henan mining machinery and equipment manufacturer - how to separate iron from crushed copper ores
The copper ore is crushed and ground to a size ... Copper ores containing ... The product of this smelting stage is a mixture of copper, iron and ...Gulin machine in Copper ore processing plant, crushed ... both of which are found in platinum ore... How do i separate gold ... Pebble Ore & Crushed Ore,Iron ...
Ore beneficiation equipment, sand making equipment, crushing equipment and powder grinding equipment, which are widely used in various industries such as metallurgy, mine, chemistry, building material, coal, refractory and ceramics.
how to separate copper from lead by cu depression
How you separate Pb from Cu depends on how much of each metal is present. You bestdepress the metal thats the most present, the metal you have the most of & you float the metal you have the least of. In this case, flotation of a small amount of lead from the copper concentratewould maximize copper recovery, while removing enough lead to makethe copper concentrate more marketable. It also allows the opportunity toproduce a higher grade lead concentrate.
To achieve this copper/lead separation, bulk flotation is performed with depressants tocontrol sphalerite and pyrite. Cyanide was used in the bulk rougher as itwill also be used in the reverse. Rougher testing indicated that 10 to 50g/tonne cyanide in the bulk rougher was sufficient. The bulk concentratewas then subjected to relatively high cyanide levels to depress the copperminerals. Cyanide dosages in the reverse circuit ranged from 180 to 680g/tonne of feed. The metallurgical results are shown in the tables byconcentrate.
Tests 3 to 5 were conducted with progressive finer regrind sizes.Rejection of zinc and sulphur (pyrite) was poor at the coarser regrindsizes. The regrind size of 15 to 20um K80appeared to be most effectiveand was supported by the mineralogical data for this sample.
With collector and depressant optimization, Tests 9 through 11 producedthe best Flotation results. For those tests, lead was 39%recovered from thefeed to a concentrate grading 52% Pb. Copper recovery to thisconcentrate was only 3%.
For the same three tests, copper was 57% recovered from the feedinto a concentrate grading 27% Cu. The average lead grade was5%. Copper recovery was low in the batch test as there wassignificant copper remaining in the bulk Flotation cleaner tailings.
ways to separate metal from ore | sciencing
The process of separating a metal from its ore is known as smelting. Smelting is widely practiced today and has a long history dating back to the Bronze Age, when ancient peoples first learned the technique. Smelting methods range from the basic to the high-tech, and are applied to a variety of materials, including aluminum, iron and copper.
Ancient civilizations, such as the Inca and the Greeks, used primitive techniques to separate ore and metal. Huge fires were built underneath hardened clay smelting pots. Holes were formed in the ceramic containers to drain molten metals. Sometimes the composite was ground by hand before placed in the furnace for melting.
Roasting is a technique by which carbon and sulfur react with metal to separate the ore. For example; copper acetate is reacted with chemicals to separate the copper, ore and residue. This mix is reduced, which involves placing it under extremely high temperatures, injecting a reagent (such as hydrogen or carbon dioxide), and melting away the metal.
These three steps are actually part of one general process used in smelting aluminum and other metals. The process involves taking alumina (a compound composed of aluminum and oxygen) and placing it in large carbon-lined furnaces. The alumina melts down into cryolite, which is electrically conductive. Electricity is then pumped through anodes, a process known as forming. The substance is baked at temperatures of over 1,000 degrees Celsius, at which point impurities are extracted. Rodding is the final step of diverting the ore from the metal.
Small, gas-powered smelting furnaces can also be used to separate metal from ore. A cylindrical sheet metal container is built over a gas flame (propane can also be used). Then, a network of tubing is fitted around the smelter. The tubing includes a gas line, an air line, and other piping. A crucible (usually made out of graphite or clay) is used to dip into the smelter to extract molten metal and ore.
David Ferris started writing professionally in 2006 and has been published in several newspapers. He has worked in a variety of fields including education and law. He strives to one day be an authority on all subjects, great and small. Ferris has a Bachelor of Arts in political science.
how to melt and separate gold from copper - binq mining
Gold refining, or parting, is used to separate gold from impurities and other metals, such This technique includes passing chlorine gas through melted, unrefined gold, Base metals, such as copper, zinc and lead, will oxidize whereas noble
Some of these, such as silver and copper, may also be precious or Though several different techniques exist, any process used to separate Because gold melts at 1102 degrees C, this is not generally a practical process for most amateurs.
as copper. To separate silver from an ore containing a quantity of copper, you need to heat the ore sample to a level sufficient to melt the silver but leave the copper in a still-solid state. How to Clean Silver & Copper; DIY Gold Refining
How are the metals chosen, combined, melted, purified, and cooled? The ratio of the copper and gold can vary, but usually it is "50-50"; that is, the most common The three separate metals are weighed and put into a crucible, then heated
I am a retired gold miner and i have processed silver contacts from One trick if your silver has a lot of base metals in it is to melt it with lead. the silver nitrate to about ten % before adding copper. and cool the mix. to separate gold and silver from base metals and even gold and silver ore concentrates.
