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how the shape products stone of secondary crusher

different types of secondary rock crusher

different types of secondary rock crusher

Rock crusher is used to, just as its name, crush rocks. It is widely used in construction sites and mining industry. According to its use, rock crusher can be divided into two major types: primary rock crusher and secondary rock crusher. Primary rock crusher is used to break down large stones which haven't been broken down while secondary rock crusher is used to crush smaller stones which have been crushed once. There are several types of secondary rock crushers. If you want to know the difference between them, read the article belows.

Gyratory crusher is a type of secondary rock crusher. There is a narrow opening at the bottom of gyratory crusher. Only if the stone is crushed into desired shape, it can fall through the opening. The gyratory crusher break down stones by pressing between two components--an eccentrically-gyrating spindle and an enclosing concave hopper. In order to make the spindle durable, it is designed with a a wear-resistant coat.

Cone crusher is used for the secondary crush. Compared with the gyratory crusher, the crushing chamber in a cone crusher isn't as steep as it is in a gyratory crusher and the positions of the different crushing zones is more parallel. When the cone crusher operates, its central cone spins and the walls are tapered, so the rock keep hitting the wall until it fall through the opening at the bottom.

Impact crusher can be considered as both primary and secondary rock crushers. There are two major types of impact crusher , HIS and VSI. VSI crushers keep throwing the material in its hammer against the surface until the material is crushed into desired shape. On the contrary, the HIS crushers use hammers which swing on a shaft to crush stones.

Basic Information About Impact Crusher Cone Crusher Is Absorbing New Technology Cone Crusher VS VSI or Vertical Shaft Impactor Differences Between Hammer Crusher And Impact Crusher Different Types of Jaw Crusher Related Products:

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selecting a secondary crusher: what is the right choice?-ftm machinery

selecting a secondary crusher: what is the right choice?-ftm machinery

There are three types of secondary crushing equipment widely accepted in the market nowadays, that is, the impact crusher, the cone crusher and the sand maker. Not only do they differ in appearance, but they also have many differences in actual use. Choosing a crusher with maximum reliability and high performance is the first step for mining companies to success. Hence, to help you select an appropriate crushing machine, this article involves their differences in the aspects of the working principle, the materials hardness, discharging size, the finished products shape, the processing capacity, investment as well as pollution.

The impact crusher adopts the principle of impact crushing. When it runs, the material is repeatedly impacted and crushed between the hammer and the impact plate. Whereas the cone one crushes the material by laminated crushing. Its rolling wall continuously moves toward the crushing wall, and the material sandwiched between the two is thereby smashed. Fote Machinerys sand makers generally use the principle of stone-to-stone or hitting stone with iron to achieve the crushing effect. Among them, except for the vertical impact sand maker, which uses stone-rock, the HVI and VSI series sand making machines both adopt the hitting stone with iron crushing principle, and one portion of the material collides with another one under the action of centrifugal force to be crushed.

These three machines are also characterized by different degrees of hardness of the material. The cone crusher mainly crushes materials with medium and high hardness, such as granite, basalt, tuff and river pebble. The impact one is mainly suitable for crushing brittle but less tough materials with small and medium hardness, for example, limestone; whereas the sand maker is available for ore materials whose hardness is no higher than 320Pa, to name a few, quartz stone, iron ore, diabase, bluestone and construction waste.

In general, the cone crusher produces finer materials than the impact one. With the functions of fine crushing, coarse grinding and shaping, the sand maker features smaller discharging size. Therefore, in actual production, if you want to buy a secondary crusher for ore beneficiation, the cone crusher is a better choice; if you are engaged in building material or construction engineering industry, it is advised to choose the impact crusher. And the sand maker is more suitable for crushing and shaping building materials, artificial sand and metallurgical slag.

The impact crusher often manufactures products in good shape, with little angularity and more powder; but the cones finished product has more needle-shaped pieces and poorer shape. For the sand maker, its finished products are cubic in excellent shape and uniform size.

In terms of capacity, the cone crusher has high output and stable operation; thus, it is often used for large production lines with high capacity. Both impact crusher and sand maker have complete crushing functions, higher efficiency and higher comprehensive benefits.

More expensive as the cone crusher is, it has lower cost in the late time of operation. Its wear parts also have long service life, so choosing the cone crusher can avoid frequently replacing spare parts. With a simple structure, the sand maker has low running cost in actual production, and its wear parts are also durable. Therefore, the cone crusher and the sand maker are more cost-effective than the other in the long run.

The impact crusher mostly causes large noise pollution and dust pollution, while the two others produce less. More importantly, the sand maker is more environmentally friendly on account of low iron pollution and the working noise of less than 75 decibels.

In brief, these three machines have their own merits just as each coin has two sides; therefore, customers need to take their production needs into account before making a choice about the secondary crusher. Apparently, the impact crusher is more suitable for small production lines. If you are engaged in a large production line whose material is very hard, choose the cone crusher and you will achieve better crushing effect. If your project has strict requirements for the grain shape and for environment protection, choose the sand maker with the shaping function and you will make a big profit.

how to control the discharge size in crushing stone and sand? | fote machinery

how to control the discharge size in crushing stone and sand? | fote machinery

Sand and stone crushing equipment can crush large size stones into stones or sand with different particle sizes to meet the different requirements of sand and stone materials for construction, railway, highway, and other projects.

Crusher is the common equipment of sand and stone industry that is often used to break large stones, and it has a lot of different types and specifications with different discharge sizes. Understanding the specifications of finished materials can provide necessary reference for users to select equipment.

The main objectives of particle size control are: firstly, to make the configuration and operation of the crushing machinery layer reasonable, secondly, to reduce the proportion of needle-like and flake aggregate in finished products, thirdly, to adjust the proportion of each particle size of the finished aggregate.

In the case of smooth operation of the crusher, the particle size of the sand and stone should be controlled and the acicular and flaky particles should be reduced. The acicular particles are those whose length of the stone particles is larger than 2.4 times the average particle size of the grade to which the particles belong.

And flaky particles are those whose thickness is less than 0.4 times of the average particle size (mean particle size refers to the average particle size of the upper and lower limit of the particle size). Well, how can we control the discharge sizes to produce the high-quality stones with different particle sizes of 5-10 mm gravel, 10-20 mm (1/4 to 1/2 inch) gravel, and 15-25 mm (1/2 to 3/4 inch) gravel that we need? This article explains it in detail.

According to the crusher discharging particle size for preliminary control, there are many different types of crushers, each type of working principle is different, and the discharging control mode is also different.

The finished product of sand and stone production line includes not only the stone with smaller particle size, but also the stone with larger one. Sand and stone production is divided into crushing, screening, sand-making and other chains.

Sandstone aggregate quality control is mainly based on sandstone aggregate particle size and gradation requirements, and adopts the advanced and mature crushing equipment and vibrating screen, to ensure that the production of sand and stone aggregate is in line with the standards and regulations of grading quality.

In the sand and stone aggregate market, stones or sand the customers need to have a certain standard particle size, for example: gravel is divided into 5-10 mm, 10-20 mm, 16-31.5 mm, sand is divided into coarse sand (average particle size of 0.5 mm or more), medium sand (average particle size of 0.35-0.5 mm), fine sand (average particle size of 0.25-0.35 mm).

However, the materials are mixed with particles in various sizes, which cannot meet the demand. Therefore, most of the crushing process is equipped with a vibrating screen, which is used to classify the discharge materials and screen out the stones or sand of various specifications that they need. If the requirements are not met, they can return to the crusher to continue crushing.

Those materials whose size are less than the 3/4 size of the sieve hole of the particles can easily cross the sieve hole, known as easy-to-sieve particles. Particles larger than 3/4 of the sieve hole are difficult to pass through the sieve hole, known as difficult-to-sieve particles. Particles whose particle size is 1-1.5 times of the size of the sieve hole are called stoppers.

Therefore, the screening containing a large number of fine grade materials can increase the method of auxiliary screening of larger size in sieve hole to discharge the coarse size products in advance.

In general, single layer vibrating screen can screen out two kinds of materials, double-layers vibrating screen can screen out three kinds of materials, three-layers vibrating screen can screen out four kinds of materials, and five-layers vibrating screen can screen out six kinds. Users can make reasonable choices according to their needs for finished stones and sand and suggestions from equipment manufacturers.

Usually the circular vibrating screen is used to assist the crusher in the crushing production line. In the whole process, customers can adjust each device according to their own needs to adjust the material size. Through our analysis, do you have a general understanding of how to control the particle size in your sand and stone production?

We hope to help you to buy a suitable crusher and to operate your machines smoothly. Now many equipment manufacturers are designing production lines for customers. If you are new to this industry, you can listen to the suggestions of equipment manufacturers because they have professional knowledge and rich experience to help you solve problems.

As a leading mining machinery manufacturer and exporter in China, we are always here to provide you with high quality products and better services. Welcome to contact us through one of the following ways or visit our company and factories.

Based on the high quality and complete after-sales service, our products have been exported to more than 120 countries and regions. Fote Machinery has been the choice of more than 200,000 customers.

p&q university lesson 7- crushing & secondary breaking : pit & quarry

p&q university lesson 7- crushing & secondary breaking : pit & quarry

In the quarry, crushing is handled in four potential stages: primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary. The reduction of aggregate is spread over these stages to better control the product size and quality, while minimizing waste.

The primary stage was once viewed merely as a means to further reduce stone following the blast or excavation prior to secondary crushing. Today, primary crushing is viewed as more important within the balance of production and proper sizing needs. The size and type of the primary crusher should be coordinated with the type of stone, drilling and blasting patterns, and the size of the loading machine. Most operations will use a gyratory, jaw or impact crusher for primary crushing.

In the secondary and subsequent stages, the stone is further reduced and refined for proper size and shape, mostly based on specifications to produce concrete and asphalt. Between stages, screens with two or three decks separate the material that already is the proper size. Most secondary crushers are cone crushers or horizontal-shaft impact crushers. Tertiary and quaternary crushers are usually cone crushers, although some applications can call for vertical-shaft impact crushers in these stages.

A gyratory crusher uses a mantle that gyrates, or rotates, within a concave bowl. As the mantle makes contact with the bowl during gyration, it creates compressive force, which fractures the rock. The gyratory crusher is mainly used in rock that is abrasive and/or has high compressive strength. Gyratory crushers often are built into a cavity in the ground to aid in the loading process, as large haul trucks can access the hopper directly.

Jaw crushers are also compression crushers that allow stone into an opening at the top of the crusher, between two jaws. One jaw is stationary while the other is moveable. The gap between the jaws becomes narrower farther down into the crusher. As the moveable jaw pushes against the stone in the chamber, the stone is fractured and reduced, moving down the chamber to the opening at the bottom.

The reduction ratio for a jaw crusher is typically 6-to-1, although it can be as high as 8-to-1. Jaw crushers can process shot rock and gravel. They can work with a range of stone from softer rock, such as limestone, to harder granite or basalt.

As the name implies, the horizontal-shaft impact (HSI) crusher has a shaft that runs horizontally through the crushing chamber, with a rotor that turns hammers or blow bars. It uses the high-speed impacting force of the turning blow bars hitting and throwing the stone to break the rock. It also uses the secondary force of the stone hitting the aprons (liners) in the chamber, as well as stone hitting stone.

With impact crushing, the stone breaks along its natural cleavage lines, resulting in a more cubical product, which is desirable for many of todays specifications. HSI crushers can be primary or secondary crushers. In the primary stage, HSIs are better suited for softer rock, such as limestone, and less abrasive stone. In the secondary stage, the HSI can process more abrasive and harder stone.

Cone crushers are similar to gyratory crushers in that they have a mantle that rotates within a bowl, but the chamber is not as steep. They are compression crushers that generally provide reduction ratios of 6-to-1 to 4-to-1. Cone crushers are used in secondary, tertiary and quaternary stages.

With proper choke-feed, cone-speed and reduction-ratio settings, cone crushers will efficiently produce material that is high quality and cubical in nature. In secondary stages, a standard-head cone is usually specified. A short-head cone is typically used in tertiary and quaternary stages. Cone crushers can crush stone of medium to very hard compressive strength as well as abrasive stone.

The vertical shaft impact crusher (or VSI) has a rotating shaft that runs vertically through the crushing chamber. In a standard configuration, the VSIs shaft is outfitted with wear-resistant shoes that catch and throw the feed stone against anvils that line the outside of the crushing chamber. The force of the impact, from the stone striking the shoes and anvils, fractures it along its natural fault lines.

VSIs also can be configured to use the rotor as a means of throwing the rock against other rock lining the outside of the chamber through centrifugal force. Known as autogenous crushing, the action of stone striking stone fractures the material. In shoe-and-anvil configurations, VSIs are suitable for medium to very hard stone that is not very abrasive. Autogenous VSIs are suitable for stone of any hardness and abrasion factor.

