-gaming notebooks. For casual and AAA gaming, 60Hz is acceptable when paired with low-end graphics chips, such as the Nvidia GeForce MX line, the GeForce GTX 1650 or 1650 Ti, and AMDs Radeon RX 5500M and under. Those cards can generally maintain between 30fps and 60fps at a full HD resolution in todays games. For that scenario, a greater-than 60Hz refresh rate is unnecessary.

However, esports players will do well to look above the 60Hz mark, since their competitiveness is highly dependent on their reaction time, which itself partially depends on how quickly the computer can display frames. Stepping up to a 120Hz or a 144Hz screen is worth the extra dosh to get the silky-smooth gaming experience that wont look choppy when you try a 180-degree headshot. Even lower-end graphics cards can reach triple-digit fps in less resource-intensive esports, such as Fortnite, Counter-Strike: Global Offensive, Rainbow Six: Siege, and League of Legends. So dont be afraid to pair a high-refresh screen with an entry-level GPU for esports titles like those. Plus, some esports players have been known to turn down the detail settings on a game to hit higher frame rates for a competitive edge.

Esports players with higher budgets can benefit from refresh rates beyond 144Hz. As noted, gaming-laptop screens can be found with refresh rates of 240Hz (as an example, see the 2020 Acer Predator Helios 300) and 300Hz (such as the Alienware 17 R3). Powerful gaming notebooks can produce sufficient frame rates to saturate those refresh rates in esports titles that are less resource-intensive. The difference between 240Hz and 300Hz is not noticeable to most eyes, so 240Hz is a practical stopping point.

Players of AAA titles looking for the most cinematic experience should also strongly consider a high-refresh screen. Higher frame rates and thus smoother onscreen action create a more immersive experience. Reaction times can count in these games, too, and a high-refresh screen is one way to eliminate the PC as a bottleneck. That said, AAA gamers can comfortably stop at 144Hz; even a top-shelf laptop GPU, such as the GeForce RTX 3080, wont get far into triple-digit frame rates in most cases. (As an illustration of that, see the gaming benchmarks in our review of the 2021 MSI GE76 Raider.)

The best-case scenario for smooth gaming is a high-refresh-rate screen paired with a frame-rate-smoothing technology, such as AMD FreeSync or Nvidia G-Sync, though they can limit your notebook choice since they are uncommon. Also take response time into account, though unlike refresh rate, it can be only loosely compared, since methods for measuring it vary from laptop make to laptop make.

As a departing note, know that despite the specs and on-paper theoreticals, it is still possible to buy a gaming laptop with a substandard screen that has one or more undesirable attributes, such as low brightness. So see our gaming laptop recommendations (and others') for help finding the one most deserving of your hard-earned cash.

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Charles Jefferies is a native of the Philadelphia area who has been reviewing laptops and related hardware since 2005. A graduate of Rochester Institute of Technology, he enjoys all aspects of consumer and business tech, especially PCs, tablets, and photography. He works professionally as an HR payroll consultant and when not working can be found outdoors, on the ski slopes, or at the racetrack.

PCMag.com is a leading authority on technology, delivering Labs-based, independent reviews of the latest products and services. Our expert industry analysis and practical solutions help you make better buying decisions and get more from technology.

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laptop screen guide: resolution, refresh rate, color and brightness | laptop mag

laptop screen guide: resolution, refresh rate, color and brightness | laptop mag

When you're shopping for a laptop, the screen is one of the most important components to scrutinize. People who don't do a lot of high-end tasks may not notice the difference between a Core i5 and a Core i7 CPU, but even the most tech-illiterate person will appreciate a beautiful display and scorn an ugly one.

So, whether you're choosing between competing models or picking a configuration of the laptop you already want, you need to choose the best possible screen. After all, you will be staring at it all day.

Every display panel is made up of a series of dots called pixels, and the more pixels you have, the more detail you can fit on-screen. Most laptops come with low-resolution, 1366 x 768 screens that show far less content than high-resolution panels with at least 1920 x 1080 pixels.

