production and distribution of iron ore in india
The standard of living of the people of a country is judged by the consumption of iron. Iron is taken out from mines in the form of iron ore. Different types of iron ore contain varying percentage of pure iron.
This is the best quality of iron ore and contains 72 per cent pure iron. It possesses magnetic property and hence is called magnetite. It is found in Andhra Pradesh, Jharkhand, Goa, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka.
The total in situ reserves of iron ore in the country are about 12,317.3 million tonnes of haematite and 5395.2 million tonnes of magnetite. The resources of very high grade ore are limited and are restricted mainly in Bailadila sector of Chhattisgarh and to a lesser extent in Bellary-Hospet area of Karnataka and in Jharkhand and Orissa.
Haematite resources are located in Orissa, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka, Goa, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Rajasthan. Magnetic resources are located in Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Kerala, Jharkhand, Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu.
Although some quantity of iron ore is found in several parts of the country, the major part of the reserves are highly concentrated in a few selected areas. Only six states i.e. Jharkhand, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka and Goa account for over 95 per cent of the total reserves of India.
Jharkhand has the largest reserves accounting for about 25 per cent of the total reserves of India. This is followed by Orissa (21%), Karnataka (20%), Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh (18%) and Goa (11%). The remaining 5 per cent is shared by Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan and Assam. However, the pattern of actual production presents a slightly different picture (see Table 25.2).
It is worth mentioning that significant changes have taken place in the distribution pattern itself during the last few years. Earlier, Bihar (most of the iron producing areas has gone to Jharkhand now) was the largest producer which was excelled by Goa and Karnataka in quick succession. Goa occupied the first position among the major iron ore producing states for over a decade, but has been overtaken by Karnataka, Orissa and Chhattisgarh in due course of time.
At present, over 99 per cent of India s iron ore is produced by just five states of Karnataka, Orissa, Chhattisgarh, Goa and Jharkhand. This fact speaks volumes of high concentration of iron ore reserves and their lopsided distribution in the country.
Iron ores are widely distributed in the state, but high grade ore deposits are those of Kemmangundi in Bababudan hills of Chikmagalur district and Sandur and Hospet in Bellary district. Most of the ores are high grade haematite and magnetite. The other important producing districts are Chitradurga, Uttar Kannad, Shimoga, Dharwar and Tumkur.
Orissa produces over 22 per cent iron ore of India. The most important deposits occur in Sundargarh, Mayurbhanj, Cuttack, Sambalpur, Keonjhar and Koraput districts. Indias richest haematite deposits are located in Barabil-Koira valley where 100 deposits are spread over 53 sq km. The ores are rich in haematites with 60 per cent iron content.
Sizeable deposits occur near Gorumahisani, Sulaipat and Badampahar in Mayurbhanj district; Banspani, Tahkurani, Toda, Kodekola, Kurband, Phillora and Kiriburu in Keonjhar district; near Malangtoli, Kandadhar Pahar, Koira and Barsua in Sundargarh district, Tomka range between Patwali and Kassa in Sukind area of Cuttack district, Daitari hill along the boundary between Keonjhar and Cuttack districts, Hirapur hills in Koraput district and Nalibassa hill in Sambalpur district.
Chhattisgarh has about 18 per cent of the total iron ore reserves of India. This state produced about 20 per cent of the total iron ore production of the country in 2002-03. The iron ores are widely distributed, the prominent deposits being those of Bastar and Durg districts.
The reserves in these districts are estimated to be of the order of 4,064 million tonnes. These reserves are of high grade ore, containing over 65 per cent iron. Bailadila in Bastar district and Dalli Rajhara in Durg district are important producers. In Bailadila, 14 deposits are located in 48 km long range running in north-south direction.
With estimated reserves of about 1,422 million tonnes, the Bailadila mine is the largest mechanised mine in Asia. An additional ore beneficiation plant with a capacity of 7.8 million tonnes is being set up in Bailadila. A 270 km long slurry pipeline is being constructed to bring the ore from the Bailadila pithead to the Vizag plant. This will reduce the pressure on road route to a great extent.