Roll crushers are a compression-type reduction crusher with a long history of success in a broad range of applications. The crushing chamber is formed by massive drums, revolving toward one another. The gap between the drums is adjustable, and the outer surface of the drum is composed of heavy manganese steel castings known as roll shells that are available with either a smooth or corrugated crushing surface.

Double roll crushers offer up to a 3-to-1 reduction ratio in some applications depending on the characteristics of the material. Triple roll crushers offer up to a 6-to-1 reduction. As a compressive crusher, the roll crusher is well suited for extremely hard and abrasive materials. Automatic welders are available to maintain the roll shell surface and minimize labor expense and wear costs.

These are rugged, dependable crushers, but not as productive as cone crushers with respect to volume. However, roll crushers provide very close product distribution and are excellent for chip stone, particularly when avoiding fines.

Hammermills are similar to impact crushers in the upper chamber where the hammer impacts the in-feed of material. The difference is that the rotor of a hammermill carries a number of swing type or pivoting hammers. Hammermills also incorporate a grate circle in the lower chamber of the crusher. Grates are available in a variety of configurations. The product must pass through the grate circle as it exits the machine, insuring controlled product sizing.

Hammermills crush or pulverize materials that have low abrasion. The rotor speed, hammer type and grate configuration can be converted for different applications. They can be used in a variety of applications, including primary and secondary reduction of aggregates, as well as numerous industrial applications.

Virgin or natural stone processing uses a multi-stage crushing and screening process for producing defined aggregate sizes from large lumps of rock. Such classified final fractions are used as aggregates for concrete, asphalt base, binder and surface course layers in road construction, as well as in building construction. The rock is quarried by means of drilling and blasting. There are then two options for processing the bulk material after it has been reduced to feeding size of the crushing plant: mobile or stationary plants.

When stone is processed in mobile primary crushing plants, excavators or wheel loaders feed the rock into the crusher that is set up at the quarry face, gravel pit or in a recycling yard or demolition site. The crushed material is then either sent to the secondary/tertiary processing stage via stacking conveyors or transported by trucks. Some mobile crushers have an independent secondary screen mounted on the unit, effectively replacing a standalone screen.

The higher the compressive strength of rock, the higher also is its quality, which plays an important role particularly in road construction. A materials compressive strength is delineated into hard, medium-hard or soft rock, which also determines the crushing techniques used for processing to obtain the desired particle sizes.

The materials quality is influenced significantly by particle shape. The more cubic-shaped the individual aggregate particles are, the better the resulting particle interlock. Final grains of pronounced cubic shape are achieved by using several crushing stages. A cubicity showing an edge ratio of better than 1-to-3 is typical of high-quality final aggregate.

As the earths natural resources are becoming ever more scarce, recycling is becoming ever more important. In the building industry, recycling and reuse of demolition concrete or reclaimed asphalt pavement help to reduce the requirements for primary raw materials. Mobile impact and jaw plants are uniquely positioned to produce high-quality reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) and recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) for reuse in pavements, road bases, fill and foundations.

Use of RAP and RCA is growing dramatically as road agencies accept them more and more in their specs. But because RAP and RCA come from a variety of sources, to be specified for use by most departments of transportation they must be processed or fractionated and characterized into an engineered, value-added product. RCA or RAP are very commonly crushed and screened to usable sizes often by impact crushers and stored in blended stockpiles that can be characterized by lab testing for use in engineered applications.

Impact crushers are increasingly used for crushing recycling material. Impact crushers are capable of producing mineral aggregate mixes in one single crushing stage in a closed-cycle operation, making them particularly cost-effective. Different crusher units can alternatively be combined to process recycling material. A highly efficient method of processing recycling material combines crushing, screening and separation of metals. To produce an end product of even higher quality, the additional steps of washing to remove light materials such as plastics or paper by air classification and via electromagnetic metal separator are incorporated into the recycling process.

Mobile impact crushers with integrated secondary screens or without integrated screen used in conjunction with an independent mobile screen are ideal for producing large volumes of processed, fractionated RAP or RCA on a relatively small footprint in the plant. Mobile impactors are especially suited for RAP because they break up chunks of asphalt pavement or agglomerations of RAP, rather than downsize the aggregate gradation. Compression-type crushers such as jaws and cones can clog due to packing (caking) of RAP when the RAP is warm or wet.

Contaminants such as soil are part of processing demolition concrete. Mobile impact and jaw crushers when possessing integrated, independent prescreens removing dirt and fines before they ever enter the crushing circuit reduce equipment wear, save fuel, and with some customers, create a salable fill byproduct. A lined, heavy-duty vibrating feeder below the crusher can eliminate belt wear from rebar or dowel or tie bar damage. If present beneath the crusher, this deflector plate can keep tramp metal from degrading the conveyor belt. That way, the feeder below the crusher not the belt absorbs impact of rebar dropping through the crusher.

These mobile jaw and impact crushers may feature a diesel and electric-drive option. In this configuration, the crusher is directly diesel-driven, with the conveyor troughs, belts and prescreen electric-driven via power from the diesel generator. This concept not only reduces diesel fuel consumption, but also results in significantly reduced exhaust emissions and noise levels. This permits extremely efficient operation with low fuel consumption, allowing optimal loading of the crusher.

Jaw crushers operate according to the principle of pressure crushing. The raw feed is crushed in the wedge-shaped pit created between the fixed crusher jaw, and the crusher jaw articulated on an eccentric shaft. The feed material is crushed by the elliptic course of movement and transported downwards. This occurs until the material is smaller than the set crushing size.

Jaw crushers can be used in a wide range of applications. In the weight class up to 77 tons (70 metric tons), they can be used for both virgin stone and recycled concrete and asphalt aggregates processing as a classic primary crusher for natural stone with an active double-deck grizzly, or as a recycling crusher with vibrating discharge chute and the crusher outlet and magnetic separator.

Output for mobile jaw crushers ranges from 100 to 1,500 tph depending on the model size and consistency of the feed material. While larger mobile crushers produce more aggregate faster, transport weights and dimensions may limit how easily the crusher can be shipped long distances. Mobile jaw crushers can have either a vibratory feeder with integrated grizzly, or a vibrating feeder with an independent, double-deck, heavy-duty prescreen. Either way, wear in the system is reduced because medium and smaller gradations bypass the crusher, with an increase in end-product quality because a side-discharge conveyor removes fines. A bypass flap may provide easy diversion of the material flow, eliminating the need for a blind deck.

Jaw crusher units with extra-long, articulated crusher jaws prevent coarse material from blocking while moving all mounting elements of the crusher jaw from the wear area. A more even material flow may be affected if the transfer from the prescreen or the feeder trough is designed so material simply tilts into the crushing jaw.

Mobile jaw and impact crushers alike can be controlled by one operator using a handheld remote. The remote also can be used to move or relocate the crusher within a plant. In other words, the crusher can be run by one worker in the cab of an excavator or loader as he feeds material into the crusher. If he sees something deleterious going into the hopper, he can stop the crusher.

Impact crushing is totally different from pressure crushing. In impact crushing, feed material is picked up by a fast moving rotor, greatly accelerated and smashed against an impact plate (impact toggle). From there, it falls back within range of the rotor. The crushed material is broken again and again until it can pass through the gap between the rotor and impact toggle.

A correctly configured mobile jaw or impact crusher will enhance material flow through the plant and optimize productivity. New-design mobile jaw and impact crushers incorporate a highly efficient flow concept, which eliminates all restriction to the flow of the material throughout the entire plant. With this continuous-feed system, each step the material goes through in the plant is wider than the width of the one before it, eliminating choke or wear points.

For example, a grizzly feeder can be wider than the hopper, and the crusher inlet wider than the feeder. The discharge chute under the crusher is 4 inches wider than the inner width of the crusher, and the subsequent discharge belt is another 4 inches wider than the discharge chute. This configuration permits rapid flow of crushed material through the crusher. Also, performance can be significantly increased if the conveying frequencies of the feeder trough and the prescreen are adapted independently to the level of the crusher, permitting a more equal loading of the crushing area. This flow concept keeps a choke feed to the crusher, eliminating stops/starts of the feed system, which improves production, material shape and wear.

Users are focused on cost, the environment, availability, versatility and, above all, the quality of the end product. Simple crushing is a relatively easy process. But crushing material so that the particle size, distribution and cleanliness meet the high standards for concrete and asphalt requires effective primary screening, intelligent control for optimal loading, an adjustable crusher with high drive output, and a screening unit with oversize return feed.

This starts with continuous flow of material to the crusher through a variable-speed control feeder. Having hopper walls that hydraulically fold integrated into the chassis makes for quick erection of hopper sides on mobile units. If available, a fully independent prescreen for either jaw or impact models offers the ability to effectively prescreen material prior to crushing this allows for product to be sized prior to crushing, as opposed to using a conventional vibrating grizzly. This has the added value of increasing production, reducing wear costs and decreasing fuel consumption.

This independent double-deck vibrating screen affects primary screening of fines and contaminated material via a top-deck interchangeable punched sheet or grizzly, bottom-deck wire mesh or rubber blank. Discharged material might be conveyed either to the left or to the right for ease of positioning. The independent double-deck vibrating prescreen improves flow of material to the crusher, reducing blockages and feed surges.

Modern electrical systems will include effective guards against dust and moisture through double-protective housings, vibration isolation and an overpressure system in which higher air pressure in the electrical box keeps dust out. Simple and logical control of all functions via touch panel, simple error diagnostics by text indicator and remote maintenance system all are things to look for. For crushing demolition concrete, look for a high-performance electro- or permanent magnet with maximum discharge capacity, and hydraulic lifting and lowering function by means of radio remote control.

For impact crushers, a fully hydraulic crusher gap setting with automatic zero-point calculation can speed daily set-up. Featured only on certain mobile impact crushers, a fully hydraulic adjustment capability of the crushing gap permits greater plant uptime, while improving quality of end product.

Not only can the crushing gap be completely adjusted via the touch panel electronic control unit, but the zero point can be calculated while the rotor is running. This ability to accurately set the crusher aprons from the control panel with automatic detection of zero-point and target-value setting saves time, and improves the overall efficiency and handling of the crusher. On these mobile impact crushers, the zero point is the distance between the ledges of the rotor and the impact plates of the lower impact toggle, plus a defined safety distance. The desired crushing gap is approached from this zero point.

While the upper impact toggle is adjusted via simple hydraulic cylinders, the lower impact toggle has a hydraulic crushing gap adjustment device, which is secured electronically and mechanically against collision with the rotor. The crushing gap is set via the touch screen and approached hydraulically. Prior to setting of the crushing gap, the zero point is determined automatically.

For automatic zero-point determination with the rotor running, the impact toggle moves slowly onto the rotor ledges until it makes contact, which is detected by a sensor. The impact toggle then retracts to the defined safe distance. During this procedure, a stop ring slides on the piston rod. When the zero point is reached, the locking chamber is locked hydraulically and the stop ring is thus fixed in position. The stop ring now serves as a mechanical detent for the piston rod. During the stop ring check, which is carried out for every crusher restart, the saved zero point is compared to the actual value via the electronic limit switch. If the value deviates, a zero-point determination is carried out once again.

These impact crushers may feature a new inlet geometry that allows even better penetration of the material into the range of the rotor. Also, the wear behavior of the new C-form impact ledges has been improved to such an extent that the edges remain sharper longer, leading to improved material shape.

The machines come equipped with an efficient direct drive that improves performance. A latest-generation diesel engine transmits its power almost loss-free directly to the crushers flywheel, via a fluid coupling and V-belts. This drive concept enables versatility, as the rotor speed can be adjusted in four stages to suit different processing applications.

Secondary impact crushers and cone crushers are used to further process primary-crushed aggregate, and can be operated with or without attached screening units. These crushers can be used as either secondary or tertiary crushers depending on the application. When interlinked to other mobile units such as a primary or screen, complicated technical processing can be achieved.

Mobile cone crushers have been on the market for many years. These machines can be specially designed for secondary and tertiary crushing in hard-stone applications. They are extraordinarily efficient, diverse in application and very economical to use. To meet the diverse requirements in processing technology, mobile cone crushing plants are available in different sizes and configurations. Whether its a solo cone crusher, one used in addition to a triple-deck screen for closed-loop operation, or various-size cone crushers with a double-deck screen and oversize return conveyor, a suitable plant will be available for almost every task.

Mobile cone crushers may be available with or without integrated screen units. With the latter, an extremely efficient triple-deck screen unit may be used, which allows for closed-loop operation and produces three final products. Here the screen areas must be large so material quantities can be screened efficiently and ensure that the cone crusher always has the correct fill level, which is particularly important for the quality of the end product.

