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how to make a ball mill at home

how i built a quick and easy home-made ball mill

how i built a quick and easy home-made ball mill

Anyone who has looked through my web site can see that I am fascinated with glass. I like to melt it, cast it, fuse it and turn it into new things. Eventually I got the idea of doing the ultimate glass hack and making my own glass from scratch. For that I needed a way of grinding and mixing the chemicals that would make up a batch of glass into a very fine and homogeneously mixed powder. I needed a ball mill. So naturally I decided to build my own. Here it is in all it's bodged together glory. It doesn't look like much, but it works great, and it cost almost nothing to build. As a bonus, this ball mill can also be used as a rock tumbler, or a glass tumbler to make your own "sea glass" at home. To use the mill as a rock tumbler, just leave out the steel balls, add rocks, tumbling grit and water, and let it spin.

Here is a video of my home-made ball mill in operation with a brief explanation of all the parts and how I put it together. For detailed descriptions of all the parts, how I built it, and how I use it, read further down this page.

The drum I used for the ball mill was originally a plastic container that held abrasive grit used in vibratory tumblers. It is about two liters in size. I had several empty containers of this type, and decided to put them to use in this project. They work pretty well in this application. There are a few potential problems. The container lids are not liquid-tight. So use as a rock tumbler would require adding a cork or rubber gasket. Also, a little bit of the plastic does get ground off the inside surface and contaminates the batch being ground. This is not a problem for my application because anything organic will be vaporized out of the mix long before it reaches melting temperature in my kiln. Contamination might be an issue for other uses. A steel drum would probably work better if you can find one, or make one, but it would be a lot louder in use.

Here you can see an overview of the ball mill with the drum removed. Construction is super simple. Just three pieces of wood plank banged together to make a platform for mounting all the parts. The platform is made from a 1X10 wooden plank 14 inches long. It sits on two pieces of 1X4 wood. Four inexpensive fixed caster wheels were mounted on top of the platform for the drum to roll on. They were mounted about 2 inches in from the edges of the platform, and 7.5 inches apart. The drive motor was mounted on the underside of the platform, and the dive belt comes up through a slot in the platform.

Here is a close-up showing how two of the caster wheels are mounted. The slot in the middle of the platform for the belt to pass through is also visible. The fixed caster wheels were quite inexpensive, and were one of the few items I actually had to buy to build this project.

Here is a close-up of the other side of the platform and the other two caster wheels. Also shown is a stop mounted on one side of the platform. It was found early on in using the mill that the drum tended to slowly walk toward one side and would eventually drop off the wheels. So I found a scrap piece of aluminum and mounted it the end the drum walked toward to act as a stop. The drum riding against the smooth aluminum surface doesn't seem to produce much friction.

The ball mill is powered by a fairly robust 12V DC motor salvaged from a junked printer. It had a pulley for a fine-toothed belt on it. It was left in place and it seems to drive the heavy round rubber belt well without slipping. The motor was mounted using screws on only one side, which were deliberately left loose. This allows the motor to pivot downward under its own weight to put tension on the belt.

A long, narrow slot was cut in the platform for the belt to pass through. I did it by marking out where I wanted it, drilling a hole at each end, and then cutting out the material between the holes with a jigsaw.

This photo shows the makeshift end stop that prevents the drum from walking off the casters. It is just a random piece of aluminum I found in my junk collection. It conveniently had some holes already drilled in it which made mounting easy. Just about anything that the drum will ride against nearly frictionlessly will work for a stop.

One of the few things I had to buy for this project, aside from the casters, was the steel balls. I found these online. They were quite inexpensive. I went with 5/8 inch diameter balls, which seem to work well in a mill this size.

I have been powering the ball mill with my bench variable power supply so I could fine tune the rotation speed. I wanted it to turn as fast as possible to speed grinding, but not so fast that centrifugal force pins the balls to the wall of the drum preventing them from tumbling over each other. With a little experimentation, the correct speed was found.

So far, this makeshift mill has worked well for me. It has been run for long periods with no problems. It does a good job of reducing even fairly chunky material into a very fine powder, and thoroughly mixing everything. The only real problem I have faced is accidentally over-filling the drum a few times. The drum should not be too full or the balls and material to be ground won't have enough free space to tumble around.

After a milling run, the contents of the drum are dumped out into a sieve over a bowl. With a few shakes of the sieve, the powder drops through the mesh into the bowl leaving the balls behind to be put back in the drum. The sieve also catches any bits that haven't been sufficiently ground down.

I need to add a disclaimer here for anyone thinking of using this sort of ball mill for milling gunpowder or other flammable or explosive powders. First of all, it is really not a good idea. You could cause a fire or explosion and destroy your place, or maybe even get yourself hurt or killed. So don't do it, and if you do it, don't blame me if something bad happens. I'll be saying I told you so. Also do not to use steel, ceramic or glass balls to grind flammable or explosive materials because they can create sparks as they bang against each other while they tumble.

Future improvements: The plastic container I am using is really thick-walled and sturdy, but using it in this application will eventually wear it out. I also get some plastic contamination in the materials I grind in it. So in the future I would like to replace the plastic container with a piece of large diameter steel or iron pipe with end caps. That should also help improve the grinding action as the steel balls bash against the hard walls of the pipe. If I switch to a steel or iron container, which would be heavier, I might also have to beef up the motor driving the unit. We'll see,

Other applications: As I mentioned at the top of the page, and in the attached video, this setup could also be used as a rock tumbler. The plastic container would be ideal for that. Another possible application for this unit is for grinding samples of gold ore, and maybe other metallic ores. One of my many hobbies is gold prospecting. It's often necessary to grind an ore sample to release all the fine particles of gold it contains so they can be separated. This unit may get used for that in the future too.

[Back to Mike's Homepage] [Email me] Other places to visit: [Mike's telescope workshop] [Mike's home-built jet engine page] [Mike's Home-Built Wind Turbine page] [Mike's Home-Built Solar Panel page] Copyright 2014-2018 Michael Davis, All rights reserved.

[Back to Mike's Homepage] [Email me] Other places to visit: [Mike's telescope workshop] [Mike's home-built jet engine page] [Mike's Home-Built Wind Turbine page] [Mike's Home-Built Solar Panel page] Copyright 2014-2018 Michael Davis, All rights reserved.

[Mike's telescope workshop] [Mike's home-built jet engine page] [Mike's Home-Built Wind Turbine page] [Mike's Home-Built Solar Panel page] Copyright 2014-2018 Michael Davis, All rights reserved.

how to make cattle feed at home formular for making cattle feed

how to make cattle feed at home formular for making cattle feed

Raw materials for making dairy cattle feed pellets 1. Cereals: maize, barley, oat, wheat, triticale, rye and sorghum 2. Seed from oleaginous crops: soy, flax, and sunflower 3. Seed from legumes: broad beans, field bean and protein pea 4. Forage: flours of permitted forage essences 5. Dried beet pulp. Furthermore, the following substances can be used as appetizers in feed pellets: 1. Carob-bean, up to a maximum of 3%; 2. Molasses, up to a maximum of 3%.