Bailadila produces high grade ore which is exported through Vishakhapatnam to Japan and other countries where it is in great demand. The Dalli-Rajhara range is 32 km long with iron ore reserves of about 120 million tonnes.
The ferrous content in this ore is estimated to be 68-69 per cent. The deposits of this range are being worked by the Hindustan Steels Plant at Bhilai. A new broad gauge rail line is planned to connect this range with Jagdalpur. Raigarh, Bilaspur, and Surguja are other iron ore producing districts.
Production of iron ore in Goa started quite late and it is a recent development. Starting from a non-identity, Goa is now the fourth largest producer of iron ore in India. Though its reserves, amounting to only 11 per cent of India, are not very impressive as compared to other major producing states, it occupied the first position among the iron ore producers for several years and yielded this place to M.P. in 1990s.
At present, Karantaka, Orissa and Chhattisgarh produce more iron ore, relegating Goa to fourth place. Goa now produces over 18 per cent of the total production of India. In 1975, the Geological Survey of India located 34 iron bearing reserves with estimated the total ore deposits of 390 million tonnes. There are nearly 315 mines in North Goa, Central Goa and South Goa.
Important deposits occur in Pima-Adolpale-Asnora, Sirigao-Bicholim-Daldal, Sanquelim-Onda, Kudnem-Pisurlem and Kudnem-Surla areas in North Goa; Tolsia-Dongarvado-Sanvordem and Quirapale-Santone-Costi in Central Goa; and Borgadongar, Netarlim, Rivona-Solomba and Barazan in South Goa.
The richest ore deposits are located in North Goa. These areas have the advantage of river transport or ropeways for local transport and that of Marmagao port for exporting the ore. Most of Goas iron ore is exported to Japan.
Most of the ore is of low grade limo-mite and siderite. Most of the mines are open-caste and mechanised which result in efficient exploitation of iron ore in spite of its inferior quality. About 34,000 people earn their livelihood from iron ore mining and allied activities in Goa.
Jharkhand accounts for 25 per cent of reserves and over 14 per cent of the total iron ore production of the country. Iron ore mining first of all started in the Singhbhum district in 1904 (then a part of Bihar). Iron ore of Singhbhum district is of highest quality and will last for hundreds of years.
The main iron bearing belt forms a range about 50 km long extending from near Gua to near Pantha in Bonai (Orissa). The other deposits in Singhbhum include those of Budhu Buru, Kotamati Burn and Rajori Buru. The well known Noamandi mines are situated at Kotamati Buru. Magnetite ores occur near Daltenganj in Palamu district. Less important magnetite deposits have been found in Santhal Parganas, Hazaribagh, Dhanbad and Ranchi districts.
Apart from the major producing states described above, iron ore in small quantities is produced in some other states also. They include Maharashtra : Chandrapur, Ratnagiri and Sindhudurg; Tamilnadu : Salem, North Arcot Ambedkar, Tiruchirapalli, Coimbatore, Madurai, Nellai Kattabomman (Tirunelveli); Andhra Pradesh : Kumool, Guntur, Cuddapah, Ananthapur, Khammam, Nellore; Rajasthan : Jaipur, Udaipur, Alwar, Sikar, Bundi, Bhilwara; Uttar Pradesh ; Mirzapur, Uttaranchal : Garhwal, Almora, Nainital; Himachal Pradesh : Kangra and Mandi; Haryana : Mahendragarh; West Bengal: Burdwan, Birbhum, Darjeeling; Jammu and Kashmir : Udhampur and Jammu; Gujarat: Bhavnagar, Junagadh, Vadodara; and Kerala : Kozhikode.
India is the fifth largest exporter of iron ore in the world. We export about 50 to 60 per cent of our total iron ore production to countries like Japan, Korea, European countries and lately to Gulf countries. Japan is the biggest buyer of Indian iron ore accounting for about three-fourths of our total exports. Major ports handling iron ore export are Vishakhapatnam, Paradip, Marmagao and Mangalore.