In the morning, however, take out the gold and melt it again, hammer it, and put it into mix a little red copper with it, melt as before, and put it back into the furnace . . silver and Aqua regia used to separate small quantities of silver from gold.
Aluminium; Zinc; Iron; Tin; Lead; Copper; Mercury; Silver; Gold Metals above iron in the order of reactivity are very hard to separate from their Many alloys are harder than and have a lower melting point than the metals in them, and in the
copper lead concentrate separation
The ways to obtain successfulSeparation of Copper and Lead into individual Concentrates, several process approaches can be examined;bulk copper-lead flotation with a reverse flotation stagedepressing copper, the same bulk flotation with a reverse flotation to depress lead and asequential copper-lead-zinc flotation circuit as well as a simple cleaning of the bulk Cu/Pb concentrate by Pb depression.
Here is a case study, depicting the various Cu-Pb Separation methods used in Laboratory tests which, for this sample, indicated that separate copper and lead concentrates could be produced. The ore tested in a Copper/Lead/Zinc ores hosted in acid generating pyrite.
At the end, theuse of a sequential copper-lead-zinc flotation circuit produced the most efficient copperand lead separation. A bulk flotation process followed by a reverse flotation wherecopper was depressed and lead was floated from the bulk concentrate also producedseparate concentrates, butat lower efficiency than the sequential circuit.
Successful treatment of poly metallic deposits using flotation requires a thoroughunderstanding of the sulphide mineral suite present and how these mineralsfragment from each other during the grinding process.
Master Composite sample contained nearly 40percent by weight sulphides. Iron sulphides**were the most abundantcategory of sulphide mineral, accounting for nearly one quarter of thesample mass. The remaining sulphides, in order of relative abundance,were sphalerite, chalcopyrite and galena. The mineralization of the MasterComposite arelow iniron sulphide content. The ratio of galena to chalcopyrite will make itdifficult to efficiently recovery high grade lead concentrates.
Chalcopyrite and galena had two dimensional liberation levels of 58 and50 percent, respectively. Interlocking between these two minerals wasrelatively rare; however, both chalcopyrite and galena had significantinterlocking with sphalerite and pyrite. Due to the nature of thisinterlocking, separation of chalcopyrite and galena is viable at this grindsize, but additional regrind power would be required to liberate pyrite andsphalerite from chalcopyrite and galena.
The limiting grade recovery curves for chalcopyrite and galena aredisplayed belowat the nominal grind sizing of P80 of 48 microns. To achievegrade and recovery points above the curve require regrinding, only pointsdirectly under the curve can be theoretically achieved.
This Copper Lead Concentrate Separation study includes the performing of 3 rougher tests and 18 batch cleaner tests. These tests were used to assess the metallurgical performance ofseveral copper and lead separation processes. The initial rougher tests were usedto determine general response of the sample and batch cleaner tests were used toexamine the various reagent schemes and flowsheet configurations. Only thebatch cleaner tests are discussed in the following subsections.
Thissample provided for this study contained 2.1 percentchalcopyrite, 0.5 percent galena, 14.3 percent sphalerite and 23 percent ironsulphides, present as mostly pyrite. The measured mineral content low in iron sulphidecontent.The fragmentation characteristics of the sample were measured at a nominal grindsize of P80 = 50um. At this grind, chalcopyrite and galena were sufficientlyliberated for recovery into a bulk rougher concentrate. More importantly, therewas very little interlocking between copper and lead sulphide, indicating aseparation of these minerals is possible at this grind size.
Chalcopyrite and galena were interlocked with mainly sphalerite and pyrite.Therefore, these minerals would require significant regrinding in advance ofdilution cleaning to achieve efficient concentration and recovery to finalconcentrates.
The sequential flotation process produced the best batch test results: The test hadthe highest selectivity between copper and lead. Copper in the feed was, onaverage, 63 percent recovered into a copper concentrate grading 24 percentcopper and 1.6 percent lead. On average, lead in the feed was 36 percentrecovered into a concentrate grading 55 percent lead. Only 0.3 percent of thecopper in the feed was recovered to the lead concentrate. This process used MBSin the copper circuit and relatively low doses of cyanide in the lead circuit.
