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how to process beneficiation sample

what is the beneficiation process?

what is the beneficiation process?

This is an essential process as it helps improve the yield from a deposit of ore, thereby increasing the potential profits that can be obtained from the oreand allowing mining companies to increase the overall profitability of a mine.

The beneficiation process can be performed in a number of ways according to the requirement. The key end result is to eliminate inefficiency and wastage by ensuring that all the possible material that can be extracted from an ore is carried out.

In the case of alower-grade iron ore, the beneficiation process includes activities such as crushing, milling, gravity or heavy media separation, screeningand silica froth flotation. These activities will help improve the concentration of the ore and remove impurities. The end result will be high quality fine ore powders that are referred to as fines.

hematite processing by flotation

hematite processing by flotation

Direct shipping of high grade iron ore, because of depletion or partial depletion of reserves, or high costs of operation has forced operators to use some means of beneficiation to produce an acceptable product with the lower grade iron ore reserves.

Deposits of comparatively lower grade iron ore that remain relatively untouched or by-passed, are now most important because of increase in consumer demands. Deposits of comparatively low grade specular hematite amenable to beneficiation by flotation have produced concentrates superior in grade to direct shipping ores.

Low grade deposits containing specular hematite (Fe2 O3) as the major iron mineral as low as 25% Fe can be treated with Sub-A Flotation to produce concentrates that average better than 62% Fe with less than 9% SiO2 and with a high recovery.

The above flowsheet has been developed to produce a high grade product economically with maximum recovery. Due to the flexibility of Units and especially the Sub-A Flotation Machine, gravity flow can be utilized throughout the mill, thus keeping pumping requirements to a minimum.

Following initial test work for Ford Motors, a Pilot Plant was installed. A fatty acid reagent combination was developed to float the specular hematite in a concentrate assaying over 65% iron. This same procedure and reagents are now being employed in present day operations.

Three stage ore reduction is used with either a grizzly or vibrating screen between each crushing stage. Removing fines before putting the ore through a crusher increased the efficiency of the crusher as it is then only working on material that must be reduced. The fines form a bedding on the conveyor belt, thus increasing its life. Electromagnetic and magnetic head pulleys remove tramp iron from the ore, the former to remove iron near the surface and the magnetic pulley for tramp iron close to the belt.

Increased efficiency of grinding is obtained by using two stage grinding. The Rod Mill reduces the feed to approximately 10 mesh and is in open circuit with the Classifier which overflows at 48 mesh. A Ball Mill operates in closed circuit with the classifier.

A Sub-A Unit Cell will produce an extremely high grade concentrate when operated on the ball mill discharge. A Selective Mineral Jig may also be used on the classifier sands to produce a high grade concentrate. Concentrates removed in the grinding circuit are usually very low in phosphorus and silica.

Reagent costs are cut to a minimum, desliming the 48 mesh material at approximately 20 microns. This is accomplished with a heavy duty Hydroclassifier which also thickens the slurry to approximately 65 % solids for conditioning.

The thickened underflow from the hydroclassifier is metered with a Adjustable Stroke Diaphragm Pump to High Solids Open Type Conditioners. As true of many non-metallics, high solids conditioning is most important. After conditioning, the slurry is diluted to 35% solids for rougher flotation.

Reagents are stage added to the conditioners and unless a unit cell is used or a low phosphorus productis to be made, this is the only point of addition. The most common reagents are red oil high in oleic acid content, petroleum sulfonates, a frother and occasionally some mineral oil. Emulsions of the first two are sometimes helpful. Flotation is carried out in a neutral circuit unless the phosphorus, usually in the form of apatite, is to be depressed. Then cleaners are usually operated with acid pH and sodium fluoride,fuel oil and sulphuric acid are added to the cleaners.

