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jaw crusher for steam coal

coal crusher, coal crushing machine, coal crusher manufacturer, coal crusher price - ftm crusher company

coal crusher, coal crushing machine, coal crusher manufacturer, coal crusher price - ftm crusher company

Since the compression strength of coal is about 5-50, general crusher is able to deal like jaw crusher, impact crusher and roll crusher, etc. However, there exist special requirements for processing and using the coal, thus Fote technically produces a hammer coal crusher.

1. If you have various demands for the particle size of finished products, the Fote hammer coal crushing machine will help you. Hammer coal crusher machine has advantages of high production capacity and finished product is about 35mm, and its adjustable to be changed in different models of primary crushing, secondary crushing and fine crushing.

2. As we all know, the coal is valued and we should use effectively. If the coal is over-crushed, a lot of coal ash will appear. While the hammer coal crusher uses the active forces of hammer to crush coal, you will love this hammer coal crushing machine since it can reduce the appearance of coal ash.

3. If you are in the field of coal crushing, you must be troubled with the coal with high water content. While the hammer coal crusher machine can crush both dry and wet coal. It is completely suitable to the open-pit mining work.

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laboratory jaw crusher

laboratory jaw crusher

A jaw crusher robustly constructed single-toggle type with one fixed jaw plate and one moving jaw plate. Designed for the smaller laboratory, or use by prospectors. It is capable of quickly crushing materials up to 85% of the jaw opening (125 mm x 100 mm). It is robust and long wearing and made of parts and materials easily serviced in a remote area. Toggle adjustment is by means of jacking screw. The crusher is supplied as a free standing floor mounted unit with the motor to the rear of the main body.

A Laboratory Jaw Crusher engineered for pre-crushing of extremely hard up to brittle materials. The 4 x 5 911MPEJC100 Jaw Crusher is designed for batch and continuous crushing of middle hard, hard brittle and tough materials for the following fine grinding.

The Model 100 mm X 130 mm 911MPE-JC100 Jaw Crusher is used by laboratories and processing companies to crush solid materials such as rocks or soil and ores. The material to be processed falls into the crushing chamber of the 911MPE-JC100 Crusher via a guide chute and is crushed by crushing action of a static and a dynamic jaw plate until it passes the preselected gap of the crusher. The stepless gap setting can be adjusted via a hand wheel and a mm scale from 0 mm to 25 mm (contact of the jaw plates). This adjustment setting enables the operator to also perform a zero point calibration setting to adjust the crusher.

No other Laboratory Jaw Crusher is easier to clean than the 911MPE-JC100Jaw Crusher. When the crushing process is finished the infeed hopper can be taken off in a second and the front door opened. Due to these points the crushing chamber is fully accessible for quick and easy cleaning in order to perform a fast and systematic cleaning of the grinding tools.

The required gap setting can be comfortably and reproducibly adjusted by rotating the handwheel. The gap setting can therefore steplessly pre- chosen according to a scale prior to start the crushing process.

This crusher, which lies within the family of jaw crushers. It is a floor-standing instrument as we can see, mounted on a very sturdy mounting frame. The 911MPE-JC100 can accept pieces of material in the top feed hopper with a maximum of 120*90 mm and reduce them in size to less than 2mm often in a single pass. This is a very wide reduction ratio commonly used in heavy industry applications. Jaw crushers such as the 911MPE-JC100 model are used for the preparation of hard, medium-hard, brittle, and tough materials. Common examples of application areas would include the preparation of construction materials, rocks, cement, metallurgy, and many more. Supplied with the instrument is a 10-liter collecting receptacle to collect the crushed material, it is positioned ergonomically at a convenient working height. A further optional accessory is a second collecting receptacle for continuous processing. The sample material is crushed between the fixed and the moving break in the jaws, after the crushing has taken place it is important to clean the jaws thoroughly to prevent any cross-contamination of the samples. The instrument is fully safety interlocked, you can simply remove the collecting receptacle and the front door is opened as it is hinged then we have complete access to the crushing chamber and the jaws for cleaning purposes which is very convenient. On the rear of the instrument, we see a standard size dust extraction port that will be compatible for use with most dust extraction systems. Also available is an adapter if the client wishes to use an industrial vacuum cleaner. This instrument is designed with convenience in mind therefore with the use of a standard single Allen key we can remove the Allen screw and simply lift and remove the feed hopper for cleaning purposes. Operation of the instrument couldnt be easier; we simply depress the start button. Importantly the gap between the fixed and moving jaws is steplessly adjustable; this can be done using the scale from the range of 0-30mm. I trust that you found the overview of the 911MPE-JC100 to be very useful.