Mobile, tracked crushers and screen plants are advancing into output ranges that were recently only possible using stationary plants. Previously, only stationary plants were used for complicated aggregate processing applications. But thanks to the advancements made in machine technology, it is becoming increasingly possible to employ mobile technology for traditional stationary applications.

Mobile crushers are used in quarries, in mining, on jobsites, and in the recycling industry. These plants are mounted on crawler tracks and can process rock and recycling material, producing mineral aggregate and recycled building materials respectively for the construction industry. A major advantage of mobile crushers is their flexibility to move from one location to the next. They are suitable for transport, but can also cover short distances within the boundaries of their operating site, whether in a quarry or on the jobsite. When operating in quarries, they usually follow the quarry face, processing the stone directly on site.

For transport over long distances to a new location or different quarry, mobile crushers are loaded on low trailers. No more than 20 minutes to an hour is needed for setting the plant up for operation. Their flexibility enables the mobile crushers to process even small quantities of material with economic efficiency.

Mobile plants allow the combination of prescreening that prepares the rock for the crushing process and grading, which precisely separates defined aggregate particle sizes into different end products to be integrated with the crushing unit into one single machine. In the first stage, the material is screened using an active prescreen. After prescreening, it is transferred to the crusher, from where it is either stockpiled via a discharge conveyor or forwarded to a final screen or a secondary crushing stage. Depending on the specified end product, particles are then either graded by screening units or transported to additional crushing stages by secondary or tertiary impact crushers or cone crushers. Further downstream screening units are used for grading the final aggregate fractions.

The process of prescreening, crushing and grading is a common operation in mobile materials processing and can be varied in a number of ways. Mobile crushers with up to three crushing stages are increasingly used in modern quarries. Different mobile crushing and screening plants can be combined for managing more complex crushing and screening jobs that would previously have required a stationary crushing and screening plant.

Interlinked mobile plants incorporate crushers and screens that work in conjunction with each other, and are coordinated in terms of performance and function. Mining permits are under time constraints and mobile plants provide faster setup times. They provide better resale value and reusability, as mobile plants can also be used individually. They also reduce operating costs in terms of fewer haul trucks and less personnel.

With a so-equipped mobile crusher, the feed operator can shut the machine down or change the size of the material, all using the remote control, or use it to walk the crusher from one part of the site to the other, or onto a flat bed trailer for relocation to a different quarry or recycling yard. This reduces personnel and hauling costs compared to a stationary plant. With the mobile jaw or impact primary crusher, the only additional personnel needed would be a skid-steer operator to remove scrap steel, and someone to move the stockpiles.

Thanks to better technology, mobile plants can achieve final aggregate fractions, which previously only were possible with stationary plants. Production availability is on par with stationary plants. Theyre applicable in all quarries, but can be used for small deposits if the owner has several quarries or various operation sites. For example, an operator of several stone quarries can use the plants in changing market situations at different excavation sites. In addition, they also can be used as individual machines. A further factor is that mobile plants, in general, require simpler and shorter licensing procedures.

The high cost of labor keeps going up. A stationary crusher might be able to produce multiple times the amount of product, but also would require about seven or eight workers. Aggregate producers can benefit when producing material with the minimized crew used for mobile jaw and impact crushers.

Using correct maintenance practices, mobile crushers will remain dependable throughout their working life. Crushing and processing material can result in excessive wear on certain components, excessive vibration throughout the plant, and excessive dust in the working environment. Some applications are more aggressive than others. A hard rock application is going to require more maintenance on top of standard maintenance, as there will be more vibration, more dust and more wear than from a softer aggregate.

Due to the nature of its purpose, from the moment a mobile crusher starts, the machine is wearing itself out and breaking itself down. Without routine, regular maintenance and repair, a mobile crusher will not be reliable nor provide the material customers demand.

The first area of wear on any machine is the feed system. Whether its a feeder with an integrated grizzly, or a feeder with an independent prescreen, how the machine is fed contributes to wear. When setting up and maintaining a machine, the machine must be level. A machine that is unlevel left to right will experience increased wear on all components, including the feeder, the screens, the crushing chambers and the conveyor belts. In addition, it reduces production and screening efficiency, as the whole area of the machine is not being effectively used. Also, having the machine sit high at the discharge end will have the effect of feeding the material uphill in the feeder and reducing its efficiency, thus reducing production.

Another area for consideration is the equipment used to feed the machine. The operator using a loader to feed the crusher will have no control over the feed size, as he cannot see whats in the bucket. Whereas with an excavator, the operator can see whats inside and has more control over the feed into the hopper. That is, the operator is not feeding so much material all at once and is controlling the size of the feed. This reduces wear in the feed hoppers impact zones and eliminates material blockages due to feed size being too large to enter the chamber.

Dust is a problem in its own right, especially for the power plant of the mobile crusher. In a very dusty application, it is easy to plug the radiator and have engine-overheating problems. High dust levels cause increased maintenance intervals on air filters, and if not controlled properly, can enter the diesel tank and cause problems with the fuel system. Also, dust that gets inside the crusher increases wear. But if systems are put in place to remove the dust, it should keep it from going into the machine in the first place.

Dust also is a hazard on walkways and a problem for conveyors. If maintained, side-skirting and sealing the conveyors keeps dust from spilling out, building up underneath the conveyor, or building up in rollers, pulleys, bearings, and causing wear on shafts. Its important to maintain the sealing rubbers on the conveyor belts to avoid those issues. Routine maintenance calls for removing accumulated dust from inside and under the machine.

Dust also is a problem for circuit boards and programmable controllers. Dust causes electrical switches to malfunction because it stops the contacts from correctly seating. Electrical systems under positive air pressure dont permit dust to penetrate the control system. In control panels with a correctly maintained positive pressure system, filters remove dust from air that is being pumped into the cabinets. If the filters are plugged, the system will not pull as much air through, allowing dust, moisture and heat to build in the cabinet.

There are also impact aprons against which the rock is thrown, which also see high wear. There are side plates or wear sheets on the sides of the machine. The highest wear area is around the impact crusher itself, around the circumference of the rotor. If not maintained, the wear items will wear through and compromise the structure of the crusher box.

Conduct a daily visual check of the machine. The jaw is simple; just stand up on the walkway and take a look down inside. A crushers jaw plate can be flipped so there are two sides of wear on them. Once half the jaw is worn out, flip it; once that side is worn, change it.

The impact crusher will have an inspection hatch to see inside. Check to see how much material is left on the blow bars and how much is left on the wear sheets on the side of the crusher box. If half the bar is worn out after one week, change the blow bars in another week.The frequency of changes depends entirely on the application and the rock that is being crushed.

They have to be user serviceable, user friendly, and able to be changed in a short time. The best way to change these parts is a service truck with a crane; some use excavators but thats not recommended by any means.

After initial blasting, breakers are used to break down aggregate that typically is not only too large to be hauled in dump trucks, but also too large for crushers that size rock to meet asphalt, drainage system, concrete and landscaping specifications. Breakers can be mounted to a mobile carrier, such as an excavator, or to stationary boom systems that can be attached to a crusher. The total number of hydraulic breakers can vary from site to site depending on production levels, the type of aggregate materials and the entire scope of the operation.

Without hydraulic breakers, workers rely on alternative practices that can quickly affect production rates. For instance, blasting mandates shutting down operations and moving workers to a safe location. And when you consider how many times oversize aggregate might need to be reduced, this can lead to a significant amount of downtime and substantially lower production rates.

Aggregate operations can use hydraulic breakers to attack oversize without having to clear the quarry. But with an ever-growing variety of manufacturers, sizes and models to choose from, narrowing the decision to one hydraulic breaker can be overwhelming with all of the stats and speculation. Thats why its important to know what factors to consider before investing in a new hydraulic breaker.

In most cases, heavy equipment dealers are very knowledgeable about quarry equipment, including breakers, so they are a good resource for finding the best model for a carrier, usually an excavator or stationary boom system. More than likely, they will have specifications and information about various breaker sizes to help gauge what model is best. But being familiar with what to look for in a breaker can streamline the selection process.

The best places to look for breaker information are in the manufacturers brochure, website, owners manual or catalogue. First, carefully review the carrier weight ranges. A breaker that is too big for the carrier can create unsafe working conditions and cause excessive wear to the carrier. An oversized breaker also transmits energy in two directions, toward the aggregate and through the equipment. This produces wasted energy and can damage the carrier. But using a breaker thats too small puts excessive force on the tool steel, which transmits percussive energy from the breaker to the material. Using breakers that are too small also can damage mounting adapters and internal components, which considerably decreases their life.

Once you find a breaker that meets the carriers capacity, check its output power, which is typically measured in foot-pounds. Foot-pound classes are generalizations and are not based on any physical test. Often the breakers output will be documented in one of two ways: as the manufacturers calculated foot-pound class or as an Association of Equipment Manufacturers measured foot-pound rating. Foot-pound class ratings can be deceiving since they are loosely based on the breakers service weight and not the result of any physical test. The AEM rating, on the other hand, measures the force a breaker exerts in a single blow through repeatable and certified testing methods. The AEM rating, which was developed by the Mounted Breaker Manufacturers Bureau, makes it easier to compare breaker models by reviewing true figures collected during an actual test procedure.

For instance, three breaker manufacturers might claim their breakers belong in a 1,000-lb. breaker class. But AEM testing standards could reveal all three actually have less foot-pound impact. You can tell if a breaker has been AEM tested if a manufacturer provides a disclosure statement or if the breaker is labeled with an AEM Tool Energy seal. If you cannot find this information, contact the manufacturer. In addition to output energy specifications, manufacturers often supply estimates for production rates on different types of aggregate material. Make sure to get the right measurements to make the best decision.

In addition to weight and output power, look at the breakers mounting package. Two things are crucial for mounting a breaker to a carrier: a hydraulic installation kit and mounting components. Breakers need hydraulic plumbing with unidirectional flow to move oil from the carrier to the breaker and back again. A one-way flow hydraulic kit is sufficient to power the breaker as long as the components are sized to properly handle the required flows and pressures. But, consider a bidirectional flow hydraulic kit if you plan to use the same carrier with other attachments that require two-way flow. Check with the dealer or breaker manufacturer to determine which hydraulic package best fits current and future needs.

Hydraulic flow and pressure specifications also need to be considered when pairing a breaker to a hydraulic system. If the carrier cannot provide enough flow at the right pressure, the breaker wont perform with maximum output, which lowers productivity and can damage the breaker. Additionally, a breaker receiving too much flow can wear quickly, which reduces its service life. For the best results, follow the hydraulic breaker specifications found in owners manuals, catalogs and brochures. Youll find out if a breaker has additional systems that might require additional servicing. For instance, some breakers feature nitrogen gas-assist systems that work with the hydraulic oil to accelerate the breakers piston. The nitrogen systems specifications need to be followed for consistent breaker power output.

Brackets or pin and bushing kits are commonly required to attach the breaker to the carrier. Typically they are bolted to the top of a breaker and are configured to match a specific carrier. Some manufacturers make universal mounting brackets that can accommodate two or three different sizes of carriers. With the adjustable pins, bushings or other components inside these universal brackets, the breaker can fit a range of carriers. However, varying distances between pin centers can complicate hookups to quick coupling systems. In addition, loose components, such as spacers, can become lost when the breaker is not in use and detached from the carrier.

Some carriers are equipped with quick-coupling systems, which require a breakers mounting interface to be configured like the carriers original attachment. Some manufacturers produce top-mount brackets that pair extremely well with couplers. This allows an operator to use the original bucket pins from the carrier to attach the breaker, and eliminates the need for new pins. This pairing also ensures a fast pickup with the quick coupler.

Its also a good idea to check which breaker tools are available through the dealer and manufacturer. The most common for aggregate mining are chisels and blunts. There are two kinds of chisels commonly used in aggregate mines: crosscut and inline. Both chisels resemble a flat head screwdriver, but the crosscut chisels are used when carrier operators want to direct force in a left-to-right concentration; whereas, inline chisels direct force fore and aft. With chisel tools, operators can concentrate a breakers energy to develop cracks, break open seams or define scribe lines.

If a chisel cant access or develop a crack or seam, a blunt can be used. Blunts have a flattened head that spreads the energy equally in all directions. This creates a shattering effect that promotes cracks and seam separation. Ask your dealer if the tools you are considering are suited for the application. Using non-original equipment manufacturer tool steel can damage the percussive piston in the breaker, seize into the wear bushings, or cause excessive wear.