Efforts are being made to increase the production so that sufficient quantity of iron ore is available for export after meeting the requirements of the expanding home market. Export of iron ore is necessary for earning the much needed foreign exchange. Some success has been achieved in this direction as is evident from the export figures for the year 2002-03 and 2003-04 (see Table 25.3).
top five largest iron ore producing countries in 2020
Iron ore remains one of the most sought-after commodities in the world due to demand driven by the steelmaking industry and the top-producing countries have a big role to play in supplying this key manufacturing ingredient to the global marketplace.
Many of the worlds largest diversified miners, including Rio Tinto, BHP and Anglo American, have established strong footholds in the iron ore sector, particularly in Australia where around 28% of the worlds known reserves are located.
Analysts have forecast production growth through to 2025, however, driven by high consumption from Chinese industry and planned infrastructure spending in other major economies as they emerge from the Covid-19 pandemic.
The price of iron ore, along with other commodities like copper, has risen significantly since 2020 on the back of rising demand for raw materials, as governments begin to loosen the coronavirus-related restrictions that have slowed industrial activity worldwide and plan ahead for major stimulus spending that is hoped will boost economic growth.
China is also the worlds biggest consumer of the commodity, and combines domestic production with additional foreign imports to feed its huge steelmaking industry, which currently accounts for more than half of the worlds steel output.
list: top 10 iron producing countries - top ten countries list
Almost every country in the world, big or small, is blessed in one way or another with certain natural resources that play integral roles in their economic wellbeing. Iron ore has been a staple of industrialization since the earliest of times and with the advent of technology, we also have the need for better constructions that lead to a higher iron demand. In those situations, the mine production for Iron has had a great hand in boosting the GDPs of industrialized nation. For long periods of time, China has ruled the roost by being the No.1 Iron producing country in the world. However, since 2015 there has been a massive reduction in mining for Iron and China. On top of that the increasing demand of Iron in China and them purchasing major portion of the production in the world has led to Iron prices skyrocketing since three years ago.
The usable ore for the Iron production in Iran has been subject to change in recent years. In 2013 that figure went up towards 35 Million Tonnes (MT) of usable ore. It is now 26 MT with an output of 15 MT of granulated Iron in the year 2016. The figures here are again on the up and up and by the year 2015, Iran predicts the Iron production to increase from 15MT to 25MT.
United States has been gone through same iron ore production in 2015 like other countries, especially China. That has been the result of reduced steel production from oxygen furnaces. The usable ore for United States in 2016 was 41 MT and the granulated iron in that was 26MT.
Canadian iron ore production falls behind some of the big guns in the greater scheme but the country has been very consistent in their production for recent years. Their usable ore is 48MT and iron content is 29MT. Canadas foremost iron producing company, Champion Iron, has just completed the feasibility study for Bloom Lake Mine after its acquisition. That has the potential to catapult Canada in the rankings in upcoming years.
Ukraine has been edged out by South Africa in the list of top 10 Iron producing countries for 2016. Their usable ore fell from 70 MT to 58 MT in 2016 because Alchevsk Steel Works halting cast iron smelting. Their available iron content out of the ore was 35 MT.
South Africa is hands down the largest iron producing country in Africa and also the only country from the continent in the list. The usable ore for South African mining industry rose to 60 MT in 2016 whereas the production of iron content was around 40 MT.
Ukraine separated from Russia years ago and if they are in the list then Russia being the largest country in the world is almost guaranteed to be here. Russia produces 60 MT of granulated iron and the past year they had a usable iron ore of 100 MT.
Indias iron production took a big hit a few years back after the ban on mining was introduced. The country was actually going to fall in the ranking but the lifting on the ban at the end of 2015 meant Indian iron production was due to be increased. Usable ore for 2016 was 160 MT and the output for iron was almost 100 MT.
There was a major shift in dynamics in them span of three years when China became the largest consumer of iron in 2016 from the largest producer in 2013. Most of their companies have either halted or reduced iron production with iron from Australia and Brazil replacing local produce. They are still one of the largest produces with 353 MT of usable ore in 2016 and an iron content of 220 MT.
The company Vale has been responsible for the increase of iron production and mining in the county. They left behind China for the year 2016 with a usable ore of 391 MT in production and the iron content being 254 MT.