A new 20-page Specification Manual describing the complete line of Jaw Crushers is now available. Jaw Crushers are available in 21 different sizes and capacities from the 2 x 3 Laboratory unit to the large, split-frame 40 x 48 type J giant, as well as in various portable and semi-portable crushing plants. In addition to dimensions, weights, power requirements, material specifications, and capacities for all Jaw Crushers, this manual illustrates in cut-away style the bearing design.

Jaw Crushers are of all anti-friction bearing design. The side bearing of the larger type H Crushers have the anti-friction side bearing housed in a self-aligning ball-and-socket type carrier. This makes it possible to remove the main shaft without ever exposing the bearings to dust or dirt.

Rock Crushers are used to obviously, crush big rocks into little rocks. Since we are small-scale process experts, we offer mini, small to not so small rock crushers categorized as the jaw, cone, hammer, and roll. Most are small enough to use in a home-style laboratory or any full commercial-industrial laboratory, while the largest unit equipment adequately processes all your needs for small-scale mining equipment.

For the crusher to correctly perform its role in the processing cycle with maximum efficiency and economy it must be matched to the final task. Determining factors in crusher selection can be broken down into four categories: material to be crushed; feed size; product size; and expected capacity. The right crusher should also have the lowest power requirements per ton of finished product, and operate with minimum maintenance and downtime. There are a variety of crushers to meet the needs of todays industrial requirements. Exactly how is a determination made on the proper crusher? Usually, extensive study and evaluation of the above facts concerning material, feed size, feed rate, capital cost requirement, etc. will be an essential guideline. Next to be considered is the actual mechanical method of crushing to be used.

It is our approach that determines 911MPE products to be reliable and superior and makes our jaw crushers ideal for coarse and initial size reduction of hard to brittle samples. The reliability of the 911MPE jaw crushers is based on their extremely robust design. Thousands of installed crushers all over the world within the last decades demonstrate the trust of many customers. Their superiority is represented by two decisive competitive advantages, the large number of technical highlights as well as the unrivaled selection of crushers and breaking jaws that are developed to suit the requirements for different feed sizes, materials, and applications. 911MPE jaw crushers are available in four different models starting from the benchtop model and ranging up to the strongest floor model. Our machines belong to the family of single toggle jaw crushers; a high final fineness and excellent crushing ratio demonstrate their great efficiency. The main fields of application include construction materials, mineralogy, and metallurgy, ceramics and glass materials as well as research and environmental analysis.

Jaw crushers are particularly suitable for the preparation of rocks, minerals, ores, glass, ceramics, slags, synthetic resins, and many hard brittle substances. Depending on the model samples of up to 150mm in feed size can be ground to a final fineness of down to less than 0.5mm. For a further introduction of our range of jaw crushers, we are going to focus on the widely established JC100 which is the core product of our floor models and suitable for many major applications. After starting the machine the gap width is set by using an analog scale it ensures optimal size reduction in accordance with the desired material fineness. The sample can then be filled into the no rebound hopper and enters the crushing chamber, size reduction takes place in the wedged shape area between the fixed crushing arm and the one moved by an eccentric drive shaft. The movable jaw is driven by a heavy-duty brake motor via v-belts; the largest belt pulley also acts as a flywheel to ensure uniform and smooth operation. The elliptical motion crushes the sample successively as soon as the sample is smaller than the gap width, it falls into a removable, easy to clean, stainless steel collector. By using state-of-the-art modulation methods during the design process of our crushers we ensure to archive the best performances. Due to the optimized eccentric movement and the special geometry of the grinding chamber, the 911MPE JC100 achieves a much higher fineness than traditional jaw crushers.

The grinding chamber is dust-protected using a commercially available vacuum cleaner; additional dust extraction can be achieved without affecting the result. Depending on the material in the throughput sooner or later even high-quality breaking jaws will start to show signs of wear, this means that the set crushing gap will increase with time. In order to still be able to obtain reproduce-able crushing results, this wear must be compensated with traditional jaw crushers whose gap width can only be set in fixed steps and accurate compensation for wear is not possible. 911MPE jaw crushers can be continuously adjusted and therefore the wear of breaking jaws can be compensated precisely. We provide user convenience combined with maximum safety. Compared to traditional jaw crushers the crushing chamber is accessible via quick release clamps, this enables easy cleaning and exchanging of the breaking jaws. An important safety aspect is provided by a switch that interacts with a brake motor to ensure immediate stops if the unit is opened during operation. A further safety feature is that the hopper is equipped with sample rebound protection which also ensures that the crushing chamber cant be accessed by hand; a disc spring unit and thermal overload protection prevent abuse of the system. Like all 911MPE machines, the JC100 is designed to be in full compliance with the highest safety regulations. 911MPE jaw crushers run smoothly and are surprisingly quiet, due to their robust design they are not only applicable for batch-wise operation but also particularly suitable for continuous size reduction in online operation.