A close second was the bulk flotation process with lead flotation reverse andcopper depression. For the best three tests, copper in the feed was 57 percentrecovered to a concentrate grading 27 percent copper and 5 percent lead. For thesame three tests, lead in the feed was 39 percent recovered into a concentrategrading 52 percent lead and 7.8 percent copper. This process requires very highdoses of cyanide, which would increase the operating cost and impose apotential environmental cost to the operation.
The other flowsheet variants and reagent schemes produced much poorer results.The tests for these flowsheets had high lead recovery to the copper concentrate.The batch cleaner test data demonstrated that separate copper and leadconcentrates could be produced from this composite sample. Itwas also demonstrated that the production of separate copper and leadconcentrates would result in reduced copper metal recovery to the copperconcentrate when compared to the bulk flotation process.
The separation by flotation of copper from lead or zinc minerals can hardly be said to be standardized at present, and no more than a brief account of the usual procedure will therefore be given. The methods in general use have a more or less similar basis in that they are variations of the standard process for the treatment of lead-zinc ores described in the previous paragraph.
When copper-bearing minerals are to be separated from galena, the first step generally consists of the bulk flotation of both classes of mineral in one copper-lead concentrate by the use of reagents very similar to those employed in the lead flotation section of a lead-zinc plant. Any zinc and iron sulphides are depressed with sodium cyanide and/or zinc sulphate and floated in subsequent zinc and iron sections in the ordinary way. The addition of cyanide for this purpose must be kept to a minimum, since not only does it depress copper-bearing sulphides if present in sufficient strength, but an excess may also result in the formation of copper cyanide in solution with consequent activation of the zinc sulphides. The depressing effect, however, is so much more pronounced on the zinc and iron than on the copper minerals that a reasonable recovery of the latter is usually possible.
The lead-copper concentrate is cleaned if necessary, diluted to a suitable pulp density, and treated in a conditioner with sodium cyanide in sufficient strength to depress the copper minerals, the galena remaining unaffected, and with enough soda ash to make the pulp distinctly alkaline; a pH value of 9.0-10.0 is usual. The pulp then passes to a flotation machine where a lead concentrate more or less free from copper is taken off after the addition of the minimum amount of frothing reagent and little or no promoter. The tailing of this operation, substantially free from galena, constitutes the copper concentrate. It is often possible by the above method to make a lead concentrate containing 50% of lead and 5% or less of copper, and a copper concentrate containing 20% or more of copper and 5% or less of lead. Higher grade concentrates than this are not common as the ores usually carry pyrite, from which it is difficult to keep the products entirely free.
Another method, which is often more effective than the preceding one, consists of the oxidation and depression of the galena by means ofsodium dichromate with subsequent flotation of the copper minerals. A bulk lead-copper concentrate is made as before and run without dilution into a conditioning tank where it is treated with sodium dichromate for the requisite period. The amount of reagent necessary varies with the percentage of lead in the concentrate. One rich in lead often requires as much as 4 lb. of dichromate per ton of original ore with a 20-minute period of contact, while a concentrate consisting mainly of copper mineral may only need 0.25 lb. per ton with a 5-minute contact. The pH value of the pulp must not fall below 7.5; it normally ranges from 7.5-8.5. After being conditioned, the pulp is diluted and pumped to a flotation machine with the addition of a small quantity of pine oil or cresylic acid. The copper sulphides can then be floated off, the galena passing out in the tailing which thus comprises the lead concentrate. The copper and lead concentrates obtained by dichromate treatment are generally of rather better grade than those made by the cyanide method.
The separation of copper-bearing from zinc sulphides is effected by two-stage selective flotation, the zinc minerals being depressed and the copper minerals brought up in the first stage with reagents similar to those required in the lead flotation section of a lead-zinc plant; the zinc sulphides are floated in the second stage in the ordinary way. The ores treated by this process are mainly those containing chalcopyrite, sphalerite, and marmatite in a very pyritic gangue. On account of the presence of pyrite, the cyanide addition must be kept to a minimum for the same reasons that make it necessary for copper-lead ores. Lime is generally employed to regulate the alkalinity on account of its action in preventing the pyrite from floating. Aerofloat and dithiophosphates are useful as promoters, since xanthates often have too great a tendency to bring up zinc and iron sulphides. One or two stages of cleaning are usually needed for the copper concentrate on account of the presence of pyrite.