Animal performance and feed efficiency benefit from good quality pellets. The better the pellet, the better the performance. Reduced waste, less segregation in the feed, improved palatability and shorter eating periods-all of these feed pellet merits are brought by feed pellet mill. Victor Pellet Mill is a reliable feed mill manufacturer and supplier, which is offering a wide range of feed making equipment including diesel feed equipment, electric feed machinery and ring die feed pellet mill. We also supply complete feed production line and have many successful feed mill plant project around the world. Feel free to contact us if you would like to know more about our equipment.

1. Cereals: maize, barley, oat, wheat, triticale, rye and sorghum 2. Seed from oleaginous crops: soy, flax, and sunflower 3. Seed from legumes: broad beans, field bean and protein pea 4. Forage: flours of permitted forage essences 5. Dried beet pulp. Furthermore, the following substances can be used as appetizers in feed pellets: 1. Carob-bean, up to a maximum of 3%; 2. Molasses, up to a maximum of 3%. Note: for animals in lactation, dry animals, and heifers from the sixth month of pregnancy, maximum daily amount of feed pellets is 2 kg/head/day.

Machinery and equipment to make cattle feed required in the cattle feed pellet production line are as following. 1.Tank( or other containers ) for raw and auxiliary materials storage 2. Feed hammer mill(feed pellet grinder) for grinding the raw materials to feed powder. 3. Feed pellet blender( feed pellet mixing machine) used to mixing powdered materials to improve the uniformity of the ingredients. 4. Feed pellet mill(feed pelletizer) is the main equipment for making the cattle feed pellets. For cattle feed mill, we supply flat die feed pellet mill design better for home use and ring die feed pellet mill design for cattle feed factory. If you plan to buy a cattle feed pellet mill, you can tell us your capacity requirement, then our salesman will give you a good recommendation. 6. Feed pellet cooler is used to cool the hot and moisture feed pellets(if your production capacity per day is not so much, you will not need this pellet cooler, just dry the pellets in the sun is OK.) 7. Feed pellets screening and grading machine is used to remove the fines and grade the pellets, which is the preparation for packaging. 8. Feed pellet weighing and packaging machine is used to weigh and pack the pellets in the uniformity(If making cattle feed pellets for your own farm, you can choose to store the pellets in a dry container instead of buying a packing machine, while for an automatic feed pellet plant, the weight and packing machine is necessary.) 9. Other auxiliary machines( conveyor, lifter, etc. Usually used in an automatic cattle feed pellet line)

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how to make oat milk | allrecipes

how to make oat milk | allrecipes

Oat milk has become a popular plant-based milk in recent years. It has a neutral flavor and is a safe option if you have intolerances to soy, gluten, dairy, or nuts. While oat milk isn't much pricier than other plant milks or even organic cow's milk, it's even cheaper if you make it yourself. Just one cup of oats, which costs pennies at the supermarket, is enough to make two cups of milk. The quick, easy process requires very little equipment: just a blender and something you can use to strain the milk even a clean dishtowel works!

It's important to know that homemade oat milk doesn't contain all the nutrients that a store-bought carton of oat milk boasts. Commercially-produced oat milks are usually fortified with calcium, potassium, and other vitamins and nutrients. But the homemade stuff is still rich in beta-glucans, a type of soluble fiber that's great for your heart, among other nutrients.

Strainer: Though made for plant-based milks, nut milk bags can let in too much of the pulp. Try a woven tea towel or even a clean T-shirt if you prefer a smoother milk. A fine-mesh sieve is also an option but, like the bag, it might allow too much of the solids to pass through.

Storage Container: A glass or plastic bottle with a lid or a large Mason jar are good storage options for your finished oat milk. Make sure the lid is water-tight because you need to be able to shake it up if it settles.

Rolled oats are the best type of oat to use for oat milk. They give a creamier end result than steel cut oats. As for quick oats, these are too processed, and often yield an unpleasantly slimy milk. If you are on a gluten-free diet, be sure to seek out oats labeled gluten-free.

You can add ingredients to oat milk for a sweeter consistency or a flavored version. Try adding two pitted, roughly chopped dates to the oats in the blender, or stir in a teaspoon of vanilla extract or maple syrup after the milk has been strained. Or try chocolate milk by adding a tablespoon of cocoa powder! You can blend a little bit of coconut oil into your oat milk, which will give it a richness that is more like the commercial versions.

Homemade oat milk could not be easier to make. Simply combine one part rolled oats and three to four parts water in a blender, blend just until smooth, then strain. As we've mentioned, you might want to experiment with how different strainers affect your end result. In my experimenting, a nut milk bag left a lot of sediment in the milk, but the tea towel I used wouldn't allow the liquid to drain out properly.

Some recipes call for the added step of soaking the rolled oats in water for 15 to 30 minutes, draining and rinsing them, then adding water again. If you've ever made oat milk and found the texture to be a little slick or slimy, try adding this step to your process, as it rinses away any of the powdery sediment that gives the milk this texture. Hydrating the oats also helps them blend more easily. I tried it both ways and didn't notice a discernible difference between milks from soaked and un-soaked oats.

Keep oat milk in a covered bottle or jar in the refrigerator for up to five days. It's natural for it to separate a bit; just shake it or stir it before using. Oat milk is perfect for baked goods, cooked cereal, smoothies, and coffee.

Oat milk is so quick and easy to make that I make it in smaller batches so that it's fresher. First, combine 1/2 cup of oats, 1 pitted and chopped date, and 1 cup of water in the blender. Blend for no longer than 30 seconds, until the date is processed and the mixture looks creamy. Strain it through a nut milk bag into a wide-mouth, 1 pint Mason jar with a lid. Chill for at least an hour, and give it a shake before serving. This method yields a little less than a cup of milk.

You can use the thick solids left behind from straining to add nutrition to recipes after all, they contain the fiber and nutrients that don't make it into the milk. Transfer the solids to a covered container and refrigerate for up to three days. Blend a spoonful into a smoothie to make it heartier, or mix it into muffin batter, brownies, or even meatloaf.

how to mill your own flour at home for more flavorful baking | epicurious

how to mill your own flour at home for more flavorful baking | epicurious

If youve made the leap from refined white flours to whole grain flours in your home-baked breads, then you already know the flavor benefits that using more (or all) of the wheat berry can provide. A turn toward whole grain bread baking usually leads one down the road to seeking out freshly milled flours to best capture the fleeting aroma and flavor of the grains. And while there are loads of wonderful small-scale millers selling interesting and flavorful flours nowadays, theres another option for the fresh-flour fanatic: milling your own.

One: It optimizes storage. Unlike flours made from them, wheat berries are compact and store well for ages, so having a mill means you can create fresh flour whenever you need it, and the starting materials take up far less room. (One cup of wheat berries yields nearly two cups of flourits like doubling your pantry space.)

Two: Variety. Your supermarket probably carries two or three brands of generic whole wheat flour. Having a mill means you can make flour from the wide variety of wheats available, each with its own unique flavor, appearance, and baking performance profile. And mills arent just for wheat. Just about any other sort of grainrye, oats, spelt, quinoa, millet, etc.can be run through a mill to make flour. (Not to mention seeds, rice, nonoily beans, and even dried herbs.) Having a mill of your own opens up a wide world of creative opportunities for bread baking and beyond.