Optional kits for the central lubrication of the lower movable crushing arm are available as well. This is particularly advantageous if the jaw crushers are to be used continuously or if they are installed in a cabinet in such a way that the lubrication points are difficult to access. Because of their solid design they are virtually maintenance-free and perform their size reduction duties over a long lifetime. Our floor-based crushers as presented so far are complemented by the benchtop alternative which has been specifically designed for sample preparation of small laboratory quantities. The space-saving dust-type instrument fits on any lab bench. Small amounts of samples with feed sizes of up to 35mm are crushed gently and without any sample loss. Breaking Jaws for the entire jaw crusher range providing excellent surface quality for the highest demands. Jaws and side plates are available in various materials such as manganese steel which is made from precision casting, tungsten carbide, stainless steel, heavy metal free steel, and zirconium oxide. Thus versatile applications can be fulfilled without cross contaminations. 911MPE crushers are the ideal choice when the rapid and gentle size reduction of hard and brittle materials is to be accomplished. Due to the optimized movement the favorable geometry of the grinding chamber and the wide variety of grinding materials, excellent grinding results are achieved which looks after all requirements. The reliability and superiority of our products make 911MPE the leader in crushing and pre-crushing for sample preparation. Thousands of installed units all around the world demonstrate the trust of many customers.

Please look at the pictures of the bearings at the top of the machine. As you can see they are on the outside of the crushing chamber. The bearings at the bottom of the movable plate are made from brass. The bearings are not the standard ball bearings as on the top of the machine, but tubes made from brass. The picture on the attached file shows the brass tubes. The lubrication of this bearing is very important and can be done by a lubrication cartridge.

The cartridge will be activated using a chemical switch. The switch will press the greasing out of the cartridge and can be set on a certain empty time from 1 to 12 months. When the greasing level in the bearing is good, the dust will be pressed out preventing the bearing from locking/breaking. Picture attached from the position the cartridge will be placed as well as the connections inside at the messing bearing.

Easy access door for maintenance and cleaning. When the operator spends a few minutes after each run or after each day cleaning the machine the lifetime will expand dramatically. Because our machine is not closed and therefore easily accessible cleaning and maintenance can be done properly.

The gap settings a stepless. Operators only need to untighten one wheel on the side and set the gap using the other two wheels. When the jaw plates wear, the scale on the side of the machine can be adjusted in order to receive the new 0-point.

The 4 x 5 is a Laboratory Rock Crusher engineered for rapid reduction of hard and brittle materials. The 911MPCJC200DJaw Crusher is designed for batch-wise and continuous pre-crushing of middle hard, hard brittle, and tough materials for the following fine grinding.

The Model 911MPCJC200D Jaw Crusher is used by laboratories and processing companies to crush solid materials such as rocks or soil and ores. The material to be processed falls into the crushing chamber of the 911MPCJC200D Crusher via a guide chute and is crushed by the crushing action of a static and dynamic jaw plate until it passes the preselected gap of the crusher. The stepless gap setting can be adjusted via a hand wheel and a mm scale from 0 mm to 25 mm (contact of the jaw plates). This adjustment setting enables the operator as well to perform a zero point calibration setting to adjust the crusher.

A well-proven single toggle, high reduction rock crushers. The crushing capacity and the end-fineness of the sample material depend on the type of crusher and on the breaking characteristics of the sample material. Designed for laboratory applications and for operating environments and accepts:

Easy cleaning and operation No other Jaw Crusher is easier to clean than the 911MPCJC200 Jaw Crusher. When the crushing process is finished the infeed hopper can be taken off in a second and the front door can be opened. Due to these points, the crushing chamber is fully accessible for quick and easy cleaning in order to perform a fast and systematic cleaning of the grinding tools.

In these crushers one jaw is fixed and the other is swung back and forth, through a very small arc, by means of an eccentric shaft, revolved by either the hand wheel or the pulley. The shaft in revolving raises and lowers a rod which is connected by toggles with the movable jaw. These crushers can be procured in sizes ranging from laboratory size up.

The Case Laboratory Crusher (patented in 1903), Fig. 69, was especially designed to meet the demand for a low priced, strong, laboratory crusher. It can be driven by either hand or power, and will crush from 100 to 200 lbs. of ore per hour, depending, of course, on the hardness of the ore. The jaw opening is 2 by 3 inches and it can be adjusted quickly from a fineness of inch to 20 mesh. The feed is regular, and it is not inclined to cake on soft material. Messrs. E. H. Sargent & Co., Chicago, handle this crusher which they sell at $30.00, hand driven, and $32.00, fixed for power.