Each flotation circuit consists of a four cell open flow roughing section followed by a two cell scavenger. The scavenger concentrate is returned by gravity to the third rougher cell and the rougher concentrate from the first rougher cell is sufficiently high grade ( + 58% Fe) to combine with the cleaner concentrate which flows by gravity to the recleaners. All cells are supercharged with low pressure air. Double overflow Spitzkasten cells with froth paddles are used to quickly remove the heavy froth as soon as it forms.Typical flotation results are shown in the table below:

The final concentrate flows by gravity to the Heavy Duty Spiral Rake Thickener and is metered to the Disc Filter with a Adjustable Stroke Diaphragm Pump. Due to fast settling characteristics, an agitating mechanism must be placed in the bottom of the filter tank to keep the solids from settling out. The filter is so installed that the tank may be drained by gravity to the thickener. The filtrate is returned to the thickener feed.

The flowsheet is designed for large tonnage operation and parallel circuits which are a necessity on all the low grade, low value iron ore deposits of this type. Flotation offers a very efficient low cost treatment method for beneficiation of these ores.

the 5 most useful methods of lithium mining beneficiation - jxsc

the 5 most useful methods of lithium mining beneficiation - jxsc

Lithium is an important strategic resource widely used in emerging fields such as batteries, ceramics, glass, aluminum, lubricants, refrigerants, nuclear industry and optoelectronics. It is an indispensable and important raw material for modern high-tech products.

Chile, China, and Argentina all have rich reserves of lithium, but they are all eclipsed by the Salar de Uyuni in Bolivia, South America. According to the US Geological Survey, the lithium reserves under the Uyuni salt marsh are staggering, accounting for almost half of the worlds lithium. If the lithium mine resources are fully developed, Bolivia, a poor South American country, will rival the Middle East giant Saudi Arabia.

From the perspective of the changes in the various uses of lithium in recent years, the battery has become the first largest application field in terms of the growth rate of lithium in other fields. At present, the global demand for lithium carbonate is around 140,000 tons. It is expected that the global demand for lithium carbonate will maintain an average annual growth rate of 15% to 20%, driven by the growth in demand for global consumer electronics and new energy vehicles. The annual consumption will reach more than 300,000 tons, and the proportion of new energy vehicles to lithium carbonate will increase from 9.7% in 2012 to 37.8% in 2018. If the global new energy vehicles, especially the pure electric vehicles represented by the US Tesla, grow faster, the global demand for lithium carbonate will reach 350,000 tons by 2010. As for the supply of lithium carbonate, there will be a gap in the supply and demand of global lithium carbonate by 2019.

The hand selection method is a sorting method based on the difference in color and appearance between lithium minerals and gangue minerals. The selective particle size is generally 10 to 25 mm, and the determination of the lower limit of the particle size depends on economic benefits. Hand selection is the earliest method of mineral processing used in the history of lithium mine production. In addition to spodumene, the hand selection is also used to pick lithium concentrates from lithionite, petalite, and amblygonite.

1 The positive flotation that is preferential flotation of spodumene, the working principle: ground fine ore in an alkaline medium formed by sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate, after high concentration, strong agitation and multiple washing and de-sludge, the fatty acid or its soap is added as a collector to directly float the spodumene.

2 The reverse flotation process is to inhibit the spodumene in a lime-adjusted alkaline medium with dextrin and starch as a regulator, and use a cationic collector to float the silicate-like gangue mineral as a foam, and the product in the tank is It is a spodumene concentrate.

Hand selection and flotation are the main methods for selecting spodumene. Other methods such as thermal cracking, magnetic separation and gravity separation play an auxiliary role in the production of spodumene concentrate.

Working principle When the natural spodumene is about 1100 C, its crystals change from type to type, and at the same time, the volume expands and easily breaks into powder. Through grinding and screening producers, can achieve separation of spodumene and gangue minerals.

Since the difference in density between spodumene and associated gangue minerals is not large, gravity separation methods such as jigging, spiral beneficiation and shaker beneficiation are not suitable for the process of spodumene ore. However, heavy medium separation or heavy liquid beneficiation is an effective method for spodumene ore. Heavy medium separation method has been used in the production of lithium mines in South Dakota and North Carolina.