But the most important reason to own a mill is this: flavor. Whole grain flours, because they contain the germ and its rancidity-prone oils, are highly perishable. Having your own mill means you can make a dough soon after the flour is milled to retain as much of the flavor of the grain as possible. I spoke to many home bakers already milling their own flour, and they each described the dramatic difference in flavor and aroma they got when they switched from commercial flour to freshly milled grains, using words like complex, nutty, wheaty, and nuanced.

The simplest choice for any home baker looking to mill flour at home is a hand-cranked grain mill, which is a cast metal device that resembles a manual meat grinder. It clamps to the end of your countertop and uses two metal burr plates to mill the flour. Hand mills will get you usable flour, but the process is laborious and slow-going, and the flour they produce can sometimes be more coarse than is ideal. One word of warning: Good versions can be as expensive as powered mills.

The average blender isnt powerful enough to turn your grains into flour, but a heavy-duty one like a Vitamix can (usually using a dedicated dry blender bowl specially designed to process ingredients like grains, nonoily seeds, and herbs). It can produce finer flour than a hand mill if you run it long enough but can process only a few cups of grain at a time. Its an expensive option, but if you own one of these blenders already, its a good way to start exploring home milling without investing in a bunch of new equipment.

There are also stand mixer attachments for grinding flour. KitchenAid makes its own attachment, which uses steel burr plates. And theres the Mockmill KitchenAid-compatible attachment, which uses small millstones. (Ill talk a bit about the advantages of stone mills over other styles below.)

For ease of use and the ability to process larger quantities of grain at a time, serious home bakers will likely want to invest in a dedicated tabletop mill. There are several styles to choose from. Metal burr mills grind the grain between two roughened metal surfaces or plates (look at the underside of your manual pepper grinder to see a simple form of burr grinder). Burr grinders can do a decent job of producing flour, but they create a lot of friction and as a result tend to heat up quickly. (The KitchenAid mill attachment is an example of a steel burr mill.)

Impact (or micronizing) mills work by repeatedly propelling the grain against two tooth-covered stainless-steel heads that spin in opposite directions to each another. They produce a fine and evenly-textured flour, and they do not create nearly as much friction as burr mills. One drawback to impact mills is that, though they typically have an adjustable setting for flour consistency, the difference in flour texture between the finest and coarsest setting is often negligible. And while no mill is exactly silent, impact mills are definitely on the noisy side.

The Cadillac of tabletop flour milling is the stone burr mill. These are essentially scaled-down versions of professional stone mills with stone diameters measuring inches rather than feet across. The stones in these mills are usually composites made from a combination of abrasive particles (of actual or artificial stone) and cement. Stone mills are the slowest to heat up and can be run for relatively long durations without risk of negatively impacting the flours flavor or performance. The grind size on most stone mills is easily adjusted, allowing them to be used to produce everything from coarsely cracked grains to fine flour. Unlike steel burrs, stones do not wear out over time. And they are often slightly quieter than other styles of mill. (That said, no mill is silent, so be prepared to pause the conversation while milling your flour, no matter what style you choose.)

To get a fine, even grind, you typically want to run the stones or burrs as close together as the grain size and hardness allows. It is important not to let them actually touch each other, which will cause undue wear or produce stone dust that will ruin your flour. The trick is to learn to recognize the high-pitched squeal the mill makes when the burrs make contact and stay just shy of this point. Some home millers run the grain through the mill twice, first at a coarser setting and then again with the burrs closer together for a finer grind.

You also want to avoid heating the flour. Milling is a violent business, and some amount of friction is inevitable, regardless what type of mill youre using. But overheating your flour isnt. Heat not only destroys the nutrients and flavorful molecules in flour, but it can also degrade gluten-forming proteins, potentially leaving the flour useless for breadmaking. (There is some dispute as to how hot is too hot for floursome sources say to avoid temperatures over 115F, others say the flour can hit 140F before much damage occurs.)

Flour degradation aside, theres another good reason to avoid heating up your flour: All that heat will go straight into your dough and wreak havoc with fermentation, unless you let it fully cool down first. Its simpler to keep the flour as cool as possible. One way to do that, other than being sure not to run the mill past the point that the flour begins to heat up: Chill the grains before you mill them to counteract some of the heat gained from friction. With some forethought, its easy enough to place the grain in a sealed bag or jar and freeze it for a few hours or even overnight.

Storing whole grains is as simple as keeping them cool, dry, and free from pests. Small quantities are best stored in jars or snap-top containers; larger amounts are best kept in 3- or 5-gallon plastic pails (often available at hardware stores) fitted with an airtight, easy-open screw-top Gamma lid. Stashed away properly, whole grains will keep for a year or more.

You also might be able to purchase them locally, either from nearby small-scale millers or directly from farms. Small millers are often happy to sell you the same whole grains they use to mill their flours. And where I live (in Massachusetts), we even have a grain CSA that lets you buy a share of a local harvest each year.

If you are milling wheat for bread baking, youll want to focus on hard red wheats, which contain substantial amounts of gluten-forming proteins. Winter wheat is planted in the fall, when it sprouts and then goes dormant during the winter months before growing again in the spring. Spring wheat is planted in the spring after the last frost, usually in Northern areas where winter temperatures are too harsh for overwintering wheat. (Both winter and spring wheats are harvested in the fall.) Hard winter wheat contains anywhere from 9 to 14.5% protein, and hard red spring wheat ranges from 11.5 to 18% protein.

Soft wheats (red and white), make flours usually destined for pastries, crackers, and snack foods. They contain 8 to 11% protein. You can use flour milled from soft wheat to make bread, but it will likely need to be combined with some amount of bread flour for adequate structure.

Hard white wheats have a lighter-colored seed coat, so the flours they produce are much whiter in color, even when a substantial amount of bran remains present. (Most of the white wheat grown in the U.S. is destined for Asian markets, where its used to make the bright white noodles and breads popular there.) Hard white wheat can contain as much as 17% protein, making it suitable for use in bread, though its flavor is generally considered less complex than most red wheats.

Durum wheat is the hardest of all the wheats, with a protein content of 10 to 17%. Most durum flour is used to make pasta, though it makes wonderful bread as well, thanks both to its distinctive pasta-like flavor and yellow color.

Rye is a distant relative of wheat, and does not contain gluten-forming proteins, so it cannot be used by itself to produce airy, lightly-textured breads. But it does contain sticky polysaccharides known as arabinoxylans that act somewhat like gluten to give rye breads structure. It is arabinoxylanss ability to bind up to four times more water than wheat does that gives German and Scandinavian 100% rye flour breads their unique consistency and ultralong shelf life.

So-called ancient grains such as emmer, Khorasan (also known as kamut), einkorn, and spelt are all close relatives of wheat. (The Italian grain farro is synonymous with emmer and can be found in many supermarkets.) They all contain gluten to varying degrees and can be used on their own to make breads with a relatively open structure.