Figure 70 shows the Calkins Advance Ore Crusher, manufactured by The Calkins Company, Denver, Colo. One of the features of this crusher is the ease with which it can be cleaned. This is done by swinging up the front jaw of the crusher exposing the sides and face of the vibratory jaw and giving access to all parts of the machine to which material being crushed may adhere. The adjustment to coarse or fine crushing is made at the front end of the crusher. This machine is made in two sizes; the smallest has a jaw opening 2 x 3 inches, weighs 170 pounds, and is listed at $30.00 net; the larger size has a jaw opening 3 x 4 inches, weighs 280 pounds and is listed at $60.00 net.

which may be adjusted to crush fine or coarse. This crusher is also very easily cleaned, as, after lifting a pin, the front jaw may be swung out on a vertical hinge exposing both crushing plates and allowing them to be quickly and thoroughly cleaned with a brush. This crusher is very compactly and strongly built.

Where very large quantities of ore have to be crushed a Gates gyratory crusher will be found most useful. These are made by the Allis-Chalmers Co., Milwaukee, Wis., in a variety of sizes and types. The smallest size will crush 500 lbs. of material of average hardness per hour, to a fineness of inch or 250 lbs. to 1/8 inch.

crushers - an overview | sciencedirect topics

crushers - an overview | sciencedirect topics

This crusher developed by Jaques (now Terex Mineral Processing Solutions) has several internal chamber configurations available depending on the abrasiveness of the ore. Examples include the Rock on Rock, Rock on Anvil and Shoe and Anvil configurations (Figure 6.26). These units typically operate with 5 to 6 steel impellers or hammers, with a ring of thin anvils. Rock is hit or accelerated to impact on the anvils, after which the broken fragments freefall into the discharge chute and onto a product conveyor belt. This impact size reduction process was modeled by Kojovic (1996) and Djordjevic et al. (2003) using rotor dimensions and speed, and rock breakage characteristics measured in the laboratory. The model was also extended to the Barmac crushers (Napier-Munn et al., 1996).

Crushers are widely used as a primary stage to produce the particulate product finer than about 50100 mm in size. They are classified as jaw, gyratory and cone crushers based on compression, cutter mill based on shear and hammer crusher based on impact.

A jaw crusher consists essentially of two crushing plates, inclined to each other forming a horizontal opening by their lower borders. Material is crushed between a fixed and a movable plate by reciprocating pressure until the crushed product becomes small enough to pass through the gap between the crushing plates. Jaw crushers find a wide application for brittle materials. For example, they are used for comminution of porous copper cake.

A gyratory crusher includes a solid cone set on a revolving shaft and placed within a hollow body, which has conical or vertical sloping sides. Material is crushed when the crushing surfaces approach each other and the crushed products fall through the discharging opening.

Hammer crushers are used either as a one-step primary crusher or as a secondary crusher for products from a primary crusher. They are widely used for crushing of hard metal scrap for different hard metal recycling processes.

Pivoted hammers are pendulous, mounted on the horizontal axes symmetrically located along the perimeter of a rotor and crushing takes place by the impact of material pieces with the high speed moving hammers and by contact with breaker plates. A cylindrical grating or screen is placed beneath the rotor. Materials are reduced to a size small enough pass through the openings of the grating or screen. The size of product can be regulated by changing the spacing of the grate bars or the opening of the screen.

The feature of the hammer crushers is the appearance of elevated pressure of air in the discharging unit of the crusher and underpressure in the zone around of the shaft close to the inside surface of the body side walls. Thus, the hammer crushers also act as high-pressure forced-draught fans. This may lead to environmental pollution and product losses in fine powder fractions.

A design for a hammer crusher (Figure 2.6) allows essentially a decrease of the elevated pressure of air in the crusher discharging unit [5]. The A-zone beneath the screen is communicated through the hollow ribs and openings in the body side walls with the B-zone around the shaft close to the inside surface of body side walls. As a result, circulation of suspended matter in the gas between A- and B-zones is established and high pressure of air in the discharging unit of crusher is reduced.

Crushers are widely used as a primary stage to produce the particulate product finer than about 50100mm. They are classified as jaw, gyratory, and cone crushers based on compression, cutter mill based on shear, and hammer crusher based on impact.

A jaw crusher consists essentially of two crushing plates, inclined to each other forming a horizontal opening by their lower borders. Material is crushed between a fixed and a movable plate by reciprocating pressure until the crushed product becomes small enough to pass through the gap between the crushing plates. Jaw crushers find a wide application for brittle materials. For example, they are used for comminution of porous copper cake. A Fritsch jaw crusher with maximal feed size 95mm, final fineness (depends on gap setting) 0.315mm, and maximal continuous throughput 250Kg/h is shown in Fig. 2.8.

A gyratory crusher includes a solid cone set on a revolving shaft and placed within a hollow body, which has conical or vertical sloping sides. Material is crushed when the crushing surfaces approach each other and the crushed products fall through the discharging opening.