Australia has seen a massive increase in iron ore production and it has been down to their largest iron producing company, BHP Billiton. Their usable iron ore was a whopping 825 MT with an iron content of almost 500 MT.
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top iron ore producing countries in the world - worldatlas
Iron has a chemical formula (Fe), and it is one of the most common elements in the world and forms 5% of the crust of the Earth. It ranks the fourth among the common elements after Oxygen, Silicon, and Aluminum. Iron forms a critical part of modern civilization and its use dates back to thousands of years. It was only around the 14th Century when its use became widespread as smelting furnaces increasingly began to replace the older forges. Iron ore occurs in the form of rock from which the metallic iron is the final product. The bulk of these rocks are either Hematite or Magnetite, and it makes almost 98% of the iron ore produced worldwide that goes into making steel. Much of the iron ore mined are oxide compounds of Magnetite (Fe3O4), Hematite (Fe2O3) Goethite (Fe2O3SH2O), and Limonite. Magnetite is composed of 72% iron, Hematite is 70% iron, Goethite is 63% iron, and Limonite is 60% iron.
Much of the iron ore are in the sedimentary rocks called Banded Iron Formations (BIFs), which dates back to more than 542 million years. They are present in all continents and mined as iron ore or rocks containing iron ore. Deposits that contain at least 60% Fe are often commercially viable for mining, but in some case deposits of 56% Fe have been commercially mined successfully in different countries.
China is by far the largest producer, consumer, and importer of Iron ore. In 2015 it produced 1.3 billion tons of iron ore equivalents to 44% of the worlds output. In 2014, China produced 1.5 billion tons of crude ore extracted mainly in Hebei and Liaoning provinces of mainland China. Other regions include Shanxi, Beijing, and parts of Inner Mongolia.
Australia comes as the second largest producer of Iron ore and has the worlds biggest deposits. The mineral is mainly in the Western Australia in the regions of Pilbara, which represents 95% of Australias iron ore. The region forms three of the eleven biggest mining operations in the world. In 2015, Australia produced 824 million tons of iron ore and in 2014 was 774 million tons which represent more than 20% of the global output.
Brazil is the third largest producer of iron ore producing 428 million tons in 2015 and 411 million tons in 2014. The 2015 output represents 12% of the worlds production. Brazil has the second largest deposits of iron ore in the world. The mineral is mined mainly in Minas Gerais and Para states. Carajas is the worlds biggest iron ore mine owned by Vale the Brazils industry giant.
In the past, India has been a world leader, but now the fourth largest producer. 95% of the country's iron ore come from Orissa, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Goa, and Karnataka. The biggest deposits in the country are in Orissa state. In 2015, India produced 129 million tons which were similar to 2014 figures.
Russia is the fifth largest producer, and in 2015 it produced 112 million tons of crude iron ore up from 102 million tons in 2014. Most of the countys iron ore is in Central Russia, and the rest come from Siberia and the Urals.
Once iron ore goes through some processing, the molten steel obtained from the furnaces are passed through casters and transformed into slabs, billets, and blooms.They form the primary steel products which can be processed into various finished products using cold and hot rolling procedures. Usually, the slabs are rolled to form flat finished products, and the blooms are wrought to beams, girders, and many other structural shapes. The billets finally become rods and bars. Steel products have innumerable uses in a range of industries including construction, automotive, packaging and household appliances among many others.
top iron-producing countries | australia is number 1 | inn
Prices for thebase metal have gradually trended upward since the dam collapse, hitting a five year highof US$123.19 per tonne in July 2019. Although iron ore prices fell off that high, dropping as low as US$80.36 per tonne near the end of last year, the rapid spread of the coronavirus in Brazil has stymied iron ore production once again and pushed prices higher.
As of mid-June, iron ore prices were up over US$100 again. So far this year, iron ore and gold have been the only metals that have not suffered price slumps in the backdrop of the pandemic, reported Zacks Investment Research early in the month.
While supply concerns out of Brazil have helped lead iron ores rally, its important to know about other major producers of the commodity. As such, here are the nine top iron-producing countries of 2019, using the latest data provided by the US Geological Survey.