Barley and oats are distant relatives of wheat that are often milled and used in breads. Barley is more closely related to wheat, but neither of these grains contain substantial amounts of gluten and must be combined with wheat flour to make a decent loaf.

Corn can also be milled at home. Impact mills can handle popcorn (it can be used to make amazing polenta, actually), but it is generally considered too hard to put through a burr mill. If youd like to make cornmeal or corn flour in your burr mill, you will need to start with softer-kerneled flint or dent corn.

You can even grind rice, beans, and herbs using a mill. In fact, the only dried foods you cannot put through a mill are oily ingredients like coffee beans, nuts, and oily seeds, which will quickly turn to a paste that will gum it up.

If you are used to baking with roller-milled white flour, making the shift to whole grain wheat flours can be challenging because whole grain flours are thirstier than refined ones (meaning they require more water to achieve a comparable texture), and the presence of hard, sharp bran interferes with proper gluten development. The simplest approach for beginners is to swap out small percentages of the white flour in your recipe for whole grain flour (while also increasing the water content in the dough to account for the extra absorption). In my experience, recipes can tolerate as much as 30% whole wheat flour without significant impact on texture

Once you know how smaller amounts of fresh-milled whole grain flours behave, you can start to experiment with higher ratios (and additional water). If you want to make breads using 100% whole grain flour, you are probably better off starting with a recipe that was designed that way.

On the other hand, it is relatively easy to use 100% whole wheat flour to produce things that dont rely on gluten for structure; whole wheat waffles and pancakes are a quick and easy way to feature the flavor of freshly milled flour. And there are loads of cracker and cookie recipes that use 100% whole wheat flour. A number of great new books can be your guide as you start milling and baking with novel grainsId recommend Roxana Jullapats Mother Grains and Southern Ground from Jennifer Lapidus to start.

Fresh flour doesnt have to mean fully whole grain flour: Another option is to remove the bran using a sifter. A standard kitchen sieve (which is usually around 30 mesh, or 30 wires per inch in both directions) will quickly remove the largest bran flakes. (The amount will vary depending on how finely your mill grinds the flour; but out of my mill, this represents about five to 10% of the total.) That still leaves quite a bit of bran behind, so for a lighter and more soft-textured flour, youll want a 40- or 50-mesh circular sieve, which can remove up to 20% of the total bran. Circular sieves like these are inexpensive and easily purchased online; be sure to buy ones 10 or more inches in diameter to allow for relatively fast sifting.

With the bran removed, the flour will behave closer to refined flour, though it will likely still need additional water to achieve comparable results. Save the bran for bran muffins, or do as they do in Genzano di Roma, the bread capital of Italy: Use it in place of flour to dust the exterior of your loaves of bread once they are shaped. The bran toasts as the loaf bakes, giving the crust a nutty flavor and a distinctive appearance.

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how to make your own diy gunpowder concerned patriot - prepare now, survive later!

how to make your own diy gunpowder concerned patriot - prepare now, survive later!

Gunpowder is crucial to have in a survival situation. With this important substance, youll always be able to shoot a firearm. This makes it excellent for self-defense and for home-defense to help protect you from attackers.

Gunpowder is also an excellent bartering tool. When SHTF, people are going to need gunpowder to go about their daily lives. And, if you have enough of it, you can trade it for something thats going to help you and your family survive.

Well, luckily, theres a way you can make your own DIY gunpowder, right at your kitchen table. By following this method, you can always ensure you have gunpowder aplenty for any and all upcoming emergencies.

Now one thing to remember is this DIY project may be a bit expensive up front. However, once you have the equipment, the chemical substances you need are fairly inexpensive. And, considering the usefulness of this survival tool, the upfront cost will be well worth it in the end.

When SHTF, one of the few guarantees youll have is that the grocery, hardware, and department store shelves will be completely empty. Once the masses catch wind of the upcoming emergency, theyll be flocking to their nearest shopping malls and stocking up on everything they can to survive. And that will include the precious commodity of gunpowder.

Luckily, you dont have to risk injury from being trampled by hundreds of people in order to get what you need. By making this substance at home, youll be sitting pretty while the masses fight over every last scrap!

Like I said, the initial cost of the materials for this project can be a bit expensive. However, once you have the main parts, the cost goes down tremendously (and practically pays for itself in value).

There are three basic chemicals in gunpowder Potassium Nitrate, Charcoal powder, and Sulfur powder. Gunpowder would be a lot simpler to make if you could just mix the three chemicals together in the right ratio and have the final product, however chemistry dosent always work that way. If you look at a piece of charcoal under a microscope you can see very tiny holes called pores. Even when the charcoal is ground up into a fine powder each particle of it still contains microscopic pores. To properly make gunpowder the particles of charcoal must be ground together with the potassium nitrate and sulfur, the process of grinding them smashes the potassium nitrate and sulfur into the pores of the charcoal creating a subastance that will readily burn when ignited.

1. Ball mill ( Can be bought at unitednuclear.com for 70$, if you buy it someplace else or decide to make it, make sure you also buy lead grinding media (ceramic media can also be used) as it is the only metal that wont give off sparks when ground together) 2. Scale ( I prefer the electronic ones which can be bought on e-bay fairly cheap, less then 20$, make sure it has a capacity of at least 200 grams, otherwise you will be making gunpowder in very small batches) 3. Potassium nitrate, Sulfur powder, and Charcoal powder(All obtainable on e-bay) When buying try to buy as close to 5x as much potassium nitrate as charcoal powder, and 2/3 as much sulfur as charcoal ( I will explain the ratios later) 4. Wire spaghetti strainer 5. Old newspapers 6. Tupperware container 7. Calcuator ( To measure the amount of chemical to use)

As long as you always follow the 75:15:10 ratio of potassium nitrate:charcoal powder:sulfur powder you can make any amount of gunpowder necessary. First either determine the necessary amount and mix the chemicals accordingly, or you can make a large batch and save it for future use (I do it this way). A decent sized batch would be 300 grams potassium nitrate, 60 grams charcoal powder, and 40 grams sulfur powder.

1. If you are using an electric scale, place a container (I use dixie plastic cups) on it to measure the chemicals into. Then press and hold the tare button and it will take the added weight into account and set itself to zero (meaning the weight of the cup wont be taken into effect when you measure out the weight of the chemcials) 2. Measure the proper amount of each chemical, one chemical at a time, into the cups and then empty each cup into the ball mill. 3. When all 3 chemicals are in the ball mill grinding chamber seal it and turn it on.

The title of this step says it all. Two hours is the standard amount of time to let it grind for, however you can leave it on for longer to get a slightly higher quality powder (I suppose you can also grind it for a shorter amount of time with diminished results if you need it fast, examples of this would be if you were in some sort of gunpowder making contest or if your hometown was invaded by aliens and you needed fast gunpowder)

1. Lay out a couple of sheets of old newspaper. 2. Hold the spaghetti strainer over the newspaper and pour the contents of the ball mill into it. 3. Gently shake the strainer until all the gunpowder has fallen through the holes to the newspaper and all the lead balls remain. 4. Put the lead balls back in the ball mill, close it up, and store it for another day.