Regular breaker maintenance is necessary, yet its one of the biggest challenges for aggregate operations. It not only extends the life of the breaker, but also can keep minor inconveniences from turning into expensive problems. Some manufacturers recommend operators inspect breakers daily to check grease levels and make sure there are no worn or damaged parts or hydraulic leaks.

Breakers need to be lubricated with adequate amounts of grease to keep the tool bushing area clear and reduce friction, but follow the manufacturers recommendations. For example, adding grease before properly positioning the breaker can lead to seal damage or even catastrophic failure. And too little grease could cause the bushings to overheat, seize and damage tools. Also, manufacturers advise using high-moly grease that withstands working temperatures greater than 500 degrees. Some breakers have automatic lube systems that manage grease levels, but those systems still need inspections to ensure there is adequate grease in their vessels. Shiny marks on the tool are a good indication the breaker is not properly lubricated.

Little has changed in basic crusher design over past decades, other than that of improvements in speed and chamber design. Rebuilding and keeping the same crusher in operation year after year has long been the typical approach. However, recent developments have brought about the advent of new hydraulic systems in modern crusher designs innovations stimulated by the need for greater productivity as well as a safer working environment. Importantly, the hydraulic systems in modern crusher designs are engineered to deliver greater plant uptime and eliminate the safety risks associated with manual intervention.

Indeed the crushing arena is a hazardous environment. Large material and debris can jam inside the crusher, damaging components and causing costly downtime. Importantly, manually digging out the crusher before repairs or restarts puts workers in extremely dangerous positions.

The Mine Safety and Health Administration has reported numerous injuries and fatalities incurred when climbing in or under the jaw to manually clear, repair or adjust the typical older-style jaw crusher. Consider that fatalities and injuries can occur even when the machine is locked out and tagged out. Recent examples include a foreman injured while attempting to dislodge a piece of steel caught in the primary jaw crusher. Another incident involved a fatality when a maintenance man was removing the toggle plate seat from the pitman on a jaw crusher. The worker was standing on a temporary platform when the bolts holding the toggle seat were removed, causing the pitman to move and strike him.

The hydraulic systems on modern crusher designs eliminate the need for workers to place themselves in or under the crusher. An overview of hydraulic system technology points to these three key elements:

A hydraulic chamber-clearing system that automatically opens the crusher to a safe position, allowing materials to pass. A hydraulic overload relief that protects parts and components against overload damage. A hydraulic adjustment that eliminates the maintenance downtime associated with manual crusher adjustments, and maintains safe, consistent crusher output without the need for worker intervention.

Whether a crusher is jammed by large material, tramp iron or uncrushable debris; or is stalled by a power failure the chamber must be cleared before restarting. Manual clearing is a lengthy and risky task, especially since material can be wedged inside the crusher with tremendous pressure, and dislodging poses much danger to workers placed in harms way inside the crusher.

Unlike that of the older-style jaw, the modern jaw will clear itself automatically with hydraulics that open the crusher to a safe position, and allow materials to pass again, without the need for manual intervention. If a feeder or deflector plate is installed under the crusher, uncrushable material will transfer smoothly onto the conveyor without slicing the belt.

To prevent crusher damage, downtime and difficult maintenance procedures, the hydraulic overload relief system opens the crusher when internal forces become too high, protecting the unit against costly component failure. After relief, the system automatically returns the crusher to the previous setting for continued crushing.

The modern crusher is engineered with oversized hydraulic cylinders and a traveling toggle beam to achieve reliable overload protection and simple crusher adjustment. All closed-side setting adjustments are made with push-button controls, with no shims being needed at any time (to shim is the act of inserting a timber or other materials under equipment). This is a key development as many accidents and injuries have occurred during shim adjustment, a process which has no less than 15 steps as described in the primary crusher shim adjustment training program offered by MSHA.

crushers - all crusher types for your reduction needs - metso outotec

crushers - all crusher types for your reduction needs - metso outotec

All rock crushers can be classified as falling into two main groups. Compressive crushers that press the material until it breaks, and impact crushers using the principle of quick impacts to crush the material. Jaw crushers, gyratory crushers, and cone operate according to the compression principle. Impact crushers, in turn, utilize the impact principle.

As the name suggest, jaw crushers reduce rock and other materials between a fixed and a moving jaw. The moving jaw is mounted on a pitman that has a reciprocating motion, and the fixed jaw stays put. When the material runs between the two jaws, the jaws compress larger boulders into smaller pieces.

There are two basic types of jaw crushers: single toggle and double toggle. In the single toggle jaw crusher, an eccentric shaft is on the top of the crusher. Shaft rotation causes, along with the toggle plate, a compressive action.

The chewing movement, which causes compression at both material intake and discharge, gives the single toggle jaw better capacity, compared to a double toggle jaw of similar size. Metsos jaw crushers are all single toggle.

Gyratory crushers have an oscillating shaft. The material is reduced in a crushing cavity, between an external fixed element (bowl liner) and an internal moving element (mantle) mounted on the oscillating shaft assembly.

The fragmentation of the material results from the continuous compression that takes place between the liners around the chamber. An additional crushing effect occurs between the compressed particles, resulting in less wear of the liners.

Cone crushers resemble gyratory crushers from technological standpoint, but unlike gyratory crushers, cone crushers are popular in secondary, tertiary, and quaternary crushing stages. Sometimes, however, the grain size of the processed material is small enough by nature and the traditional primary crushing stage is not needed. In these cases, also cone crushers can carry out the first stage of the crushing process.

Cone crushers have an oscillating shaft, and the material is crushed in a crushing cavity, between an external fixed element (bowl liner) and an internal moving element (mantle) mounted on the oscillating shaft assembly.

An eccentric shaft rotated by a gear and pinion produces the oscillating movement of the main shaft. The eccentricity causes the cone head to oscillate between open side setting and closed side setting discharge opening.

The fragmentation of the material results from the continuous compression that takes place between the liners around the chamber. An additional crushing effect occurs between the compressed particles, resulting in less wear of the liners. This is called interparticular crushing also.

Depending on cone crusher, setting can be adjusted in two ways. The first way is for setting adjustment to be done by rotating the bowl against the threads so that the vertical position of the outer wear part (concave) is changed. One advantage of this adjustment type is that liners wear more evenly.

To optimize operating costs and improve the product shape it is recommended that cone crushers are always be choke fed, meaning that the cavity should be as full of rock material as possible. This can be easily achieved by using a stockpile or a silo to regulate the inevitable fluctuation of feed material flow. Level monitoring devices detect the maximum and minimum levels of the material, starting and stopping the feed of material to the crusher, as needed.

Impact crushers are traditionally classified to two main types: horizontal shaft impact (HSI) crushers and vertical shaft impact (VSI) crushers. These different types of impact crushers share the crushing principle, impact, to reduce the material to smaller sizes, but features, capacities and optimal applications are far from each other.

Horizontal shaft impact (HSI) crushers are used in primary, secondary or tertiary crushing stage. HSI crushers reduce the feed material by highly intensive impacts originating in the quick rotational movement of hammers or bars fixed to the rotor. The particles produced are then further fragmentated inside the crusher as they collide against crusher chamber and each other, producing a finer, better-shaped product.

VSI crusher can be considered a stone pump that operates like a centrifugal pump. The material is fed through the center of the rotor, where it is accelerated to high speed before being discharged through openings in the rotor periphery. The material is crushed as it hits of the outer body at high speed and due to rocks colliding against each other.

Selecting optimal crushing equipment can be difficult. Luckily there are tools and software available that simplify weighting different options and help in making decisions. The backbone of all these analyzes are careful calculations that take into account the capabilities and constraints of different crushers and operational requirements.

Every crushing site and operation is different, and theoptimal results are normally obtained by combining theoretical conclusions with practical experience of different materials, operational conditions, maintenance needs, and economic aspects of various alternatives.

Below are some key issues listed according to crushing stages in brief. While defining the best technical solution for your requirements, its good to remember that many crushers are available not only as stationary but also asmobileorportableversions in case you prefer to move or transport your crusher at the production site or between sites regularly.

If you are interested in more detailed analyzes tailored just for your crushing operations, please contact Metso experts. We have practical experience of thousands of different crushing applications around the world, and we are happy to help in finding the equipment that best fits your needs.

The main purpose of a primary crusher is to reduce the material to a size that allows its transportation on a conveyor belt. In most crushing installations a jaw crusher takes care of primary crushing. Plants with very high capacities that are common in mining and less popular in aggregates production, normally use a primary gyratory crusher. When the processed material is easy to crush and not very abrasive, an impact crusher may be the best choice for primary crushing.

One of the most important characteristics of a primary crusher is its capacity for accepting feed material without bridging. A large primary crusher is, naturally, more expensive than a smaller one. Therefore, the investment cost calculations for primary crushers are compared together against the total costs of primary stages, including quarry face clearing, blasting, and drilling costs. In many cases, dump trucks transport the rock to a stationary primary crusher. This may be an expensive solution. Amortization, fuel, tires, and maintenance costs can be included when the vehicles are in high demand. In modern aggregates operations, the use of mobile primary crushers that can move alongside the rock face is, in many cases, the most economical solution.

In terms of the size of the feed opening, the client gets a better return on investment when the primary crusher is a jaw crusher. That means less drilling and blasting because the crusher accepts larger boulders. The disadvantage of this type of crusher, when high capacity is required, is the relatively small discharge width, limiting the capacity as compared with the discharge circuit of a gyratory crusher. Jaw crushers are mainly used in plants producing up to approximately 1600 t/h.

The primary gyratory crusher offers high capacity thanks to its generously dimensioned circular discharge opening (which provides a much larger area than that of the jaw crusher) and the continuous operation principle (while the reciprocating motion of the jaw crusher produces a batch crushing action). The gyratory crusher has no rival in large plants with capacities starting from 1200 t/h and above. To have a feed opening corresponding to that of a jaw crusher, the primary gyratory crusher must be much taller and heavier. Also, primary gyratories require quite a massive foundation.

The primary impact crusher offers high capacity and is designed to accept large feed sizes. The primary impact crushers are used to process from 200 t/h up to 1900 t/h and feed sizes of up to 1830 mm (71") in the largest model. Primary impact crushers are generally used in nonabrasive applications and where the production of fines is not a problem. Of all primary crushers, the impactor is the crusher that gives the best cubical product.

If the intermediate crushing is done with the purpose of producing railway ballast, the quality of the product is important. In other cases, there normally are no quality requirements, except that the product be suitable for fine crushing.

Due to their design, cone crushers are generally a more expensive investment than impactors are. However, when correctly used, a cone crusher offers lower operating costs than a conventional impact crusher. Therefore, clients crushing hard or abrasive materials are advised to install cone crushers for the final crushing and cubicising stage.

Cone crushers can in most cases also give a good cubic shape to fine grades. They can be adapted to different applications. This is an important factor, as client-specific needs often change during a crushers lifetime.

The conventional type has horizontal shaft configuration, known as HSI. The other type consists of a centrifugal crusher with vertical shaft, generally known as VSI. Impactor operation is based on the principle of rapid transfer of impact energy to the rock material. Impactors produce cubic products, and they can offer high reduction ratios as long as the feed material is not too fine. This means that in certain cases it is possible to use a single impact crusher to carry out a task normally done in several crushing stages using compressing crushers (i.e., jaw, gyratory, and/or cone crushers). Impactors are mostly used for nonabrasive materials.

Conventional horizontal-shaft impact crushers are available in various sizes and models, from high-capacity primary crushers for large limestone quarries to specially designed machines for the crushing of materials such as slag.

There are two main categories of VSI crushers machines with impact wear parts around the body and machines that use a layer of accumulated material. The first type is in many respects similar to the conventional impactor with horizontal shaft and rotor. The second type became quite popular in the past decade and is known as the Barmac crusher. The difference between a conventional impactor and a VSI of the Barmac type is that the latter offers lower operating costs, but its reduction ratio is lower also. In a Barmac VSI, the material undergoes an intense rock-on-rock crushing process. In the other crushers, most of the reduction is done by the impact of stone against metal.

Customers operating old, rebuilt, or expanded plants often have problems with the shape of the product. In these cases, the addition of a Barmac VSI in the final crushing stage offers a solution to product shape problems.

The same applies to many mobile crushing units. As the number of crushing stages is normally small with this type of plant, it is almost impossible to obtain a good product shape unless the rock is relatively soft and thus more suited for the production of cubic product. A centrifugal crusher in the final stage can help to solve the problem.