Hammer crushers are used either as a one-step primary crusher or as a secondary crusher for products from a primary crusher. They are widely used for crushing hard metal scrap for different hard metal recycling processes. Pivoted hammers are pendulous, mounted on the horizontal axes symmetrically located along the perimeter of a rotor. Crushing takes place by the impact of material pieces with the high speed moving hammers and by contact with breaker plates. A cylindrical grating or screen is placed beneath the rotor. Materials are reduced to a size small enough to pass through the openings of the grating or screen. The size of the product can be regulated by changing the spacing of the grate bars or the opening of the screen.

The feature of the hammer crushers is the appearance of elevated pressure of air in the discharging unit of the crusher and underpressure in the zone around the shaft close to the inside surface of the body side walls. Thus, the hammer crushers also act as high-pressure, forced-draught fans. This may lead to environmental pollution and product losses in fine powder fractions. A design for a hammer crusher (Fig. 2.9) essentially allows a decrease of the elevated pressure of air in the crusher discharging unit [5]. The A-zone beneath the screen is communicated through the hollow ribs and openings in the body side walls with the B-zone around the shaft close to the inside surface of body side walls. As a result, the circulation of suspended matter in the gas between A and B zones is established and the high pressure of air in the discharging unit of crusher is reduced.

Secondary coal crusher: Used when the coal coming from the supplier is large enough to be handled by a single crusher. The primary crusher converts the feed size to one that is acceptable to the secondary crusher.

The main sources of RA are either from construction and ready mixed concrete sites, demolition sites or from roads. The demolition sites produce a heterogeneous material, whereas ready mixed concrete or prefabricated concrete plants produce a more homogeneous material. RAs are mainly produced in fixed crushing plant around big cities where CDWs are available. However, for roads and to reduce transportation cost, mobile crushing installations are used.

The materiel for RA manufacturing does not differ from that of producing NA in quarries. However, it should be more robust to resist wear, and it handles large blocks of up to 1m. The main difference is that RAs need the elimination of contaminants such as wood, joint sealants, plastics, and steel which should be removed with blast of air for light materials and electro-magnets for steel. The materials are first separated from other undesired materials then treated by washing and air to take out contamination. The quality and grading of aggregates depend on the choice of the crusher type.

Jaw crusher: The material is crushed between a fixed jaw and a mobile jaw. The feed is subjected to repeated pressure as it passes downwards and is progressively reduced in size until it is small enough to pass out of the crushing chamber. This crusher produces less fines but the aggregates have a more elongated form.

Hammer (impact) crusher: The feed is fragmented by kinetic energy introduced by a rotating mass (the rotor) which projects the material against a fixed surface causing it to shatter causing further particle size reduction. This crusher produces more rounded shape.

Jaw crushers are mainly used as primary crushers to produce material that can be transported by belt conveyors to the next crushing stages. The crushing process takes place between a fixed jaw and a moving jaw. The moving jaw dies are mounted on a pitman that has a reciprocating motion. The jaw dies must be replaced regularly due to wear. Figure 8.1 shows two basic types of jaw crushers: single toggle and double toggle. In the single toggle jaw crusher, an eccentric shaft is installed on the top of the crusher. Shaft rotation causes, along with the toggle plate, a compressive action of the moving jaw. A double toggle crusher has, basically, two shafts and two toggle plates. The first shaft is a pivoting shaft on the top of the crusher, while the other is an eccentric shaft that drives both toggle plates. The moving jaw has a pure reciprocating motion toward the fixed jaw. The crushing force is doubled compared to single toggle crushers and it can crush very hard ores. The jaw crusher is reliable and robust and therefore quite popular in primary crushing plants. The capacity of jaw crushers is limited, so they are typically used for small or medium projects up to approximately 1600t/h. Vibrating screens are often placed ahead of the jaw crushers to remove undersize material, or scalp the feed, and thereby increase the capacity of the primary crushing operation.

Both cone and gyratory crushers, as shown in Figure 8.2, have an oscillating shaft. The material is crushed in a crushing cavity, between an external fixed element (bowl liner) and an internal moving element (mantle) mounted on the oscillating shaft assembly. An eccentric shaft rotated by a gear and pinion produces the oscillating movement of the main shaft. The eccentricity causes the cone head to oscillate between the open side setting (o.s.s.) and closed side setting (c.s.s.). In addition to c.s.s., eccentricity is one of the major factors that determine the capacity of gyratory and cone crushers. The fragmentation of the material results from the continuous compression that takes place between the mantle and bowl liners. An additional crushing effect occurs between the compressed particles, resulting in less wear of the liners. This is also called interparticle crushing. The gyratory crushers are equipped with a hydraulic setting adjustment system, which adjusts c.s.s. and thus affects product size distribution. Depending on cone type, the c.s.s. setting can be adjusted in two ways. The first way is by rotating the bowl against the threads so that the vertical position of the outer wear part (concave) is changed. One advantage of this adjustment type is that the liners wear more evenly. Another principle of setting adjustment is by lifting/lowering the main shaft. An advantage of this is that adjustment can be done continuously under load. To optimize operating costs and improve the product shape, as a rule of thumb, it is recommended that cones always be choke-fed, meaning that the cavity should be as full of rock material as possible. This can be easily achieved by using a stockpile or a silo to regulate the inevitable fluctuation of feed material flow. Level monitoring devices that detect the maximum and minimum levels of the material are used to start and stop the feed of material to the crusher as needed.