When the copper mineral is chalcopyrite, it should be possible to make a copper concentrate running 20% of copper or slightly more with less than 5% of zinc, and a zinc concentrate running 40 to 50% of zinc, depending on whether the mineral is mainly marmatite or sphalerite, with less than 5% of copper.
how to separate your copper scrap for recycling
Ever come across some metal or items that you know can be recycled at your local scrap yard? In todays world of energy-efficient cars and technology, recycling is a well-known practice among most communities. Scrap metal recycling is one of the largest industries in the world that adds to the growing culture of restore, renew, and recycle. When you are gathering a pile of metal to recycle, its not as easy as just tossing it all in a can.
Just like when you separate paper and plastic recycling, scrap metal recycling does the same but with different types of metals. The main reason for this is the difference in the value of recycling different metals like copper, aluminum, and steel. If you arent familiar with how different metals are determined, we suggest reading more about the difference between ferrous and non-ferrous metals. Once you learn a bit more about determining what kind of metal you have, it will be easier to start separating your metals before you recycle.
Copper is a reddish-colored metal that is very valuable in the scrap metal industry. Used in many applications, copper can be found inside your computer, throughout your house for electric wiring, inside your cars engine, and inside your bathrooms for piping. Because of the various ways copper can be used in everyday things, it is valued very high in scrap metal recycling. Mining raw copper ore is a tedious and costly process, therefore, if the world can recycle it from previous places, its much more cost-effective.
Copper is a great conductor of electricity and can be found inside wires and cables, but due to its durability, its also great for things like pipes for water and oil. If you find that you have copper scrap you are ready to sell to your local scrap yard, its now time to figure out how to properly separate it. Similar to separating copper from other metals, there are also different grades of copper scrap that have different values. These values are determined based on the difficulty and efficiency of the smelting process that copper materials go through to be reused.
When you are collecting yourcopper scrap to cash in at your local scrap yard, its important to make sure you have all the different types and grades separated. While each scrap yard is different in how they grade, sort, and process copper, these are some of the basics categories on how to organize your copper scrap.
One of the most common, highly valued metals, bare bright copper wire or #1 copper wire, is a clean and solid copper wire. If it once had any insulation, plastic, or rubber attached to it, it has since been removed. There are no signs of heavy oxidization or oils on the wire. This wire should absolutely be separated from your other coppers. Sometimes, scrappers or contractors that come across wires or cables with bare bright copper inside, will strip the insulation off it to get to the bare copper inside and make more money at the scrap yard.
Similar to #1 bare bright wire, #1 copper tubing or flashing or bus baris also clean of any impurities like brass fittings, steel, plastic, or tin solder. Often used for plumbing fixtures, radiators for cooling systems, and electrical systems, #1 copper should be separated from other coppers that may have other materials attached. If you have roofing copper that has not been applied and is clean of tar or paint, that can be considered #1 copper too. If youre a contractor or plumber that has a lot of copper piping from plumbing fixtures, if you can cut the brass fittings and tin solder off from the ends of the copper tubing, you will be able to make more money on it.
After you have cut and sorted your #1 copper, its time to look at what you have leftover. When you cut copper pipe you will probably be left with some pieces that have paint, tin solder, or brass fittings attached. This will be separated as a #2 copper and should be priced below your #1 copper price. Sometimes copper pipes that have oil residue or may have been used with different applications with chemicals will be sorted as #2 copper. These pieces are sorted separately because processing them takes longer and has more impurities attached.
Roofing copper is another type of copper that is generally always separate from #1 and #2 copper. Roofing copper is usually valued much lower because of the amount of tar and/or paint that is on it. When processing roofing copper for reuse, the paint and tar have to be burned off and it is a much more involved process. If you have roofing copper that has not been applied with tar or paint, then generally scrap yards will classify it as #1 copper or clean roofing copper.
There are many types of copper wire and cable that you can learn about further, but this is the basic run down to make sure you separate these wires from the rest of your copper scrap. Obviously used for electricity, copper wires and cables can be found all over from homes to cars to computers to appliances. If you are interested in stripping the wires for bare bright copper, we suggest anything larger than your pinky finger would be a good gauge. Otherwise, you may spend too much time stripping the wire and not make enough money once the time and effort are spent.
These are the basics of separating your copper scrap when heading to your scrap yard. Once you know the basics of types of copper, it will be easier to sort them. As you learn more, be sure to ask your scrap yard about how they sort and separate their copper scrap so you know how they will buy it when you bring it to their facility to recycle. If you need help finding scrap yards, you can search through the iScrap App directory.