Get the maximum potential out of your size reduction process to achieve improved crushing performance and lower cost per ton. By using our unique simulation software, our Chamber Optimization experts can design an optimized crushing chamber that matches the exact conditions under which you operate.

crushing products size and shape -what to expect

crushing products size and shape -what to expect

I have madea number of general remarks regarding the character of product delivered by crushers of various types, and under different conditions of operation. Generalities are of value only if we have some standard to which comparisons may be referred; therefore, we should like to present more specific information on the kind of product to be expected from crushing equipment under average operating conditions. Much of the data on which sizing/designcurves and tables are based comes from operations involving those two very important types: gyratory and jaw crushers; therefore these curves and tables are more nearly representative of the work of these types than of rolls or hammermills. They may be used for these latter types however if due allowance is made for peculiarities of each type, as pointed out in the descriptions of the different machines.

The preparation of a set of product gradation curves involves a considerable amount of work in the collection of the necessary test data, and a certain degree of discrimination in sorting such data and weeding out erroneous results. There are several reasons why no set of product gradation curves can be regarded as more than reasonably close approximations. First among these is the variation in physical structure of the many materials for which crushers are used; rocks exhibit a high degree of rugged individualism in their reaction to crushing. This variation is frequently quite pronounced between different ledges in the same quarry.

Gradation of the crusher feed also has its effect upon the product analysis. This is true even of screened feed, although deviations from the average are not likely to be so wide as they are for unscreened material, such as quarry-run or mine-run rock. We have commented on other variable factors, such as choke versus regulated feed, straight versus curved concaves, and so forth.

Fortunately, most materials do follow a certain definite gradation pattern and, by averaging a large number of test results, it is possible to plot a group of curves which can be classed as fairly close approximations. Even though approximate, these curves are of great value in crushing-plant design, or in the solution of problems concerning additions or alterations in the plant flowsheet. They simplify the problem of selecting secondary and tertiary crushers, as well as elevating and conveying equipment, and they are invaluable in the calculation of screen sizes. In short, they eliminate much of the old-time guess work in the preparation of the plant flowsheet.

Gyratory and jaw crushers are always rated at certain open-side or close-side discharge settings. In order that we may select the particular curve, of a group of curves, which will most nearly represent the product of a crusher having any given discharge setting, it is important to know approximately what percentage of the total output will pass a screen opening of equal dimension. It was universal practice in past years to designate such screen openings as ring-size for the very logical reason that the leading screen of that day, the revolving type, was, almost without exception, fitted with sections having round holes. Now that the vibrating screen, with its wire cloth or square-punched steel plate sections, has pre-empted the field there is no longer any excuse for adhering to the ring-size product designation.Above is alist of the approximate percentages of product passing a square opening test sieve whose holes are equal to the discharge setting of the crusher. Several different conditions are tabulated, and each condition is accompanied by estimates for four different classes of material.

In gravel pit operations it will usually be found that some one of these listed base rocks will predominate, and no great error will be introduced if this predominant rock is used as the basis for product calculations. Most base rocks will be close enough in physical structure to one of the listed varieties so that the percentages can be used for them without serious error. The same statement applies to the product gradation curves to be discussed. It must be remembered that the entire process of securing and compiling data of this nature is, at best, one which is susceptible of only approximate results.

It was formerly the custom to consider one set of product gradation, or screen analysis, curves as being suitable to represent the products of both primary (unscreened) and secondary (screened) feeds, making no allowance for the undersize material which is always present, to some extent, in quarry-run and mine-run materials. The average quarry does not produce as much of this undersize rock as the average mine, but the usual practice in mining operations is to scalp off most of the undersize ahead of the primary crusher, whereas this practice is the exception rather than the rule in quarry operations. As a matter of fact, where the secondary crushers are fitted with straight concaves, or jaw plates, as used to be standard practice, the dif-ference between product curves on screened and unscreened feed was not significant, and no great discrepancy was introduced by considering them under the one heading.

With the introduction of non-choking concaves in the standard gyratory crushers and reduction crushers, and the development of high speed fine-reduction crushers with high choke points, it soon became apparent that there was a substantial difference in the screen analyses of the two kinds of product, that is, crusher products on unscreened and screened feeds. The difference is especially significant in the lower part of the curve, where undersize in the feed would naturally show up, and where the cleaner breaking of the non-choke crushing chamber would likewise be reflected.

Here above isshown a family of curves for primary crushing of unscreened feed, such as the average quarry-run material in which the undersize (minus crusher setting) rock is present in proportions normally resulting from blasting operations. The same curves may be used for mining operations with stationary bar grizzlies ahead of the primary crusher.

In such operations the amount of undersize going into the crusher will usually be about the same as for the quarry operation without pre-scalping. It should be noted that the test data on which these curves are based were taken from gyratory and jaw crusher operations, but, as we have stated before, they may be used for other types of crushers if allowance is made for the characteristics peculiar to each type. As a matter of fact, so far as crushers of the Fairmount single-roll type are concerned, there is a natural compensation which brings the curves fairly well into line. The Fairmount crusher is inherently a somewhat cleaner breaking machine than either the standard gyratory or standard jaw types, but the class of rock for which the former crusher is largely used is usually subject to greater than average degradation during the blasting and loading operations in the quarry, which tends to level out the difference in crushing performance.Using Crusher and Screen Charts

The method of using the curves is so simple as to require little comment. The vertical axes represent material sizes, which may be taken as either square or round openings; provided of course that the same shape of opening is used throughout any particular analysis. The horizontal axes represent cmmdative percentages passing corresponding screen openings. If we wish to check the product to be expected from a crusher set at some predetermined discharge opening, we first refer to the table showing the approximate percentage of product which will pass an opening equivalent to the crusher setting. This gives us a point in the group of curves which may, or may not, be exactly on one of them. In the latter case we interpolate by following an imaginary curve between the two curves on either side of our point. We can thus tabulate cumulative percentages passing all of the product sizes in which we may be interested. Non-cumulative percentages; which are important because they are used to determine expected amounts of specific products are simply the difference between the upper and lower cumulative percentages for the particular product limits under consideration.

For those not familiar with the use of product gradation curves an example may be helpful. Suppose that a tentative selection of a 3.5 open- side discharge setting has been made for a standard gyratory primary crusher to be used for crushing quarry-run limestone. Referring to the table which lists percentages of product passing an equivalent square opening, we find that 85 to 90% of the crusher product should pass a 3.5 square opening. Choosing the lower percentage, to be on the conservative side,, we follow the horizontal line, denoting the 3.5 product size in the curve chart, over to the vertical line marking the 85% value. We find that the point we have established does not fall directly upon any of the group of curves, but lies so close to one of them that it may be used without appreciable error into our calculations.

Let us suppose that we wish to know how much of the product of our primary crusher will be retained on a 1.5 square opening screen, so that we may estimate the size and number of secondary crushers required to recrush the plus 1.5 contingent. Following the curve down to the 1.5 line, we find that 43% of the primary crusher output may be expected to pass this screen opening; 57% will be retained, which means that we must provide secondary crushing capacity to take care of 57 tons for each 100 tons fed to the primary crusher.

Occasionally it happens that we wish to scalp off a salable product from the output of the primary crusher; for example, a plus 1.5 minus 3.5 material for highway base- rock. The difference between the cumulative percentages at the 3.5 and 1.5 points on the curve gives us the amount, of such product to be expected from the output of the primary crusher This is 85 minus 43, or 42% of the primary crusher product.

If our problem had covered a crushing condition calling for 80 instead of 85%passing the opening equivalent to the crusher setting, we would have found that our point fell exactly on a curve, regardless of what crusher setting we had selected. This is because all of the family of curves are based on the 80% line. Obviously a group of curves might be based on any percentage line, but it is usual practice to choose the 80 or 85% values.

It will be noted that the curves bend upward in very marked fashion above the 75-85% region. This simply reflects the tendency of practically all materials to slab, or spall, to some extent in the crusher. As a matter of fact, product gradation in this upper range (above the open- side setting of the crusher) is of a distinctly uncertain and variable nature, and about all that a group of curves can do is to reflect the general tendency. Fortunately the exact screen analysis in this fraction of the primary crusher output is recrushed in succeeding stages, and all that is required is to know approximately how much of it there will be to recrush.

Although the group of curves we have been considering are intended for calulations involving primary crushing operations, they may also be used for secondary crusher products in those cases where no screening is performed between primary and secondary stages. Such an arrangement is seldom encountered in modern plant design, except where large jaw crushers, set very wide, are followed by a secondary, usually of the standard gyratory type, to reduce further the very coarse output of the jaw crusher to a size which can be handled by the recrushing, screening, and elevating equipment in the balance of the plant. In such cases it is simplest to consider the two-stage set-up as a single machine with discharge opening equal to that of the secondary crusher.

The group of curves on the rightischarted from screen analyses of the products of crushers receiving screened feed. They are useful in predicting the character of output from secondary and tertiary crushers, and are of great value in the preparation of plant flowsheets, and in calculating vibrating screen capacities. Their use in the latter connection will be discussed in the screening section of this series.

There is no need for extended comment on this group of curves; the method of taking off cumulative percentages, and non-cumulative fractions, is exactly the same as for the chart we previously discussed. The difference in the shape of these curves is attributable to the absence of fines in the crusher feed, and to the cleaner breaking action of the modem reduction crusher.

The product gradation curves for screened feed, described under the preceding sub-heading, can be used as a basis for calculating approximate screen analysis of products from closed-circuit crushing stages, but the values cannot be taken directly from the curves.

For example, consider a crusher set to turn out a product 70% of which will pass a 5/8 square opening, and in closed circuit with a screen which is equipped to remove the minus 3/4 product. Thecurve shows that approximately 85% of the crusher product will pass the 3/4 square openings.

Suppose that we wish to know how much minus 0.25 fines we may expect from the circuit.We do not go to the curve which touches the 100 percent ordinate at the 3/4 value; we calculate the percentage from the same curve which was used to predict the proportion of minus 0.75 in the crusher discharge. This curve shows approximately 29 percent of minus 3/4 in the material as it comes from the crusher, or 29 tons of fines in each 100 tons of crusher output. But, for the circulating load, we are only interested in that fraction of the crusher output which will pass the 3/4 screen, which is 85 tons.That part of the product gradation curve which lies below the 85 percent valuerepresents the gradation of the finished product, and 29 tons out of each 85 would be minus 0.25.

Let x equal percentage of minus 0.25 in the finished product, then x:100=29:85 or x = 34.1 percent of minus 0.25 rock from the closed circuit operation. Any other size of product may be estimated in a similar manner. Note that if we had used a curve touching the 100 percent ordinate at the 0.75 value, we would have arrived at a value approximately 50 percent for the minus 0.25 fraction; a value which is obviously erroneous for rock of average characteristics. We will comment on closed circuit crushing, and upon certain assumptions which have to be made in closed circuit calculations, in a later discussion of reduction-crushing.

Although the long established practice of designating crusher products by ring-size is not compatible with present-day screening practice, there are occasions when it is desirable to convert our calculations from one shape of opening to the other. So far as the curves themselves are concerned, once we have established the shape of screen openinground or squarewe can use them for either so long as we stick to one shape throughout the process of taking off percentages-passing. If, as occasionally happens, we have to deal with both shapes of screen opening in the same set of calculations, one or the other of them must be converted to equivalent sizes of the opposing shape. For example, if most of the screen openings are to be square, but one or two of them must be round, the round-hole sizes should be expressed in terms of equivalent square openings.

Inasmuch as the table of crusher settings versus equivalent product percentages is based on square openings, it is necessary to convert to equivalent round openings before this table can be used for such openings.

Below is the information needed to make conversions from round to square holes, or vice versa. The two columns at the left showing equivalent sizes for flat testing screens, are the columns to use in connection with crusher product calculations.Admittedly, listings of equivalent round and square holes, such as we show in this table, can be only approximately correct for the many different materials with which we must deal in crushing and screening computations. The infinite variety of shapes encountered renders absolute accuracy an impossible attainment. Practical experience, however, indicates that the comparisons shown in our table are in most cases close enough for all practical purposes.