Pour the gunpowder from the newspaper into a tupperware container. Seal the container tightly and store for future use. Make sure the container is airtight so the gunpowder will not absorb moisture from the air.

Do you know any of the monumental bugout locations throughout history? Im hoping you say no. Im eager to be your history teacher with this article. Throughout history, bunkers have served their purpose during the war. They grew...

Knowing the tips for survival fishing may be your only means of feeding on a night out in the wild when youre without most provisions. You may think, why fishing? Well, berries and fruits are not rich sources...

Protecting your house from firebecomes a priority if you live in fire-prone states or regions. However, preparations against fire are not limited to houses in these states only. The National Fire Protection Agency reported that domestic fires in...

What should I carry in my trauma kit is a phrase that hits my inbox often. It is also common in comment boxes across survival sites. Carrying the right tools in your trauma kit can be the difference...

how to drill a bowling ball: 12 steps (with pictures) - wikihow

how to drill a bowling ball: 12 steps (with pictures) - wikihow

wikiHow is a wiki, similar to Wikipedia, which means that many of our articles are co-written by multiple authors. To create this article, 10 people, some anonymous, worked to edit and improve it over time. This article has been viewed 93,246 times. Learn more...

If you've never purchased a brand-new bowling ball before, you might be surprised to learn that new balls often come without holes drilled in them. If you are a serious bowler, it's very important that the hole configuration on your ball fits your hand comfortably and is angled for the best grip. Additionally, different hole configurations and depths may alter the way the ball behaves. Drilling new holes in a bowling ball is usually handled by a professional, and in most cases, that's probably the best approach. However, it is possible to do it yourself!

ball mills - an overview | sciencedirect topics

ball mills - an overview | sciencedirect topics

A ball mill is a type of grinder used to grind and blend bulk material into QDs/nanosize using different sized balls. The working principle is simple; impact and attrition size reduction take place as the ball drops from near the top of a rotating hollow cylindrical shell. The nanostructure size can be varied by varying the number and size of balls, the material used for the balls, the material used for the surface of the cylinder, the rotation speed, and the choice of material to be milled. Ball mills are commonly used for crushing and grinding the materials into an extremely fine form. The ball mill contains a hollow cylindrical shell that rotates about its axis. This cylinder is filled with balls that are made of stainless steel or rubber to the material contained in it. Ball mills are classified as attritor, horizontal, planetary, high energy, or shaker.

Grinding elements in ball mills travel at different velocities. Therefore, collision force, direction and kinetic energy between two or more elements vary greatly within the ball charge. Frictional wear or rubbing forces act on the particles, as well as collision energy. These forces are derived from the rotational motion of the balls and movement of particles within the mill and contact zones of colliding balls.

By rotation of the mill body, due to friction between mill wall and balls, the latter rise in the direction of rotation till a helix angle does not exceed the angle of repose, whereupon, the balls roll down. Increasing of rotation rate leads to growth of the centrifugal force and the helix angle increases, correspondingly, till the component of weight strength of balls become larger than the centrifugal force. From this moment the balls are beginning to fall down, describing during falling certain parabolic curves (Figure 2.7). With the further increase of rotation rate, the centrifugal force may become so large that balls will turn together with the mill body without falling down. The critical speed n (rpm) when the balls are attached to the wall due to centrifugation:

where Dm is the mill diameter in meters. The optimum rotational speed is usually set at 6580% of the critical speed. These data are approximate and may not be valid for metal particles that tend to agglomerate by welding.

The degree of filling the mill with balls also influences productivity of the mill and milling efficiency. With excessive filling, the rising balls collide with falling ones. Generally, filling the mill by balls must not exceed 3035% of its volume.

The mill productivity also depends on many other factors: physical-chemical properties of feed material, filling of the mill by balls and their sizes, armor surface shape, speed of rotation, milling fineness and timely moving off of ground product.

where b.ap is the apparent density of the balls; l is the degree of filling of the mill by balls; n is revolutions per minute; 1, and 2 are coefficients of efficiency of electric engine and drive, respectively.

A feature of ball mills is their high specific energy consumption; a mill filled with balls, working idle, consumes approximately as much energy as at full-scale capacity, i.e. during grinding of material. Therefore, it is most disadvantageous to use a ball mill at less than full capacity.

Grinding elements in ball mills travel at different velocities. Therefore, collision force, direction, and kinetic energy between two or more elements vary greatly within the ball charge. Frictional wear or rubbing forces act on the particles as well as collision energy. These forces are derived from the rotational motion of the balls and the movement of particles within the mill and contact zones of colliding balls.

By the rotation of the mill body, due to friction between the mill wall and balls, the latter rise in the direction of rotation until a helix angle does not exceed the angle of repose, whereupon the balls roll down. Increasing the rotation rate leads to the growth of the centrifugal force and the helix angle increases, correspondingly, until the component of the weight strength of balls becomes larger than the centrifugal force. From this moment, the balls are beginning to fall down, describing certain parabolic curves during the fall (Fig. 2.10).

With the further increase of rotation rate, the centrifugal force may become so large that balls will turn together with the mill body without falling down. The critical speed n (rpm) when the balls remain attached to the wall with the aid of centrifugal force is:

where Dm is the mill diameter in meters. The optimum rotational speed is usually set at 65%80% of the critical speed. These data are approximate and may not be valid for metal particles that tend to agglomerate by welding.

where db.max is the maximum size of the feed (mm), is the compression strength (MPa), E is the modulus of elasticity (MPa), b is the density of material of balls (kg/m3), and D is the inner diameter of the mill body (m).

The degree of filling the mill with balls also influences the productivity of the mill and milling efficiency. With excessive filling, the rising balls collide with falling ones. Generally, filling the mill by balls must not exceed 30%35% of its volume.

The productivity of ball mills depends on the drum diameter and the relation of drum diameter and length. The optimum ratio between length L and diameter D, L:D, is usually accepted in the range 1.561.64. The mill productivity also depends on many other factors, including the physical-chemical properties of the feed material, the filling of the mill by balls and their sizes, the armor surface shape, the speed of rotation, the milling fineness, and the timely moving off of the ground product.

where D is the drum diameter, L is the drum length, b.ap is the apparent density of the balls, is the degree of filling of the mill by balls, n is the revolutions per minute, and 1, and 2 are coefficients of efficiency of electric engine and drive, respectively.

A feature of ball mills is their high specific energy consumption. A mill filled with balls, working idle, consumes approximately as much energy as at full-scale capacity, that is, during the grinding of material. Therefore, it is most disadvantageous to use a ball mill at less than full capacity.

Milling time in tumbler mills is longer to accomplish the same level of blending achieved in the attrition or vibratory mill, but the overall productivity is substantially greater. Tumbler mills usually are used to pulverize or flake metals, using a grinding aid or lubricant to prevent cold welding agglomeration and to minimize oxidation [23].

Cylindrical Ball Mills differ usually in steel drum design (Fig. 2.11), which is lined inside by armor slabs that have dissimilar sizes and form a rough inside surface. Due to such juts, the impact force of falling balls is strengthened. The initial material is fed into the mill by a screw feeder located in a hollow trunnion; the ground product is discharged through the opposite hollow trunnion.