Primary gyratory crushers are used in the primary crushing stage. Compared to the cone type crusher, a gyratory crusher has a crushing chamber designed to accept feed material of a relatively large size in relation to the mantle diameter. The primary gyratory crusher offers high capacity thanks to its generously dimensioned circular discharge opening (which provides a much larger area than that of the jaw crusher) and the continuous operation principle (while the reciprocating motion of the jaw crusher produces a batch crushing action). The gyratory crusher has capacities starting from 1200 to above 5000t/h. To have a feed opening corresponding to that of a jaw crusher, the primary gyratory crusher must be much taller and heavier. Therefore, primary gyratories require quite a massive foundation.

The cone crusher is a modified gyratory crusher. The essential difference is that the shorter spindle of the cone crusher is not suspended, as in the gyratory, but is supported in a curved, universal bearing below the gyratory head or cone (Figure 8.2). Power is transmitted from the source to the countershaft to a V-belt or direct drive. The countershaft has a bevel pinion pressed and keyed to it and drives the gear on the eccentric assembly. The eccentric assembly has a tapered, offset bore and provides the means whereby the head and main shaft follow an eccentric path during each cycle of rotation. Cone crushers are used for intermediate and fine crushing after primary crushing. The key factor for the performance of a cone type secondary crusher is the profile of the crushing chamber or cavity. Therefore, there is normally a range of standard cavities available for each crusher, to allow selection of the appropriate cavity for the feed material in question.

Roll crushers are arbitrarily divided into light and heavy duty crushers. The diameters of the light duty crushers vary between 228 and 760mm with face lengths between 250 and 460mm. The spring pressure for light duty rolls varies between 1.1 and 5.6kg/m. The heavy duty crusher diameters range between 900 and 1000mm with face length between 300 and 610mm. In general, the spring pressures of the heavy duty rolls range between 7 and 60kg/m. The light duty rolls are designed to operate at faster speeds compared to heavy duty rolls that are designed to operate at lower speeds.

It has been stressed that the coal supplier should initially crush the materials to a maximum size such as 300 mm, but they may be something else depending on the agreement or coal tie up. To circumvent the situation, the CHP keeps a crushing provision so that coal bunkers receive the materials at a maximum size of about 2025 mm.

The unloaded coal in the hoppers is transferred to the crusher house through belt conveyors with different stopovers in between such as the penthouse, transfer points, etc., depending on the CHP layout.

Suspended magnets for the removal of tramp iron pieces and metal detectors for identifying nonferrous materials are provided at strategic points to intercept unacceptable materials before they reach the crushers. There may be arrangements for manual stone picking from the conveyors, as suitable. Crushed coal is then sent directly to the stockyard.

A coal-sampling unit is provided for uncrushed coal. Online coal analyzers are also available, but they are a costly item. Screens (vibrating grizzly or rollers) are provided at the upstream of the crushers to sort out the smaller sizes as stipulated, and larger pieces are guided to the crushers.

Appropriate types of isolation gates, for example, rod or rack and pinion gates, are provided before screens to isolate one set of crushers/screens to carry on maintenance work without affecting the operation of other streams.

Vibrating grizzly or roller screens are provided upstream of the crushers for less than 25 (typical) mm coal particles bypass the crusher and coal size more than 25 mm then fed to the crushers. The crushed coal is either fed to the coal bunkers of the boilers or discharged to the coal stockyard through conveyors and transfer points, if any.

This is used for crushing and breaking large coal in the first step of coal crushing plant applied most widely in coal crushing industry. Jaw crushers are designed for primary crushing of hard rocks without rubbing and with minimum dust. Jaw crushers may be utilized for materials such as coal, granite, basalt, river gravel, bauxite, marble, slag, hard rock, limestone, iron ore, magazine ore, etc., within a pressure resistance strength of 200 MPa. Jaw crushers are characterized for different features such as a simple structure, easy maintenance, low cost, high crushing ratio, and high resistance to friction/abrasion/compression with a longer operating lifespan.