Product SizeCorresponding Size Holes Through a flat testing screen Allis-Chalmers vibrating screenRevolving Screen Round holes Square holesRound holes Square holesRound holes 1/83/325/321/85/32 3/83/327/323/161/4 1/43/149/321/41/16 1/21/411/321/123/8 3/83/107/163/81/2 1/43/81/23/163/18 1/21/101/41/25/8 3/21/25/81/1811/10 3/82/1011/106/83/4 11/105/83/411/107/8 3/411/107/83/41 7/83/415/187/81 1/8 17/81 1/1612/101 1/4 1 3/811 2/181 1/181 3/8 1 1/41 1/161 3/81 1/71 2/14 1 3/81 1/81 1/161 1/41 3/4 1 1/21 1/41 3/181 3/81 7/8 1 5/81 3/81 3/41 3/102 1 3/41 1/21 7/81 3/162 1/4 1 7/81 5/821 3/42 3/8 21 3/42 1/81 7/82 1/2 2 1/81 7/82 1/422 5/8 2 1/41 15/182 3/82 1/162 3/4 2 3/822 1/22 1/82 11/16 2 1/22 1/82 6/82 1/43 1/8 2 5/82 1/42 3/42 3/83 5/12 2 3/42 3/82 7/82 1/23 1/2 2 7/82 1/232 5/83 5/8 32 5/83 1/42 3/43 3/4 3 1/42 3/43 1/234 3 1/233 3/43 1/44 3/8 3 3/43 1/443 1/24 3/4 43 1/24 1/43 3/45 4 1/23 7/84 3/44 1/85 1/2 54 1/45 1/44 1/26 1/4 5 1/24 3/45 3/456 7/8 65 1/46 1/25 1/27 1/2 6 1/25 1/275 3/48 767 1/26 1/28 3/4 7 1/26 1/2879 3/8 878 3/47 1/210 8 1/27 1/49 1/47 3/410 1/2 97 3/49 1/28 1/411 1/4 9 1/28108 1/211 3/4 108 1/210 1/2912 1/2

secondary impact crushers - meka crushing & screening plants

secondary impact crushers - meka crushing & screening plants

MSI and MSIH Series crushers are very versatile for the production of fine materials with a precise cubical shape. The robust design boosts productivity and ensures that our customers can successfully carry out difficult tasks. A high reduction ratio provides less recirculation in the crushing plant, thus decreasing the workload of the vibrating screens, conveyors and other crushers. As a result, overall maintenance and spare parts requirements for MEKAs crushing and screening plants are minimal compared to competitors plants.

MEKAs series of crushers have been designed to gain the trust and confidence of our customers. Our precisely machined welded construction rotors have proven construction, ensuring long-term use. In addition, all components are of premium quality in order to give our customers a trouble-free operation experience.

Our MSIH Series grinding impact crushers have a very competitive design for the asphalt recycling process. Our experienced engineering team has optimised the structure of the distributor plates to be less sensitive to sticky materials, separating these materials better, which is particularly important in the asphalt recycling processes. The MSIH Series design, with two independent breaker plates, is also optimized to provide better performance in concrete recycling processes.

MEKA secondary impact crushers are manufactured using two different designs in order to respond to our customers different needs. One of these designs is the MSI series secondary impact Crusher with two independent breaking plates, which may be adjusted by hydraulic setting rods. Their large feed opening is a key advantage for most applications requiring the feeding of materials up to 350 mm.

Alternatively, the grinding type of MSIH series secondary impact crusher provides a very high reduction ratio for crushing medium abrasive materials such as river gravel and basalt. Grinding types of crushers have distributor plates that are useful for separating sticky materials. Under the distributor plate, there are grinding plates that contribute to the production of fine cubical materials.

different types of crushing equipments - constro facilitator

different types of crushing equipments - constro facilitator

Crushers are mainly used for crushing stones or mineral ores, recycling construction waste, and producing aggregate. This equipment aims to reduce large solid raw material masses into smaller sizes. They also help to change waste material form so that they can be simply disposed of or recycled. They can also be used for secondary and tertiary crushing to produce the finished product and crushing materials between two parallel solid surfaces.

In an ever-changing industry, waste is one of the major issues for companies when it comes to maximising profits and winning tenders. With the proper application of crushing materials can be reused in other areas of industrial applications.

The primary crusher is only for the breaking of large stones into pieces (this means primary crusher is not for the aggregate size material.). Examples of primary crushers are jaw crusher; hammer mill crusher and gyratory crusher. After receiving the primary crusher crush the material and produce a new fresh reduced size of the source material. The primary crusher has only functioned up to that point. A secondary crusher comes into action and further reduces the size. In secondary crushers some sizes of stones may pass directly from sieve number At the end tertiary crusher reduces the size of crushed pieces very much to the required size and it also brings the fineness to the crushed material. Tertiary crushers are at the job site and these are small in size.

A Jaw Crusher is one of the main types of primary crushers in a mine or ore processing plant. The size of a jaw crusher is designated by the rectangular or square opening at the top of the jaws. Primary jaw crushers are typical of the square opening design, and secondary jaw crushers are of the rectangular opening design. A Jaw Crusher reduces large size rocks or ore by placing the rock into compression. A fixed jaw, mounted in a V alignment is the stationary breaking surface, while the movable jaw exerts a force on the rock by forcing it against the stationary plate. Due to their smaller physical size, jaw crushers are also ideal for tight spaces, such as underground mining and mobile crushing applications.

Newer jaw crusher models are more focused on safety and easy maintenance. Hydraulic separation and individual lifting of shells are in a trend that creates a better environment for any workers on-site working with the equipment

An impact crusher is a machine that uses striking as opposed to pressure to reduce the size of a material. Impact crushers are designated as a primary, secondary, tertiary or quaternary rotor crusher depending on which processing stage the equipment is being utilized. Impact Crushers may be used as primary, secondary, or tertiary crushers depending on the Producers final-product-size needs. Impact Crushers are available in stationary, track, and portable configurations meeting any demand for any of these industries. Although Impact Crushers generally have a higher operating cost than other crushers, they tend to produce a more uniform particle shape (cubical) which is desirable and produces more fines for hot asphalt producers. Common types of Impact Crushers are Horizontal Shaft Impactor (HSI) and Vertical Shaft Impactor (VSI).

The new hybrid models of impact crusher are engineered for maximum feed size, target output size, and total capacity. The newer models are capable of producing construction-grade aggregate, artificial sand and stone materials, run of mine material, especially for the secondary and tertiary crushing stages.

Gyratory crushers are principally used in surface-crushing plants. The gyratory crusher consists essentially of a long spindle, carrying a hard steel conical grinding element, the head, seated in an eccentric sleeve. The spindle is suspended from a spider and, as it rotates, normally between 85 and 150 rpm, it sweeps out a conical path within the fixed crushing chamber, or shell, due to the gyratory action of the eccentric. Gyratory crushers provide high throughput and less downtime to bring maximum efficiency to your operation.

The new primary gyratory crushers have new advancements that bring increased speeds, higher installed power and mechanical improvements. All of these combine to bring additional throughput for your primary gyratory crusher.

A Cone Crusher is a compression type of machine that reduces material by squeezing or compressing the feed material between a moving piece of steel and a stationary piece of steel. The crushed material is discharged at the bottom of the machine after they pass through the cavity. Cone crushers are popular rock crushing machines in aggregate production, mining operations, and recycling applications. They are normally used in secondary, tertiary, and quaternary crushing stages.

The new hybrid models of cone crusher come with multi-cylinder hydraulic cone systems suited for the secondary or tertiary stages of crushing plants by changing body liners and adaptors. It comes with the automatic control and fingertip manipulation system and two hydraulic cylinders that have a protective effect that if one overloads, then another one can fast react to clear choke merely by remote control.

Stationary hybrid crushers combine the advantages of different roll crusher systems and are an ideal solution for primary, secondary and tertiary crushing applications. They have specially designed teeth, hydraulic gap adjustment, overload protection, and a scraper system perfect for dealing with sticky materials. These machines can work at capacities of up to 12,000 metric tons per hour, enabling you to keep productivity high whilst producing high-quality output.

The newer models have a compact design and take up minimal space. The crushing rolls are equipped either with crushing rings, segments, or crushing picks, depending on the application and feed material. The drive system for the rolls consists of individual electric motors for each roll, as well as couplings and gears. Standard components are used for cost-effectiveness and simpler maintenance.

The overall range of capacity for mobile impact crushers is roughly about 100 to 500 tons per hour. Todays mobile impact crushers are especially ideal for smaller-scale recycling operations, for on-site recycling, and tight-space urban and roadside applications. These units are transportable by trailer, simply driven off at the location of the material that needs to be processed, and go to work very quickly. With their capability to produce accurately-sized, cubical-shaped end-product, mobile impact crushers work well as stand-alone plants, or they can add significant productivity to any operation, working in tandem with a jaw crusher or screen plant.

The newer models use a direct drive system for optimum fuel efficiency and low operating costs and include several user-friendly features. This ensures that theyre both simple to operate, and easy to maintain.

This is a type of secondary or reduction crusher consisting of a heavy frame on which two rolls are mounted. These are driven so that they rotate toward one another. Rock fed in from above is nipped between the moving rolls, crushed, and discharged at the bottom.

The newer models offer belt-driven Roll Crushers in four designs: Single Roll, Double Roll, Triple Roll and Quad Roll Crushers, which provide a substantial return on investment by operating at low cost and maximizing yield by generating minimal fines. The rugged design, which incorporates a fabricated steel base frame lined with replaceable abrasion-resistant steel liners, stands up to the toughest mineral processing applications while providing safe and simple operation, including an automatic tramp relief system to allow uncrushable objects to pass while the crusher remains in operation.

The newer models of this machine generate high-quality aggregates, cubical in shape, with superior soundness. Available in three sizes, the HammerMaster is known for making excellent asphalt chip material, concrete stone, and general base material and road rock. This mill is also capable of making agricultural lime for pH control in farm fields.

Rod mills run along with the outside gear. Materials spirally and evenly enter the crushing chamber along the input hollow axis by input devices. Steel rods of different specifications are installed in the crushing chamber. When the frame rotates, centrifugal force is produced. At the same time, the steel rods are carried to some height and then fall to grind and strike the material. After grinded in the crushing chamber, the powder is discharged by an output material board.

The newer models of this machine are driven by motor with speed reducer and peripheral large gear, or low-speed synchronous motor with peripheral large gear. The grinding medium steel rod is put into the cylinder which is lifted, and then falls under the action of the centrifugal force and friction force. The materials entering into the cylinder from the feeding inlet are grinded by movable grinding medium and discharged out by overflow and continuously feeding.

A ball mill is a type of grinder used to grind, blend and sometimes for mixing of materials for use in mineral dressing processes, paints, pyrotechnics, ceramics and selective laser sintering. It works on the principle of impact and attrition: size reduction is done by impact as the balls drop from near the top of the shell. The newer models of this machine are widely used in cement, silicate products, new building materials, refractory materials, fertilizer, black and non-ferrous metals and glass ceramics and other production industries of all kinds of ores and other grind-able materials can be dry or wet grinding.

Manufacturers offering crushing equipment have expanded their respective ranges, offering additional capabilities for these segments. Mobility and versatility have been key factors in the development of new models, with many firms also offering new options in the shape of electric and hybrid drive systems.

cone crushers for sale

cone crushers for sale

The cone crusherwas designed primarily with a view to achieving top performance in the field of fine-reduction crushing. It has also been adapted to what is designated simply as fine crushing, which extends into a range below that ordinarily defined by the term fine-reduction. Although the eccentric speeds of the various sizes of this type are not quite so high as the speeds used for the Newhouse crusher, the Hydro-cone crusher definitely rates as a high-speed machine, its product comparing quite closely to that of the former type, for equal close-side settings.Probably the outstanding feature of the. Hydrocone crusher is the hydraulic support, from which its name is derived and which is clearly shown in the sectional view. This device makes it possible to adjust the crusher to any desired setting within its range in a matter of seconds;adjustments may be made while the crusher is running, although the feed must be shut off before operating the adjusting pump. An accumulator in the hydraulic system provides protection against tramp iron or packing.

Cone crushers are used in AG and SAG grinding circuits to increase tonnage by effectively dealing with any pebble (critical size) build-up problem. Normally, heavy-duty short-head crushers are employed to crush pebbles. Power and crusher cavity level are the key variables for monitoring and controlling the crusher operation. Crusher product size is adjusted by changing the closed side setting.

On the left is a diagram of the Hydro-cone crushing chamber. A comparison of this chamber with those previously discussed is interesting. It will be noted that the choke-point has been raised far above the discharge level, in fact, to a point not far below the nip-point for the recommended maximum one-way feed dimension. By virtue of the decided flare of the head, and the corresponding flare of the top shell bore, the line-of-mean-diameters slopes sharply away from the crusher centerline. For some, distance above the discharge point the angle between head and concave is very acute; in fact, at the open-side position of the head, this zone is almost parallel. For recommended operating conditions, i.e., for safe combinations of throw and setting, and with screened feed, this type of crushing chamber does not approach anything like a choke or near-choke condition. For the combination shown in the diagram the ratio of volume reduction is almost 1:1 from zone 0-1 to zone 2-3 at the choke-point; consequently, if the crusher is given a screened feed (as all fine-reduction crushers should be) the reduction in voids by the time the choke-point is reached cannot very well reach serious proportions. The diagram shows the standard chamber. With screened feed, these crushers will operate at closed-side discharge settings equal to the throw of the head at the discharge point (usually spoken of as eccentric-throw.)