Cylindrical screen ball mills have a drum with spiral curved plates with longitudinal slits between them. The ground product passes into these slits and then through a cylindrical sieve and is discharged via the unloading funnel of the mill body.

Conical Ball Mills differ in mill body construction, which is composed of two cones and a short cylindrical part located between them (Fig. 2.12). Such a ball mill body is expedient because efficiency is appreciably increased. Peripheral velocity along the conical drum scales down in the direction from the cylindrical part to the discharge outlet; the helix angle of balls is decreased and, consequently, so is their kinetic energy. The size of the disintegrated particles also decreases as the discharge outlet is approached and the energy used decreases. In a conical mill, most big balls take up a position in the deeper, cylindrical part of the body; thus, the size of the balls scales down in the direction of the discharge outlet.

For emptying, the conical mill is installed with a slope from bearing to one. In wet grinding, emptying is realized by the decantation principle, that is, by means of unloading through one of two trunnions.

With dry grinding, these mills often work in a closed cycle. A scheme of the conical ball mill supplied with an air separator is shown in Fig. 2.13. Air is fed to the mill by means of a fan. Carried off by air currents, the product arrives at the air separator, from which the coarse particles are returned by gravity via a tube into the mill. The finished product is trapped in a cyclone while the air is returned in the fan.

The ball mill is a tumbling mill that uses steel balls as the grinding media. The length of the cylindrical shell is usually 11.5 times the shell diameter (Figure 8.11). The feed can be dry, with less than 3% moisture to minimize ball coating, or slurry containing 2040% water by weight. Ball mills are employed in either primary or secondary grinding applications. In primary applications, they receive their feed from crushers, and in secondary applications, they receive their feed from rod mills, AG mills, or SAG mills.

Ball mills are filled up to 40% with steel balls (with 3080mm diameter), which effectively grind the ore. The material that is to be ground fills the voids between the balls. The tumbling balls capture the particles in ball/ball or ball/liner events and load them to the point of fracture.

When hard pebbles rather than steel balls are used for the grinding media, the mills are known as pebble mills. As mentioned earlier, pebble mills are widely used in the North American taconite iron ore operations. Since the weight of pebbles per unit volume is 3555% of that of steel balls, and as the power input is directly proportional to the volume weight of the grinding medium, the power input and capacity of pebble mills are correspondingly lower. Thus, in a given grinding circuit, for a certain feed rate, a pebble mill would be much larger than a ball mill, with correspondingly a higher capital cost. However, the increase in capital cost is justified economically by a reduction in operating cost attributed to the elimination of steel grinding media.

In general, ball mills can be operated either wet or dry and are capable of producing products in the order of 100m. This represents reduction ratios of as great as 100. Very large tonnages can be ground with these ball mills because they are very effective material handling devices. Ball mills are rated by power rather than capacity. Today, the largest ball mill in operation is 8.53m diameter and 13.41m long with a corresponding motor power of 22MW (Toromocho, private communications).

Modern ball mills consist of two chambers separated by a diaphragm. In the first chamber the steel-alloy balls (also described as charge balls or media) are about 90mm diameter. The mill liners are designed to lift the media as the mill rotates, so the comminution process in the first chamber is dominated by crushing. In the second chamber the ball diameters are of smaller diameter, between 60 and 15mm. In this chamber the lining is typically a classifying lining which sorts the media so that ball size reduces towards the discharge end of the mill. Here, comminution takes place in the rolling point-contact zone between each charge ball. An example of a two chamber ball mill is illustrated in Fig. 2.22.15

Much of the energy consumed by a ball mill generates heat. Water is injected into the second chamber of the mill to provide evaporative cooling. Air flow through the mill is one medium for cement transport but also removes water vapour and makes some contribution to cooling.

Grinding is an energy intensive process and grinding more finely than necessary wastes energy. Cement consists of clinker, gypsum and other components mostly more easily ground than clinker. To minimise over-grinding modern ball mills are fitted with dynamic separators (otherwise described as classifiers or more simply as separators). The working principle is that cement is removed from the mill before over-grinding has taken place. The cement is then separated into a fine fraction, which meets finished product requirements, and a coarse fraction which is returned to mill inlet. Recirculation factor, that is, the ratio of mill throughput to fresh feed is up to three. Beyond this, efficiency gains are minimal.

For more than 50years vertical mills have been the mill of choice for grinding raw materials into raw meal. More recently they have become widely used for cement production. They have lower specific energy consumption than ball mills and the separator, as in raw mills, is integral with the mill body.

In the Loesche mill, Fig. 2.23,16 two pairs of rollers are used. In each pair the first, smaller diameter, roller stabilises the bed prior to grinding which takes place under the larger roller. Manufacturers use different technologies for bed stabilisation.

Comminution in ball mills and vertical mills differs fundamentally. In a ball mill, size reduction takes place by impact and attrition. In a vertical mill the bed of material is subject to such a high pressure that individual particles within the bed are fractured, even though the particles are very much smaller than the bed thickness.

Early issues with vertical mills, such as narrower PSD and modified cement hydration characteristics compared with ball mills, have been resolved. One modification has been to install a hot gas generator so the gas temperature is high enough to partially dehydrate the gypsum.

For many decades the two-compartment ball mill in closed circuit with a high-efficiency separator has been the mill of choice. In the last decade vertical mills have taken an increasing share of the cement milling market, not least because the specific power consumption of vertical mills is about 30% less than that of ball mills and for finely ground cement less still. The vertical mill has a proven track record in grinding blastfurnace slag, where it has the additional advantage of being a much more effective drier of wet feedstock than a ball mill.

The vertical mill is more complex but its installation is more compact. The relative installed capital costs tend to be site specific. Historically the installed cost has tended to be slightly higher for the vertical mill.

Special graph paper is used with lglg(1/R(x)) on the abscissa and lg(x) on the ordinate axes. The higher the value of n, the narrower the particle size distribution. The position parameter is the particle size with the highest mass density distribution, the peak of the mass density distribution curve.

Vertical mills tend to produce cement with a higher value of n. Values of n normally lie between 0.8 and 1.2, dependent particularly on cement fineness. The position parameter is, of course, lower for more finely ground cements.

Separator efficiency is defined as specific power consumption reduction of the mill open-to-closed-circuit with the actual separator, compared with specific power consumption reduction of the mill open-to-closed-circuit with an ideal separator.

As shown in Fig. 2.24, circulating factor is defined as mill mass flow, that is, fresh feed plus separator returns. The maximum power reduction arising from use of an ideal separator increases non-linearly with circulation factor and is dependent on Rf, normally based on residues in the interval 3245m. The value of the comminution index, W, is also a function of Rf. The finer the cement, the lower Rf and the greater the maximum power reduction. At C = 2 most of maximum power reduction is achieved, but beyond C = 3 there is very little further reduction.

Separator particle separation performance is assessed using the Tromp curve, a graph of percentage separator feed to rejects against particle size range. An example is shown in Fig. 2.25. Data required is the PSD of separator feed material and of rejects and finished product streams. The bypass and slope provide a measure of separator performance.

