gold recovery, icon gold recovery, gravity concentrators, centrifugal concentrators, mining equipment, fine mineral recovery - general mineral processing
Tables and bowls have been proven to be very effective for final cleaning. They are slow but very clean. They use no chemicals are safe for the environment and your family. They are fun and provide immediate gratification after each cleanup you will see high grade gold.
Regional mineral processing is becoming more common around the world. Miners are using iCON Gold Recovery equipment at their site and transporting a small volume of concentrate to regional processing plants. This is becoming the method of choice where hard rock miners have learned the value of their tails and are using the iCON to pre-concentrate the sulfides or entrapped gold.
This is the recommended method of the Global Mercury Program. Without pre-concentration the volume of material to treat and the amount of chemicals are tremendous. Concentration allows the operator to treat a reasonable amount of material either on site or at regional facilities serving many mines.
This is not recommended due to the environmental impacts and the effectiveness of the bowl and/or tables. When practicing whole ore amalgamation a miner will place mercury directly into the ball mill. In this case 100% of the ore is exposed to mercury. When a concentrator is used the amount of ore can be reduced dramatically to a small amount of concentrate. 1 ton (1000 kg) of ore could be reduced to 1 kg of concentrate. If the miner chooses to amalgamate the concentrate only a fraction of the mercury would be used and only a small percentage of the ore would be exposed to Hg.
The "i" series of concentrators use a batch process. Your cycle time will depend on the grade and weight of your feed. A heavy or rich feed will need a shorter cycle time. The iCON "i" concentrators can be cleaned out in around 3 minutes.
Hard Rock mining operations may have 100 grams of gold per ton of feed. This is very rich. In this case it is common to run for only 10 minutes between rinse cycles. You may choose to feed at ton per hour.When upgrading concentrates you will be processing rich and heavy material. In this case the cycle time may also be only 10 minutes. Here you may be feeding at ton per hour.
The throughput of the i150 Centrifugal Concentrator is nominally 2 tons per hour. If you have large material in your feed, if you have a heavy feed or if you are using iCON gravity concentrators to upgrade a concentrate the throughput will be reduced. All ores and all processes are different. Each user must assess their situation as with any mineral recovery process.
It is common for internet advertisements to show a process where a small amount of gravel goes in and a large quantity of bright shiny gold comes out. Experienced miners know this is not the case. A sluice box is a gravity concentrator. Lets say you put 1000kg of feed over your sluice. At the end of the day, you may have 20kg of concentrate. This concentrate is not bright and shiny, in fact, it looks just like the feed material. This material has to be post processed to further clean your cons and give you a sellable product. Although a sluice can give you a very high concentration ratio, it is not effective for recovering fine gold. In the case of sluice operations, miners are choosing iCON Gravity Concentrators to further concentrate the vast amount of material accumulate in the sluice.
When using an enhanced centrifugal concentrator, you may put up to 1000 kg into the process and get 1kg out. This will be a concentrate'. It will look just like the feed material. Some people choose to sell this concentrate while others choose to continue refining it to shiny, clean, high grade gold.
geology of hard rock gold deposits
Man knew more about gold itself and lusted for it much before he understood the geology of hard rock gold or its deposits. Man had to learn about hard rock extraction methods and how to locate those gold deposits just to satisfy the thirst for that yellow metal. Gold has been the most highly esteemed and sought after precious commodity since the times of antiquity It has spurred on numerous expeditions and conquests dating back to Alexander the Great, to Caesar of Rome and to Cortezs conquests of Central and South America. The greed for gold throughout history has led to the enslavement of nations, conflict between nations and appalling treatment of men. Golds beauty, unique density, relatively low melting point and ability to form coinage made it a natural trading medium.
Gold as a currency dates back to ancient Greece. Various forms of gold-backed currencies developed throughout history. The last gold standard developed was the Bretton Woods Agreement after WWII. Under this agreement, the US dollar alone was pegged to gold and all other currencies were related to the USD. This was eliminated by President Nixon (US) in 1971, thus ending a very long history of the reliance of the gold standard for trade. Up until recently, gold was considered as a safe haven for investment in times of economic and geopolitical turmoil.
Gold is soft, yellow, has a relatively high melting point of 1,064oC and is the most ductile and malleable of all metals. Its atomic number is 79 and is a member of the group 1B metals which is a subgroup of the larger transitional group of metals. The other metals of the 1B group are silver copper and roentgenium. With the exception of roentgenium, the other metals in this group were known as coinage metals. Again with the exception of roentgenium, the 1B group have a similar electron configuration with one electron in their outer shell. Like all other transitional metals, including silver and copper, golds valence electrons the electrons that combine with other elements are present in more than one shell. All 1B metals are relatively inert and are corrosion resistant gold is very dense and has a specific gravity of 19.3 and an atomic weight of 197. Golds high electrical and thermal conductivity, are only superseded by that of by two other 1B elements -silver and copper.
It exists in nature in its native form, and alloyed, most often with silver and to a lesser extent with copper. It rarely occurs in nature in compounds, but when it does it occurs in tellurides such as AuTe2 and selenides (AUSe). Many pyrite and pyrrhotite minerals contain gold, which is often recovered when extracting copper from lode vein deposits. The purity of gold is stated in terms of fineness and carats (ct). Fineness is defined as the parts per 1000. For example gold with a fineness of 800 means it is 80% pure gold. Alternatively, gold that is 100% pure is 24ct.
Subduction Zones: These zones occur where the heavier oceanic plate pushes under the lighter continental plate and slides beneath it. Volcanoes are often formed in these zones thus explaining the Ring of Fire around the Pacific Ocean subduction zone. Water can percolate down towards the magma or connate water (water coming from the magma) can be enriched in metals and then deposited in the surrounding rock.
Up until 2006, South Africa was the largest producing nation of gold. However, since then South Africas gold production has been eclipsed by China, Australia, Russia, United States, Canada and Peru. Other major gold producing countries include, Uzbekistan, Mexico, Ghana, Papua New Guinea and Chile. The largest gold deposit that is currently being mined is the Grasberg Mine in Papua, Indonesia. This mine which is owned by gold miner Freeport McMoRan has known reserves of 100 million ounces. The largest undeveloped gold deposit is the Pebble deposit located near the foot of the Aleutian Peninsula in Alaska. It has reserves of 107 million oz. The development of this deposit is currently on hold due to environmental concerns, specifically due to being the home of the worlds largest sockeye salmon runs.
These, then are some of the attributes of gold and the characteristics of some of its occurrences. Hopefully, it can be seen that gold has played a key role in the discovery of the New World and other historical events and continues to play a role in the economic vicissitudes of the world economy.