The level in the crusher feed pocket is an important variable since it can indicate whether the feed is building up. A build-up could lead to a plugin the feed chute, a spill through the skirting on the crusher feed, or a crusher plug. None of these are desirable.

In a normal feed situation, the level in the crusher cavity is kept fairly low, just enough to ensure that there is sufficient feed to keep the crusher working, but if the feed has to be suspended suddenly because of impending plugging, the crush-out wont take too long (10 seconds or less). Normal feed is usually used in standard crushers where the feed particle size is quite large, say greater than 65 mm.

Choke feed is when the crusher cavity is kept full, without spilling out through the skirting. Choke feeding is usually used in short-head crushers where the feed particle is smaller than that for a standard crusher.

This crusher is a modification of the standard machine, developed for fine-crushing duty. Mechanically, the machine is the same in every respect as the standard crusher of the same type, but for each developed size of machine a special top shell and the concave ring has been designed, with reduced receiving opening, reduced angularity between head and concave, and, consequently, superior characteristics at the finer settings. Medium crushing chambers may be operated at close-side settings of one-half the eccentric-throw, on screened feed; hence capacities at the finer settings are better than those of the standard type. Fine crushing chambers operate at one-fourth the eccentric throw. Inasmuch as the maximum feed size is smaller in the case of the fine chamber, the ratios of reduction are approximately the same for both machines.

There are two main types of cone crushers: standard and shorthead. They differ by the shape of the cavity. The standard crusher cavity is wider to accommodate larger feed-size material. The short head crusher is designed to crush finer material and to produce a finer product.

The closest approach between the mantle and the bowl liner is called the closed side setting. This is usually specified by the metallurgist to give the desired crusher product discharge size. It can be checked by running the crusher empty, hanging a lead plug into the crusher bowl, and then removing it to measure the gap. The gap is adjusted by rotating the bowl. Some crushers are equipped with a hydraulic jack mechanism on the crushing head assembly instead of having a bowl adjustment ring. The head can be raised or lowered to meet the operators needs. It can be very helpful in operation and process control.

The Symons Cone Crusher has come into almost universal use during the last few years for the final stage of crushing. It is a development of the secondary gyratory crusher, which is merely a small gyratory crusher designed to break the product of the primary machine down to about 1-in. size; but the main shaft of a cone crusher instead of being suspended from a spider is supported on a large socket bearing situated immediately under the crushing head and protected from grit and dust by a sealing assembly, this bearing taking the whole of the crushing load.

Fig. 8 gives a sectional view of the machine. The main shaft is carried in a long gear-driven eccentric, the rotation of which causes the gyration of the head in the usual way, but the center of gyration is at the apex of the crushing head instead of in the spider. At the top of the bowl, therefore, the lumps of ore entering the crushing zone are cracked by short powerful strokes; but at the bottom the head has a much longer but less powerful stroke, enabling the ore in the finishing stages to be rapidly crushed and quickly discharged without any tendency to choke, a condition which reduces over crushing to a minimum. This, together with the curved shape of the bowl, accounts for the large reduction ratio possible with this type of machine and makes it superior to other secondary crushers and coarse rolls.

It will be seen that the head and the bowl are parallel at the lower part of the crushing zone. The parallel space is deep enough, in conjunction with the speed of gyration, to ensure that no piece of ore can pass through it without being struck two or three times by the head before it falls clear. It follows that, unlike the jaw and gyratory crushers, the size of the product is determined by the distance apart of the bottom edges of the head and bowl in the position when they are closest together.

Coarse buttress threads on the outer circumference of the bowl fit into corresponding threads on the inner side of the adjusting ring, which is held down to the mainframe by a circle of long heavy springs, flexible enough to allow the whole assembly to rise should tramp iron or other uncrushable material enters the crushing zone. By means of a windlass and chain, the bowl can be rotated in the threads that support it in the adjusting ring while the machine is running, thus enabling the bowl liner to be adjusted for wear or the size of the product to be changed without stopping. The cone crusher is usually set to give a 3/8-in. or -in. product when discharging to ball mills.

Table 9 gives particulars of the different sizes of crushers. The capacity figures are based on material weighing 100 lb. per cubic foot and must be increased in direct proportions for heavier ores. It will be noted that each size of machine has two ranges of capacity; this is due to the fact that it can be fitted with a coarse or a fine crushing bowl according to the duty that is required of it. With either one, the range of reduction is greater than is economically possible with any other type of dry crushing machine.

A possible disadvantage of the cone crusher is that as a rule it cannot be choke-fed, but must be given an even feed of ore if it is to do efficient work. Should circumstances call for the installation of a machine that can be run if necessary with the ore piled up over the top of the head, a secondary gyratory crusher of the suspended shaft type will be required. The Traylor Reduction Crusher Type TZ, which is constructed on the principles of an ordinary gyratory crusher, but is fitted with a curved bowl liner similar to that of the Symons Cone Crusher, is designed to meet the case. Although the suspension of the shaft restricts the movement of the head to a smaller circle of gyration than that of the cone crusher, the ratio of reduction is still large enough to enable it to crush the product of the primary breaker to -in. size (-in. for the large machines), and it fulfills the condition that it can be choke-fed. Owing to the smaller movement of the head, however, the capacity for a given range is much less than that of the equivalent size of cone crusher, and the latter is therefore preferred when choke-feeding can be avoided.

The Symons Shorthead Cone Crusher, which is constructed on the same general principles as the larger machine, is designed to follow the latter, taking its product at 1-in. and reducing it to about -in. size. The strains imposed on the crushing members, however, would be very heavy if the machine were run with the discharge opening set to -in. or less. It is usual, therefore, to crush in closed circuit with a screen, the discharge opening of the bowl being set to 5/8 or in. Thus a circulating load is built up and a certain amount of choke-crushing takes place, but the method actually gives greater efficiency with a finer product than can be obtained in an open circuit, whatever the discharge setting of the bowl in the latter case.

In ordinary crushing practice, the grinding section is supplied with -in. or 3/8-in. material direct from Symons Cone Crushers. But the demand is for a finer feed and it seems likely that the Shorthead Cone Crusher will satisfy this demand to the exclusion of fine crushing rolls.

Symons Cone Crushers have been used extensively for secondary crushing in metallic, non-metallic, rock products, and industrial operations. The Symons Cone was developed to give large capacity, fine crushing. The combination of high speed and wide travel of the cone results in a series of rapid, hammer-like blows on the material as it passes through the crushing cavity and permits the free flow of material through the cavity.

Reduction in size of any particle, with each impact of the head, is regulated by the opening between the head and bowl at that point. A threaded arrangement of the bowl affords a quick and easy method for changing the size of the product or to compensate for wear. This adjustment can be made while the crusher is operating. A parallel zone between the lower portion of the crushing members assures uniform sizing.

Frame, adjustment ring, and cone are made of cast steel; gears are made of specially treated steel and have cut teeth; all bearings are bronze; mantle and bowl liners are manganese steel. The head and shaft can be removed as a unit, and other parts such as the eccentric and thrust bearings can easily be lifted out after the head is removed. The countershaft assembly can also be removed as a complete unit.

The circle of heavy coil springs, which holds the bowl and adjustment ring down firmly onto the frame, provides automatic protection against damage due to tramp iron. These springs compress, allowing the bowl to rise the full movement of the head until non-crushable material passes through. The springs then automatically return to their normal position.

Symons Cone Crushers are made in Standard and Short Head types. They are of the same general construction but differ in the shape of the crushing cavity. The Standard cone is used for intermediate crushing. The Short Head cone is used for finer crushing. It has a steeper angle of the head, a shorter crushing cavity, and greater movement of the head at the top of the crushing cavity.

If you observe the illustrations you will notice that the center line of the main shaft is at an angle to the center line of the crusher. The center of the main shaft bisects the center line of the crusher at the opening of the crushing chamber. As the MANTLE revolves that point is the pivot point of the mantle. This means that both the top and the bottom of the crusher mantle have a circular gyrating motion.

Tramp iron had long been a source of worry to those engaged in fine crushing.Here is what one operator had to say.Shutdowns were frequent, costs were uncertain because of enforced delays due to excessive breakage. Plugged machines had to be freed continually with a torch tocut out frozen and wedged-in tramp iron.The cone crusher overcame these troubles,helped reduce and stabilize costs. The bestevidence of this statement is the universalacceptance of the cone as the outstandingcrusher in its field.

While tramp iron is not recommended as a regular diet for a Cone Crusher, its construction is such that damage will not result should any ordinary noncrushable material get into the crushing cavity. The band of heavy coil springs encircling the frame allows the bowl to lift from its seat with each movement of the head until Such non-crushable object passes off into the discharge. The tramp iron shown in the accompanying illustration passed the protective devices installed for its removal and would have resulted in expensive repairs and long shutdown periods for any crusher except the Symons Cone.

Cone crushers can have two types of heads, standard and short head types. The principle difference between the two is in the shape (size and volume) of the crushing cavities and feed plate arrangements. Standard head cone crushers have cavities that are designed to take a primary crushed feed ranging up to 300mm generating product sizes around 20mm to 40mm. For finer products, short head cone crushers are normally used. They have a steeper angle of the head and a more parallel crushing cavity than the standard machines. Due to the more compact chamber volume and shorter working crushing length, the much needed higher crushing forces/power can be imparted to the smaller-sized material being fed to the crusher. Cavities for the short head machine are designed to produce a crushed product ranging from 5mm to 20mm in a closed circuit.

At the discharge end of the cone crusher is a parallel crushing section, where all material passing through must receive at least one impact. This ensures that all particles, which pass through the cone crusher, will have a maximum size, in at least one dimension, no larger than the set of the crusher. For this reason, the set of a cone crusher can be specified as the minimum discharge opening, being commonly known as the closed side setting (CSS).

Here are facts about the conecrusher known as Hydrocone. This line of hydraulically adjusted gyratory crushers was developed in smaller sizes some fifteen years ago by Allis-Chalmers to meet a demand for improved secondary or tertiary crushing units. The line is now expanded to include sizes up to 84-in. diameter cones.

This modern crusher is the result of many years of experience in building all types of crushing equipment, when the first gyratory or cone crusher, the Gates, was put into operation. Overall these years AC has followed a continuing policy of improvement in crusher engineering, changes in design being based on operating experience of crushers in actual operation.

The Hydrocone cone crusher is the logical outgrowth, a crusher having a means of rapidly changing product size or compensating for wear on the crushing surfaces a crusher which produces a better, more cubical product than any comparable crusher and a crusher so designed that it can be operated and maintained with a minimum of expense.

The most important fact about the Hydrocone crusher is its hydraulic principle of operation. Hydraulic control makes possible quick, accurate product size adjustments fast unloading of the crushing chamber in case of power failure or other emergency protection against tramp iron or other uncrushable materials in the crushing chamber. Another important fact about this crusher is its simplicity of design and operation. The accompanying sketch shows the simplicity of the Hydrocone crushers principle of operation. The main shaft assembly, including the crushing cone, is supported on a hydraulic jack. When oil is pumped into or out of the jack the mainshaft assembly is raised or lowered, changing the crusher setting.

Since the crushing cone is supported on a hydraulic jack, its position with respect to the concave ring, and therefore the crusher setting, can be controlled by the amount of oil in the hydraulic jack.

Speed-Set control raises or lowers the crushing shaft assembly hydraulically, and permits quick adjustment to produce precise product specifications without stopping the crusher. Speed-Set control also provides a convenient way to compensate for wear on crushing surfaces.

On Hydrocone crushers in sizes up to 48-in., the Speed-Set device is a hand-driven gear pump; on the larger sizes a motor-driven gear pump operated by push-button. On all sizes the setting can be changed in a matter of minutes by one man without additional equipment, reducing downtime materially.

Protection against tramp iron or other uncrushable materials is afforded by an accumulator in the hydraulic system. This consists of a neoprene rubber oil-resistant bladder inside a steel shell. This bladder is inflated with nitrogen to a predetermined pressure higher than the average pressures encountered during normal crushing.

Ordinarily, the Automatic Reset remains inoperative, but if steel or some other foreign material should enter the crushing chamber, the oil pressure in the hydraulic jack will exceed the gas pressure in the accumulator. The bladder will then compress, allowing the oil to enter the steel shell. This permits the crushing cone to lower and discharge the uncrushable material without damage to the crusher.

After the crushing chamber is freed of the foreign material, the gas pressure in the accumulator will again exceed the oil pressure in the hydraulic system. Oil is then expelled from the accumulator shell and the crushing cone is returned to its original operating setting automatically.