The particle size is plotted on a logarithmic scale on the ordinate axis. The percentage is plotted on the abscissa either on a linear (as shown here) or on a Gaussian scale. The advantage of using the Gaussian scale is that the two parts of the graph can be approximated by two straight lines.

The measurement of PSD of a sample of cement is carried out using laser-based methodologies. It requires a skilled operator to achieve consistent results. Agglomeration will vary dependent on whether grinding aid is used. Different laser analysis methods may not give the same results, so for comparative purposes the same method must be used.

The ball mill is a cylindrical drum (or cylindrical conical) turning around its horizontal axis. It is partially filled with grinding bodies: cast iron or steel balls, or even flint (silica) or porcelain bearings. Spaces between balls or bearings are occupied by the load to be milled.

Following drum rotation, balls or bearings rise by rolling along the cylindrical wall and descending again in a cascade or cataract from a certain height. The output is then milled between two grinding bodies.

Ball mills could operate dry or even process a water suspension (almost always for ores). Dry, it is fed through a chute or a screw through the units opening. In a wet path, a system of scoops that turn with the mill is used and it plunges into a stationary tank.

Mechanochemical synthesis involves high-energy milling techniques and is generally carried out under controlled atmospheres. Nanocomposite powders of oxide, nonoxide, and mixed oxide/nonoxide materials can be prepared using this method. The major drawbacks of this synthesis method are: (1) discrete nanoparticles in the finest size range cannot be prepared; and (2) contamination of the product by the milling media.

More or less any ceramic composite powder can be synthesized by mechanical mixing of the constituent phases. The main factors that determine the properties of the resultant nanocomposite products are the type of raw materials, purity, the particle size, size distribution, and degree of agglomeration. Maintaining purity of the powders is essential for avoiding the formation of a secondary phase during sintering. Wet ball or attrition milling techniques can be used for the synthesis of homogeneous powder mixture. Al2O3/SiC composites are widely prepared by this conventional powder mixing route by using ball milling [70]. However, the disadvantage in the milling step is that it may induce certain pollution derived from the milling media.

In this mechanical method of production of nanomaterials, which works on the principle of impact, the size reduction is achieved through the impact caused when the balls drop from the top of the chamber containing the source material.

A ball mill consists of a hollow cylindrical chamber (Fig. 6.2) which rotates about a horizontal axis, and the chamber is partially filled with small balls made of steel, tungsten carbide, zirconia, agate, alumina, or silicon nitride having diameter generally 10mm. The inner surface area of the chamber is lined with an abrasion-resistant material like manganese, steel, or rubber. The magnet, placed outside the chamber, provides the pulling force to the grinding material, and by changing the magnetic force, the milling energy can be varied as desired. The ball milling process is carried out for approximately 100150h to obtain uniform-sized fine powder. In high-energy ball milling, vacuum or a specific gaseous atmosphere is maintained inside the chamber. High-energy mills are classified into attrition ball mills, planetary ball mills, vibrating ball mills, and low-energy tumbling mills. In high-energy ball milling, formation of ceramic nano-reinforcement by in situ reaction is possible.

It is an inexpensive and easy process which enables industrial scale productivity. As grinding is done in a closed chamber, dust, or contamination from the surroundings is avoided. This technique can be used to prepare dry as well as wet nanopowders. Composition of the grinding material can be varied as desired. Even though this method has several advantages, there are some disadvantages. The major disadvantage is that the shape of the produced nanoparticles is not regular. Moreover, energy consumption is relatively high, which reduces the production efficiency. This technique is suitable for the fabrication of several nanocomposites, which include Co- and Cu-based nanomaterials, Ni-NiO nanocomposites, and nanocomposites of Ti,C [71].

Planetary ball mill was used to synthesize iron nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles were subjected to the characterization studies by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques using a SIEMENS-D5000 diffractometer and Hitachi S-4800. For the synthesis of iron nanoparticles, commercial iron powder having particles size of 10m was used. The iron powder was subjected to planetary ball milling for various period of time. The optimum time period for the synthesis of nanoparticles was observed to be 10h because after that time period, chances of contamination inclined and the particles size became almost constant so the powder was ball milled for 10h to synthesize nanoparticles [11]. Fig. 12 shows the SEM image of the iron nanoparticles.

The vibratory ball mill is another kind of high-energy ball mill that is used mainly for preparing amorphous alloys. The vials capacities in the vibratory mills are smaller (about 10 ml in volume) compared to the previous types of mills. In this mill, the charge of the powder and milling tools are agitated in three perpendicular directions (Fig. 1.6) at very high speed, as high as 1200 rpm.

Another type of the vibratory ball mill, which is used at the van der Waals-Zeeman Laboratory, consists of a stainless steel vial with a hardened steel bottom, and a single hardened steel ball of 6 cm in diameter (Fig. 1.7).

The mill is evacuated during milling to a pressure of 106 Torr, in order to avoid reactions with a gas atmosphere.[44] Subsequently, this mill is suitable for mechanical alloying of some special systems that are highly reactive with the surrounding atmosphere, such as rare earth elements.

In spite of the traditional approaches used for gas-solid reaction at relatively high temperature, Calka etal.[58] and El-Eskandarany etal.[59] proposed a solid-state approach, the so-called reactive ball milling (RBM), used for preparations different families of meal nitrides and hydrides at ambient temperature. This mechanically induced gas-solid reaction can be successfully achieved, using either high- or low-energy ball-milling methods, as shown in Fig.9.5. However, high-energy ball mill is an efficient process for synthesizing nanocrystalline MgH2 powders using RBM technique, it may be difficult to scale up for matching the mass production required by industrial sector. Therefore, from a practical point of view, high-capacity low-energy milling, which can be easily scaled-up to produce large amount of MgH2 fine powders, may be more suitable for industrial mass production.

In both approaches but with different scale of time and milling efficiency, the starting Mg metal powders milled under hydrogen gas atmosphere are practicing to dramatic lattice imperfections such as twinning and dislocations. These defects are caused by plastics deformation coupled with shear and impact forces generated by the ball-milling media.[60] The powders are, therefore, disintegrated into smaller particles with large surface area, where very clean or fresh oxygen-free active surfaces of the powders are created. Moreover, these defects, which are intensively located at the grain boundaries, lead to separate micro-scaled Mg grains into finer grains capable to getter hydrogen by the first atomically clean surfaces to form MgH2 nanopowders.

Fig.9.5 illustrates common lab scale procedure for preparing MgH2 powders, starting from pure Mg powders, using RBM via (1) high-energy and (2) low-energy ball milling. The starting material can be Mg-rods, in which they are processed via sever plastic deformation,[61] using for example cold-rolling approach,[62] as illustrated in Fig.9.5. The heavily deformed Mg-rods obtained after certain cold rolling passes can be snipped into small chips and then ball-milled under hydrogen gas to produce MgH2 powders.[8]

Planetary ball mills are the most popular mills used in scientific research for synthesizing MgH2 nanopowders. In this type of mill, the ball-milling media have considerably high energy, because milling stock and balls come off the inner wall of the vial and the effective centrifugal force reaches up to 20 times gravitational acceleration. The centrifugal forces caused by the rotation of the supporting disc and autonomous turning of the vial act on the milling charge (balls and powders). Since the turning directions of the supporting disc and the vial are opposite, the centrifugal forces alternately are synchronized and opposite. Therefore, the milling media and the charged powders alternatively roll on the inner wall of the vial, and are lifted and thrown off across the bowl at high speed.