In fact, a 1920 x 1080 (also called 1080p) display can show as much as 10 additional lines of text on a web page, or in an email or a document you're editing. You can fit two full-size windows next to each other with 1920 horizontal pixels, but can't really do that with just 1366 dots to work with. Videos and photos also look a lot sharper at 1080p because the dots are smaller, allowing you to see fine details without the graininess you get on a low-res screen.

If you really want to kick your display quality up a few notches, you can get a screen with an even higher resolution than 1080p. Some laptops are available with panels that are 2560 x 1440, 3200 x 1800 or 3840 x 2160 (aka 4K) resolution. These higher-than-1080p resolutions are sharper, but they also use more power, harming battery life.

When you're going through spec sheets for different laptops, you may see the same screen resolution referred to with different names. For example, a 2560 x 1440 screen could be listed as a 2K display, or as WQHD. Here's a helpful table of common resolution names.

Unless you're buying a dirt-cheap laptop, you should always get a laptop with at least a 1920 x 1080 resolution. You can find a system with 1080p these days for as little as $349, but many $700 and $800 laptops still come with 1366 panels, so spending more doesn't guarantee a better display.

If you're buying a 2-in-1, there's no doubt that you need a touch screen and no option not to get one. However, if you're purchasing a standard clamshell laptop, you need to weigh the advantages of touch against its downsides.

Though resolution and color quality are more important, having a brighter screen provides a better experience. Brighter panels usually make colors pop (though they can also be washed out) and lead to wider viewing angles. If you plan to work outdoors or near a window, you need a fairly bright panel to see anything in direct sunlight.

Most laptop companies and journalists measure brightness in nits and higher numbers equate to a more luminous screen. The brightest laptops on the market have screens that can reach 300 nits or more, but you can consider any screen with over 250 nits to be above average.

The more colors your panel can output, the more vibrant it will appear. At LAPTOP, we measure every laptop's screen's ability to reproduce all the colors in the sRGB gamut, which is a rather limited set of colors. The best laptops can reproduce over 95 percent of the sRGB gamut, and many exceed 100 percent. Few manufacturers disclose their screen gamuts on spec sheets, but those that do usually use a wider gamut such as NTSC or Adobe RGB. A 72-percent NTSC gamut measurement is equivalent to 100 percent of sRGB.

If you don't know a laptop screen's gamut coverage, you can at least see if it is labeled as an IPS or OLED display. Better-quality laptop screens use IPS (in-plane switching) technology, which offers better viewing angles and more vibrancy than standard TN (twisted nematic) panels. If the manufacturer doesn't disclose that a screen is IPS, assume that it is not.

The most colorful type of screen you can get is one that uses OLED (Organic Light Emitting Diode) technology. While traditional screens have a backlight that illuminates all the pixels, with OLED, each pixel lights itself. That means that colors are truer and blacks are completely black. While many phones have OLED screens, only two laptops have this technology so far: the Alienware 13 and the Lenovo ThinkPad X1 Yoga.

If you're buying a gaming laptop, you'll want to consider two more factors: refresh rate and response time. Measured in hertz, the refresh rate is the number of times per second that the screen updates itself. Most laptop screens have the standard 60Hz refresh rate, but some high-end gaming models like the MSI GS63VR come with 120Hz panels, which are better.

Response time is the amount of milliseconds it takes for a pixel to change colors. A good response time for gaming is 5 ms or less. With a low refresh rate or a high response time, your screen may not be able to keep up with fast-paced games, which means you'll see problems like ghosting and tearing. If you have a game running at 90 fps and your screen is only 60Hz, you may notice this problem.

Some laptops come with Nvidia's G-Sync technology, which limits ghosting and tearing by synchronizing the panel with the video card. The screen knows that the game is running at 60 fps, for example, and adjusts accordingly. AMD has its own synchronization technology called FreeSync.

If you do nothing else, make sure you get a screen that has at least a 1920 x 1080 resolution. Think really hard about whether you want touch, and then consider the color quality and brightness. Worry about the refresh rate and response time only if you're a serious gamer.

4k projector screens | shop

4k projector screens | shop

If a competitors website has the same product but is not restricting the display/functionality in the same way that you see here on ProjectorScreen.com, than that competitor is likely NOT an authorized dealer.

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