First on the list is Australia, the largest country for iron ore mining; its usable iron ore output was 930 Mt in 2019. Having grown from 2018s numbers of 900 Mt, the increase was no doubt helped by Australias leading iron ore producer, BHP (NYSE:BHP,ASX:BHP,LSE:BHP).
As Brazil continues to recover from last years issues with Vale, Australian officials have released a report detailing the countrys plan to help fill the supply gap to remain the biggest iron ore producer. Iron ore exports out of the land down under are expected to climb, with the report noting that large producers are ramping up to their long-term production targets.
The second largest iron-producing country is Brazil, where usable iron ore production totalled 480 Mt in 2019. Though the deadly incident at Crrego do Feijo understandably had an impact on the countrys 2019 iron production, the South American nations numbers grew between 2017 and 2018.
In June, Vale reaffirmed its iron ore output guidance, keeping its monthly production forecast at the Itabira mining complex at 2.7 million tonnes for the next months. The company expects overall potential output losses associated with the coronavirus pandemic to be up to 15 million tonnes in 2020.
China is the worlds largest consumer of iron ore, despite being only the third largest iron-producing country. Its production of usable ore rose slightly last year, rising from 340 Mt in 2018 to 350 Mt in 2019.
With China being the worlds largest producer of stainless steel, its domestic supplies are not enough to meet demand. The countryimports over 70 percentof global seaborne iron ore. Recent industrial stats out of China show the countrys economic activity is once again surging in 2020, creating healthy demand for imported iron ore.
Indias largest iron ore miner, NMDC, had to slash prices for its iron ore products in 2020 due to slumping demand brought on by the coronavirus pandemic. However, analysts see prices improving as Indias steel industry increases output.
Russia comes in as the fifth largest iron-producing country in the world. Usable iron ore production grew slightly from 2018, rising from 96 Mt to 99 Mt, while iron content inched up from 56.7 Mt to 59 Mt.
Kumba Iron Ore (JSE:KIO) is Africas largest iron ore producer. The companys flagship mine, Sishen, accounts for approximately 69 percent of Kumbas total iron ore output. The company saw its share price jump to a new year-to-date high in early June as the slowdown in iron ore production out of regions such as Brazil sent the price of iron ore up over US$100.
Black Iron (TSX:BKI,OTC Pink:BKIRF) is a Canadian company exploring and developing its 100 percent owned Shymanivske projectin the country. After having nearly started operations at the mine in 2014, the company had toput the project on holdwhen Russia invaded Ukraine.
Now that the conflict has cooled, Black Iron has completed apreliminary economic assessment, and is making advances towards construction. The study reported 68 percent iron ore concentrate, with Phase 1 putting out 4 Mt each year and Phase 2 putting out 8 Mt annually. When the time comes, this will make an impact on the total national iron ore market, but for now the company is still securingland rights and financingfor construction.
Champion Iron (TSX:CIA,OTC Pink:CHPRF) is one company pursuing iron ore production in the country. It is focusing on developing iron ore resources in Quebec, and in 2016 it acquired the Bloom Lake mine. Champion Iron ships iron concentrate from the Bloom Lake open pit by rail, initially on the Bloom Lake Railway, to a ship loading port in Sept-les, Quebec. In 2019, the company completed a feasibility study for Bloom Lakes Phase 2 expansion, which is set increase overall capacity from 7.4 Mt per year to 15 Mt per year of 66.2 percent iron ore concentrate.
Iron ore production in the US decreased slightly in 2019. According to the US Geological Survey, the country produced approximately 1.9 percent of the worlds output. US production came from seven open-pit mines along with three iron metallic plants two hot-briquetted iron plants and one direct-reduced iron plant to help supply steelmaking raw material.
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largest producer of iron ore in the world 2020 | statista
Production of usable ore, specifically agglomerates, concentrates, direct-shipping ore, and byproduct ore for consumption.
** China's ore production values are not based on usable ore (whereas all other countries are). Instead, China's values are based primarily on the production of raw ore.
*** Data for 2010 and 2015 not available.
**** Data for 2015 and 2020 not available.
This statistic was assembled using several editions of the report.
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