In the typical experimental procedure, a certain amount of the Mg (usually in the range between 3 and 10g based on the vials volume) is balanced inside an inert gas atmosphere (argon or helium) in a glove box and sealed together with certain number of balls (e.g., 2050 hardened steel balls) into a hardened steel vial (Fig.9.5A and B), using, for example, a gas-temperature-monitoring system (GST). With the GST system, it becomes possible to monitor the progress of the gas-solid reaction taking place during the RBM process, as shown in Fig.9.5C and D. The temperature and pressure changes in the system during milling can be also used to realize the completion of the reaction and the expected end product during the different stages of milling (Fig.9.5D). The ball-to-powder weight ratio is usually selected to be in the range between 10:1 and 50:1. The vial is then evacuated to the level of 103bar before introducing H2 gas to fill the vial with a pressure of 550bar (Fig.9.5B). The milling process is started by mounting the vial on a high-energy ball mill operated at ambient temperature (Fig.9.5C).

Tumbling mill is cylindrical shell (Fig.9.6AC) that rotates about a horizontal axis (Fig.9.6D). Hydrogen gas is pressurized into the vial (Fig.9.6C) together with Mg powders and ball-milling media, using ball-to-powder weight ratio in the range between 30:1 and 100:1. Mg powder particles meet the abrasive and impacting force (Fig.9.6E), which reduce the particle size and create fresh-powder surfaces (Fig.9.6F) ready to react with hydrogen milling atmosphere.

Figure 9.6. Photographs taken from KISR-EBRC/NAM Lab, Kuwait, show (A) the vial and milling media (balls) and (B) the setup performed to charge the vial with 50bar of hydrogen gas. The photograph in (C) presents the complete setup of GST (supplied by Evico-magnetic, Germany) system prior to start the RBM experiment for preparing of MgH2 powders, using Planetary Ball Mill P400 (provided by Retsch, Germany). GST system allows us to monitor the progress of RBM process, as indexed by temperature and pressure versus milling time (D).

The useful kinetic energy in tumbling mill can be applied to the Mg powder particles (Fig.9.7E) by the following means: (1) collision between the balls and the powders; (2) pressure loading of powders pinned between milling media or between the milling media and the liner; (3) impact of the falling milling media; (4) shear and abrasion caused by dragging of particles between moving milling media; and (5) shock-wave transmitted through crop load by falling milling media. One advantage of this type of mill is that large amount of the powders (100500g or more based on the mill capacity) can be fabricated for each milling run. Thus, it is suitable for pilot and/or industrial scale of MgH2 production. In addition, low-energy ball mill produces homogeneous and uniform powders when compared with the high-energy ball mill. Furthermore, such tumbling mills are cheaper than high-energy mills and operated simply with low-maintenance requirements. However, this kind of low-energy mill requires long-term milling time (more than 300h) to complete the gas-solid reaction and to obtain nanocrystalline MgH2 powders.

Figure 9.7. Photos taken from KISR-EBRC/NAM Lab, Kuwait, display setup of a lab-scale roller mill (1000m in volume) showing (A) the milling tools including the balls (milling media and vial), (B) charging Mg powders in the vial inside inert gas atmosphere glove box, (C) evacuation setup and pressurizing hydrogen gas in the vial, and (D) ball milling processed, using a roller mill. Schematic presentations show the ball positions and movement inside the vial of a tumbler mall mill at a dynamic mode is shown in (E), where a typical ball-powder-ball collusion for a low energy tumbling ball mill is presented in (F).

grape juice recipe: how to make delicious grape juice at home

grape juice recipe: how to make delicious grape juice at home

Jennifer is a full-time homesteader who started her journey in the foothills of North Carolina in 2010. Currently, she spends her days gardening, caring for her orchard and vineyard, raising chickens, ducks, goats, and bees. Jennifer is an avid canner who provides almost all food for her family needs. She enjoys working on DIY remodeling projects to bring beauty to her homestead in her spare times.

However, I love my food mill because it simplifies the process. I have a manual food mill that I place on top of a soup pot. I ladle grapes into the food mill and begin turning the crank to crush them even more.

When youve juiced all of your grapes, pop them in the refrigerator and let them sit for a day. During this time, youll notice there will be a film or sediment which rises to the top of the pot. This is normal.

Be sure to leave room at the top of the jar, to -inch of headspace should do the trick. This is to give the canning lid a flat surface during the canning process to make sure the seal sticks adequately to the jar.

Allow the jars to sit for 24 hours before checking to ensure the jars have sealed. When you know the jars have sealed properly, add your labels, and store them on your pantry shelf until youre ready to use them.

According to this recipe, it takes around 4 days for your soda to be complete. You can have a healthy and delicious drink made totally from scratch with very little effort made from your homemade grape juice.

Since youre in the know about making and preserving your own grape juice, and you know how to utilize the grape juice aside from drinking it straight from the jar, you should be ready to enjoy your grape harvest this year.

how to make black powder: 14 steps (with pictures) - wikihow

how to make black powder: 14 steps (with pictures) - wikihow

wikiHow is a wiki, similar to Wikipedia, which means that many of our articles are co-written by multiple authors. To create this article, 19 people, some anonymous, worked to edit and improve it over time. There are 10 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. wikiHow marks an article as reader-approved once it receives enough positive feedback. In this case, 92% of readers who voted found the article helpful, earning it our reader-approved status. This article has been viewed 758,178 times. Learn more...

Black powder is a simple mixture of powdered potassium nitrate or saltpeter, charcoal and sulfur. But simply mixing the ingredients together is not going to give you the results you are looking for. Follow these instructions on making black powder--just be careful as you are working with explosives. Whether your motivation is to save a little bit of money or the satisfaction of being able to make your own, you can certainly make your own black powder at home.

If you want to make your own black powder, add potassium nitrate and water to a pan and bring to a boil, stirring continuously. Add charcoal and sulfur to the pan, stirring until all of the ingredients are completely combined. Take the hot mixture outside and mix it with chilled isopropyl alcohol, then chill the new mixture to 32 F. Press the mixture through a sieve, then spread it on a piece of paper to dry out in the sun, sieving several more times until it's dry. Store the black powder in a cool, dry place in a plastic container. To learn more about how to make your own charcoal for your black powder, keep reading the article! Did this summary help you?YesNo

how to make a bouncy ball | the 36th avenue

how to make a bouncy ball | the 36th avenue

Today I am going to show you how to make a bouncy ball in five minutes. I remember doing this during Science Class a million years ago and I thought it would be awesome to share with my kiddos this fun activity Besides, we are already in Spring Break so this is a great way to keep them busy and have a good time.

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