Fixed and movable jaw plates are the two main components. A motor-driven eccentric shaft through suitable hardware makes the movable jaw plate travel in a regulated track and hit the materials in the crushing chamber comprising a fixed-jaw plate to assert compression force for crushing.

A coal hammer crusher is developed for materials having pressure-resistance strength over 100 Mpa and humidity not more than 15%. A hammer crusher is suitable for mid-hard and light erosive materials such as coal, salt, chalk, gypsum, limestone, etc.

Hammer mills are primarily steel drums that contain a vertical or horizontal cross-shaped rotor mounted with pivoting hammers that can freely swing on either end of the cross. While the material is fed into the feed hopper, the rotor placed inside the drum is spun at a high speed. Thereafter, the hammers on the ends of the rotating cross thrust the material, thereby shredding and expelling it through the screens fitted in the drum.

Ring granulators are used for crushing coal to a size acceptable to the mills for conversion to powdered coal. A ring granulator prevents both the oversizing and undersizing of coal, helping the quality of the finished product and improving the workability. Due to its strong construction, a ring granulator is capable of crushing coal, limestone, lignite, or gypsum as well as other medium-to-hard friable items. Ring granulators are rugged, dependable, and specially designed for continuous high capacity crushing of materials. Ring granulators are available with operating capacities from 40 to 1800 tons/h or even more with a feed size up to 500 mm. Adjustment of clearance between the cage and the path of the rings takes care of the product gradation as well as compensates for wear and tear of the machine parts for maintaining product size. The unique combination of impact and rolling compression makes the crushing action yield a higher output with a lower noise level and power consumption. Here, the product is almost of uniform granular size with n adjustable range of less than 2025 mm. As the crushing action involves minimum attrition, thereby minimum fines are produced with improving efficiency.

A ring granulator works on n operating principle similar to a hammer mill, but the hammers are replaced with rolling rings. The ring granulator compresses material by impact in association with shear and compression force. It comprises a screen plate/cage bar steel box with an opening in the top cover for feeding. The power-driven horizontal main shaft passes from frame side to frame side, supporting a number of circular discs fixed at regular intervals across its length within the frame. There are quite a few bars running parallel to the main shaft and around the periphery that pass through these discs near their outer edges. The bars are uniformly located about the center of the main rotating shaft. There are a series of rings in between the two consecutive disc spaces, mounted on each bar. They are free to rotate on the bars irrespective of the main shaft rotation. The entire cage assembly, located below the rotor assembly, can be set at a desired close proximity to the rings by screw jack mechanism adjustable from outside the crusher frame. The rotor assembly consisting of the shaft, discs, rings, etc., is fixed as far as the main shaft center line is concerned. This main shaft carries in roller bearings from the box sides. The movable cage frame arrangement is provided so as to set its inner radius marginally larger than that of the ring running periphery. When coal is fed from the top, the rings also rotate along with the shaft and around their own center line along the bars, which drags coal lumps and crushes them to the desired size. After the coal has been crushed by the coal crusher, a vibrating screen grades the coal by size and the coal is then transported via belt conveyor. In this process, a dewatering screen is optional to remove water from the product.

Crusher machines are used for crushing of a wide variety of materials in the mining, iron and steel, and quarry industries. In quarry industry, they are used for crushing of rocks into granites for road-building and civil works. Crusher machines are equipped with a pair of crusher jaws namely; fixed jaws and swing jaws. Both jaws are fixed in a vertical position at the front end of a hollow rectangular frame of crushing machine as shown in Fig.10.1. The swing jaw is moved against the fixed jaws through knuckle action by the rising and falling of a second lever (pitman) carried by eccentric shaft. The vertical movement is then horizontally fixed to the jaw by double toggle plates. Because the jaw is pivoted at the top, the throw is greatest at the discharge, preventing chocking.

The crushing force is produced by an eccentric shaft. Then it is transferred to the crushing zone via a toggle plate system and supported by the back wall of the housing of the machine. Spring-pulling rods keep the whole system in a condition of no positive connection. Centrifugal masses on the eccentric shaft serve as compensation for heavy loads. A flywheel is provided in the form of a pulley. Due to the favorable angle of dip between the crushing jaws, the feeding material can be reduced directly after entering the machine. The final grain size distribution is influenced by both the adjustable crusher setting and the suitability of the tooth form selected for the crushing plates.

Thus, the crusher jaws must be hard and tough enough to crush rock and meet the impact action generated by the action of swing jaws respectively. If the jaws are hard, it will be efficient in crushing rock but it will be susceptible to fracture failure. On the other hand, if the jaws are tough, the teeth will worn out very fast, but it will be able to withstand fracture failure. Thus, crusher jaws are made of highly wear-resistant austenitic manganese steel casting, which combines both high toughness and good resistance to wear.