A Hydrocone crusher will produce a cubical product with excellent size distribution and a minimum of flats and slivers. This is especially important in the crushed stone industry where a cubical stone is required to meet rigid product specifications. It is also of considerable significance in the mining industry where the elimination of large amounts of tramp oversize reduces circulating loads or makes open circuit crushing possible.

The reason why the Hydrocone crusher will produce such a uniform, cubical product is that it has a small eccentric throw with respect to the crusher setting. This means a smaller effective ratio of reduction during each crushing stroke, and therefore, the production of fewer fines and slivers. Likewise, a small eccentric throw means a small open side setting, which results in a smaller top size of the product. A large percentage of the product from a Hydrocone crusher will be of a size equal to or finer than the close side setting.

For fine crushing, or in installations where the feed to the crusher is irregular, the use of a wobble plate feeder is recommended. This feeder is installed in place of the spider cap and affords a means of controlling the feed to the crusher, as well as a means of distributing the feed evenly around the crushing chamber.

Essentially, the feeder consists of a plate that is oscillated by a shaft extending down into the crushers main shaft. The motion of the main shaft oscillates or wobbles the feeder plate. The plate is supported on a rubber mounting which permits its motion and, at the same time, positively seals the top of the spider bearing against the entry of dust. Maintenance is reduced by the use of self-lubricating bushings between the feeder plate shaft and the crusher main shaft.

Hydrocone crushers are mounted on rubber machinery mountings in order to reduce installation costs and make it possible to locate these machines on the upper floors of crushing plants. These mountings operate without maintenance, absorb the gyrating motion of the crusher, thereby eliminating the need for massive foundations. Rubber mountings also prolong the life of the eccentric bearing, since this bearing is not subjected to the severe pounding encountered when rigid mountings are used.

The exclusion of dust and dirt from the internal mechanism of the crusher is of extreme importance from a maintenance standpoint. To accomplish this, Hydrocone crushers are equipped with one of the most effective dust seals yet devised.

This seal consists of a self-lubricating, graphite impregnated plastic ring which is supported from the head center in such a way that it is free to rotate, or gyrate, independently of the head center.

The plastic ring surrounds the dust collar with only a very slight clearance between the two parts. With the plastic ring being free to move as it is, it accommodates the rotation, gyration, and vertical movement of the main shaft assembly, maintaining the seal around the dust collar at all times. Because of its lightweight and self-lubricating characteristics, wear on the plastic ring is negligible.

The ease with which any wearing part can be replaced is of the utmost importance to any crusher operator. With this in mind, the Hydrocone crusher has been designed so that any part can be replaced by disturbing only a minimum number of other parts.

For example, the Mantalloy crushing surfaces are exposed by simply removing the top shell from the crusher. This can be done easily by removing the nuts from the studs at the top and bottom shell joint. The eccentric and hydraulic support mechanisms are serviced from underneath the crusher without disturbing any of the feeding arrangements, or the upper part of the crusher.

Efficient lubrication of all wearing parts is one of the reasons why crushing costs are low with the Hydrocone crusher. On most sizes, lubrication is divided into three distinct systems, each functioning independently.

This bearing, whether of the ball and socket type as on the smaller sizes, or of the hourglass design (as shown) found on the larger Hydrocone crushers, is pool lubricated. On the 51, 60 and 84-inch sizes, provision is made for introducing the lubricant from outside the top shell through the spider arm. On the smaller crushers, oil is introduced through an oil inlet in the spider cap. On all sizes, oil is retained in the bearing by a garter-type oil seal located in the base of the spider bearing.

All Hydrocone crushers are provided with a compact external lubrication system consisting of an oil storage tank, an independently motor-driven oil pump, a pressure-type oil filter, and a condenser-type cooler.

Cool, clean oil is pumped into the crusher from the conditioning tank, lubricating first the three-piece step bearing assembly. The oil then travels up the inner surface of the eccentric, lubricating the eccentric bearing and main shaft.

At the top of the eccentric, the oil is split into two paths. Part of the oil flow passes through ports in the eccentric and down its outer surface, lubricating the bronze bottom shell bushing, driving gears and wearing ring. On the 48-in. and smaller crushers, the balance of the oil overflows the eccentric and returns over the gears to the bottom of the crusher where it flows by gravity back into the conditioning tank. On the 51-in. and larger Hydrocone crushers, any oil which overflows the top of the eccentric is returned directly to the conditioning system without coming into contact with the gears.

On all but the 36 and 48-in. Hydrocone crushers, the countershaft bearings are of the anti-friction type with separate pool lubrication. Both ends of the countershaft bearing housing are sealed by garter spring-type oil seals to prevent dirt or other contaminants from entering the system.

Rather than use one eccentric throw under all operating conditions, Hydrocone crushers are designed to operate most efficiently with a predetermined ratio of eccentric throw to the crusher setting. By operating with an eccentric throw specifically selected for a given application, the most desirable crushing conditions are attained the most economical use of Mantalloy crushing surfaces reduced crusher maintenance a more cubical product.

The eccentric throw is controlled by a replaceable bronze sleeve in the cast steel eccentric. This sleeve, being a wearing part, can be renewed readily in the field. Also, should operating conditions change, the throw or motion of the crushing head can be changed accordingly.

Because of the large choice of eccentric throws available and the variety of crushing chambers that may be obtained a Hydrocone crusher may be selected that will fulfill the requirements of almost any secondary or tertiary crushing operation.

They may be used in the crushed stone industries to produce a premium cubical product in the mining industries to produce a grinding mill feed having a minimum of oversize, thereby reducing circulating loads and making open circuit crushing possible. The Hydrocone crusher is used in the cement industry to reduce cement clinker prior to finish grinding.

One of three general types of crushing chambers can be furnished for any size Hydrocone crusher to suit your specific needs. The selection of the proper chamber for a given application is dependent upon the feed size, the tonnage to be handled and the product desired. A crusher already in use can be readily converted to meet changing requirements, making this machine highly flexible in operation.

The Coarse crushing chamber affords the maximum feed opening for a given size crusher. Crushers fitted with a Coarse chamber can be choke fed, provided that product size material in the feed is removed.

The Coarse chamber has a relatively short parallel zone and is designed to be operated at a close side setting equal to or greater than the eccentric throw. For example, a crusher with a 3/8-in. the eccentric throw should be operated at a 3/8-in. (or more) close side setting, and therefore a -in. open side setting. Optimum capacity and product will result when operated under these conditions, as well as most economical wear on the mantalloy crushing surfaces.

One way dimension (slot size) of the feed to a crusher fitted with a Coarse chamber should not exceed two-thirds to 70 percent of the feed opening. The maximum feed size to an 848 Hydrocone crusher would therefore be about 5-in. one way dimension.

The use of a wobble plate feeder, furnished as optional equipment, is recommended if the feed size is relatively large, if the crusher is to be operated in closed circuit, or if the feed to the crusher is irregular.

If the Hydrocone crusher is operated with a Coarse crushing chamber, the product will average about 60% passing a square mesh testing sieve equal to the close side setting of the crusher. On certain materials which break very slabby, this percentage will be somewhat lower, and on cubically breaking material the percentage will be somewhat higher. As an average, approximately 90% of the product will pass a square mesh testing sieve corresponding to the open side setting, although this percentage frequently runs higher.

The Intermediate crushing chamber has a feed opening somewhat less than a coarse crushing chamber, but because of its longer parallel zone, is designed to be operated at a close side setting equal to or greater than half the eccentric throw. For example, with a -in. eccentric throw, the minimum close side setting would be 3/8-in.

Crushers fitted with this type of chamber can be choke fed, provided that product size material in the feed be removed ahead of the crusher. The one-way dimension or slot size of the feed to a crusher should not exceed approximately half the receiving opening. A 436 Hydrocone crusher with a 5/8-in. the eccentric throw could be operated at 5/16-in. close side setting and feed size should not exceed 2-in. one-way dimension.

The wobble plate feeder, although not required under most circumstances, is recommended if the feed is irregular, or if the crusher is operated as a re-crusher, at a relatively close setting, or in a closed circuit.

Because of the longer parallel zone in this crushing chamber, a somewhat greater percentage of the product will pass a square mesh testing sieve equal to the close side setting. This will usually average about 65 to 70%, with this percentage varying, depending on the material being crushed. Very frequently, 100% of the product will pass a square mesh testing sieve equal to the open side setting of the crusher.

The Fine crushing chamber has the longest parallel zone and therefore the smallest feed opening for any given size crusher. It can be operated at ratios of eccentric throw to close side setting of up to 4 to 1. With a -in. throw, for example, a 236 Hydro-cone crusher could be operated at 3/16-in. on the close side.

Because of their design, crushers with Fine crushing chambers cannot be choke fed but must be equipped with the wobble plate feeder. The maximum one-way dimension of the feed approaches the crusher feed opening. A 348 Hydrocone crusher can be fed with material up to 3-in. one-way dimension.

The Fine crushing chamber will give the highest percentage passing the close side setting of any of the chambers discussed here. The product will average approximately 75% passing a square mesh testing sieve equal to the close side setting. Because of the long parallel zone, the top size of the product will be only slightly larger than the close side setting of the crusher.

In addition to the three general types of crushing chambers described here, special chambers can be designed to meet varying operating requirements, giving the crusher even greater flexibility than can be obtained with these three main types.

For example, a special concave ring can be used in a 636 Hydro-cone crusher which will reduce the feed opening to 5 inches and permits a two to one ratio of eccentric throw to close side setting. Thus, the crusher can be furnished to fit the exact requirements of any application.

The following capacity table gives a complete range of all Hydrocone cone crusher capacities with varying crushing chambers and eccentric throws. This table shows the minimum recommended setting for any given eccentric throw, the recommended maximum one-way (slot size) dimension of the feed, and the maximum recommended horsepower for any eccentric throw.

Capacities given are based on crushing dry feed from which the product size material has been removed. The material must readily enter the feed opening and be evenly distributed around the crushing chamber. The table is based on material weighing 100 lb per cubic foot crushed. Any variation from this must be accounted for.

The curves on the following page can be used to approximate the screen analysis of the product from any given Hydrocone crusher. These curves are only approximations since the actual screen analysis of the product of a Hydrocone crusher will depend upon the nature of the material being crushed, the feed size and a number of other considerations which could not be taken into account in these curves. Within these limits, the curves should give fairly accurate estimates.

Note that the Coarse crushing chamber is represented as giving a product of which 60 percent will pass the close side setting, the Intermediate chamber 67 percent and the Fine chamber 75 percent passing the close side setting. These percentages are the averages of a large number of tests and some variations from these must be expected. If material breaks slabby the percentage with a coarse crushing chamber may be as low as 50 percent; if it breaks very cubically it might be as high as 70 percent, or even higher.

These curves have been prepared so that they can be used for any crushing chamber. To estimate the product of any Hydrocone crusher, it is necessary to know the type of crushing chamber used (Coarse, Intermediate or Fine), the close side setting and the eccentric throw.

If the crusher is a 636 Hydrocone crusher with a 3/8-in. throw and a 3/8-in. close side setting, the approximate screen analysis would be the curve that would pass through the 3/8-in. horizontal line and the vertical line representing the close side setting for the Coarse crushing chamber, which is the 60 percent passing line. If no curve passes through the precise point of intersection between the horizontal and vertical lines, an approximate curve can be sketched in which parallels the other curves. The same procedure can be used for approximating the products from any other crushing chamber.

Barite..170 Basalt.100 Cement Clinker.95 Coal..40-60 Coke.23-32 Glass..95 Granite100 Gravel.100 Gypsum..85 Iron Ore.125-150 Limestone..95-100 Magnesite.100 Perlite..95 Porphyry.100 Quartz..95 Sandstone..85 Slag..80 Taconite125 Talc..95 Trap Rock100

We canprovide testing to solve the most difficult crushing problems. Laboratory equipment makes it possible to measure the crushing strengths and characteristics of rock or ore samples accurately, and this data is used in the selection of a crusher of proper size and type.

Impact and batch tests are frequently sufficient to indicate the type and size crusher that will be the most economical for a particular application. However, batch testing is often followed by pilot plant tests to provide additional information about large-scale operations, or to observe rock or ore reduction under actual plant operating conditions.

Pilot plant tests duplicate a continuous crushing operation provide a practical demonstration of the commercial potential of the process on a pilot scale. Such tests are useful because they may disclose factors that affect the full-scale operation, favorably or otherwise, but which remain hidden in tests on limited samples.

All Laboratory tests are guided by modern scientific knowledge of crushing fundamentals and by ourinvaluable backlog of experience in engineering and building all types of crushing equipment for any crushing application.

In addition to the facilities for crushing tests, the Laboratory maintains complete batch and pilot mill facilities for use in investigating an entire process. Tests in grinding, sizing, concentrating, thickening, filtering, drying, and pyro- processing can be made.

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