Magnetic separation is often used as an auxiliary method to improve the concentrate quality of spodumene. For example, the spodumene concentrate produced by the flotation of North Carolina, USA, is high in iron and can only be sold as a chemical grade concentrate. In order to meet the requirements of the ceramic industry, the plant uses magnetic separation to remove iron. In addition, since iron-lithium mica has weak magnetic properties, magnetic separation can be used as the main method for producing iron-lithium mica concentrate.

iron ore beneficiation technology and process,gravity and magnetic separation | prominer (shanghai) mining technology co.,ltd

iron ore beneficiation technology and process,gravity and magnetic separation | prominer (shanghai) mining technology co.,ltd

Iron ore is one of the important raw materials for the production of pig iron and steel in the iron and steel industry. There are many types of iron ore. According to the magnetic properties of the ore, it is mainly divided into strong magnetism and weak magnetism. In order to improve the efficiency and production capacity of ore dressing and meet the smelting production requirements of iron and steel plants, appropriate and technology should be selected according to the different properties of different iron ore during beneficiation to achieve better beneficiation effects.

The composition of iron ore of a single magnetite type is simple, and the proportion of iron minerals is very large. Gangue minerals are mostly quartz and silicate minerals. According to production practice research, weak magnetic separation methods are often used to separate them. In a medium-sized magnetic separation plant, the ore is demagnetized and then enters the crushing and screening workshop to be crushed to a qualified particle size, and then fed to the grinding workshop for grinding operations. If the ore size after grinding is greater than 0.2 mm, one stage of grinding and magnetic separation process is adopted; if it is less than 0.2 mm, two stages of grinding and magnetic separation process are adopted. In order to increase the recovery rate of iron ore as much as possible, the qualified tailings may be scavenged and further recovered. In areas lacking water resources, a magnetic separator can be used for grinding and magnetic separation operations.

Because magnetite is easily depleted under the effect of weathering, such ores are generally sorted by dry magnetic separator to remove part of gangue minerals, and then subjected to grinding and magnetic separation to obtain concentrate.

The magnetite in the polymetallic magnetite is sulfide magnetite, and the gangue mineral contains silicate or carbonate, and is accompanied by cobalt pyrite, chalcopyrite and apatite. This kind of ore generally adopts the combined process of weak magnetic separation and flotation to recover iron and sulfur respectively.

Process flow: the ore is fed into the magnetic separator for weak magnetic separation to obtain magnetite concentrate and weak magnetic separation tailings, and the tailings enter the flotation process to obtain iron and sulfur.

The common process flow in actual production is: the raw ore is fed into the shaft furnace for roasting and magnetization, and after magnetization, it is fed into the magnetic separator for magnetic separation.

Gravity separation and magnetic separation are mainly used to separate coarse-grained and medium-grained weakly magnetic iron ore (20~2 mm). During gravity separation, heavy medium or jigging methods are commonly used for the gravity separation of coarse and very coarse (>20 mm) ores; spiral chutes, shakers and centrifugal concentrators for medium to fine (2~0.2mm) ores, etc. Reselect method.

In magnetic separation, the strong magnetic separator of coarse and medium-grained ore is usually dry-type strong magnetic separator; the fine-grained ore is usually wet-type strong magnetic separator. Because the grade of concentrate obtained by using one beneficiation method alone is not high, a combined process is often used:

Combination of flotation and magnetic separation: the magnetite-hematite ore of qualified particle size is fed into the magnetic separator for weak magnetic separation to obtain strong magnetic iron ore and weak magnetic tailings, and the tailings are fed into the magnetic separator for weak magnetic separation. In strong magnetic separation, strong magnetic separation tailings and concentrate are obtained, and the concentrate is fed to the flotation machine for flotation to obtain flotation iron concentrate tailings.

Combined gravity separation and magnetic separation: similar to the combined flow of flotation and magnetic separation, only the flotation is replaced by gravity separation, and the products are gravity separation concentrate and tailings. These two combined methods can improve the concentrate grade.

The above are mainly the common separation methods and technological processes of strong and weak magnetic iron ore. The composition of natural iron ore is often not so simple, so in actual production, it is necessary to clarify the mineral composition, and use a single sorting method or a joint sorting method according to the corresponding mineral properties. Only in this way can the beneficiation effect be improved.

Prominer has been devoted to mineral processing industry for decades and specializes in mineral upgrading and deep processing. With expertise in the fields of mineral project development, mining, test study, engineering, technological processing.

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