Austenitic manganese steel was invented by Sir Robert Hadfield in 1882 and was first granted patented in Britain in 1883 with patent number 200. The first United States patents, numbers 303150 and 303151, were granted in 1884. In accordance with ASTM A128 specification, the basic chemical composition of Hadfield steel is 1%1.4% carbon and 11%14% manganese. However, the manganese to carbon ratio is optimum at 10:1 to ensure an austenitic microstructure after quenching [2]. Austenitic manganese steels possess unique resistance to impact and abrasion wears. They exhibit high levels of ductility and toughness, slow crack propagation rates, and a high rate of work-hardening resulting in superior wear resistance in comparison with other potentially competitive materials [310]. These unique properties have made Hadfield's austenitic manganese steel an engineering material of choice for use in heavy industries, such as earth moving, mining, quarrying, oil and gas drilling, and in processing of various materials for components of crushers, mills, and construction machinery (lining plates, hammers, jaws, cones).

Austenitic manganese steel has a yield strength between 50,000psi (345MPa) and 60,000psi (414MPa) [3]. Although stronger than low carbon steel, it is not as strong as medium carbon steel. It is, however, much tougher than medium carbon steel. Yielding in austenitic manganese steel signifies the onset of work-hardening and accompanying plastic deformation. The modulus of elasticity for austenitic manganese steel is 27106psi (186103MPa) and is somewhat below that of carbon steel, which is generally taken as 29106psi (200103MPa). The ultimate tensile strength of austenitic manganese steel varies but is generally taken as 140,000psi (965MPa). At this tensile strength, austenitic manganese steel displays elongation in the 35%40% range. The fatigue limit for manganese steel is about 39,000psi (269MPa). The ability of austenitic manganese to work-harden up to its ultimate tensile strength is its main feature. In this regard austenitic manganese has no equal. The range of work-hardening of austenitic manganese from yield to ultimate tensile is approximately 200%.

When subjected to impact loads Hadfield steel work-hardens considerably while exhibiting superior toughness. However, due to its low yield strength, large deformation may occur and lead to failure before the work-hardening sets in [11]. This phenomenon is detrimental when it comes to some applications, such as rock crushing [12]. Work-hardening behavior of Hadfield steel has been attributed to dynamic strain aging [13]. The hardening or strengthening mechanism has its origin in the interactions between dislocations and the high concentration of interstitial atoms also known as the CottrellBilby interaction. Thus, the wear properties of Hadfield steel are related to its microstructure, which in turn is dependent on the heat-treatment process and chemical composition of the alloy. According to Haakonsen [14], work-hardening is influenced by such parameters as alloy chemistry, temperature, and strain rate.

Carbon content affects the yield strength of AMS. Carbon levels below 1% cause yield strengths to decrease. The optimum carbon content has been found to be between 1% and 1.2%. Above 1.2% carbides precipitate and segregate to grain boundaries, resulting in compromised strength and ductility particularly in heavy sections [15]. Other alloying elements, such as chromium, will increase the yield strength, but decrease ductility. Silicon is generally added as a deoxidizer. Carbon contents above 1.4% are not generally used as the carbon segregates to the grain boundaries as carbides and is detrimental to both strength and ductility [15].

Manganese has very little effect on the yield strength of austenitic manganese steel, but does affect both the ultimate tensile strength and ductility. Maximum tensile strengths are attained with 12%13% manganese contents [16]. Although acceptable mechanical properties can be achieved up to 20% manganese content, there is no economic advantage in using manganese contents greater than 13%. Manganese acts as an austenitic stabilizer and delays isothermal transformation. For example, carbon steel containing 1% manganese begins isothermal transformation about 15s after quenching to 371C, whereas steel containing 12% manganese begins isothermal transformation about 48h after quenching to 371C [15].

Austenitic manganese steel in as-cast condition is characterized by an austenitic microstructure with precipitates of alloyed cementite and the triple phosphorus eutectic of an Fe-(Fe,Mn)3C-(Fe,Mn)3P type [17], which appears when the phosphorus content exceeds 0.04% [18]. It also contains nonmetallic inclusions, such as oxides, sulfides, and nitrides. This type of microstructure is unfavorable due to the presence of the (Fe, Mn)xCy carbides spread along the grain boundaries [19]. However, in solution-treated conditions austenitic manganese steel structure is essentially austenitic because carbon is in austenite solution [19]. The practical limit of carbon in solution is about 1.2%. Thereafter, excess carbon precipitation to the grain boundaries results, especially in heavier sections [20].

Austenitic manganese steel in the as-cast condition is too brittle for normal use. As section thickness increases, the cooling rate within the molds decreases. This decreased cooling rate results in increased embrittlement due to carbon precipitation. In as-cast castings, the tensile strength ranges from approximately 50,000psi. (345MPa) to 70,000psi (483MPa) and displays elongation values below 1%. Heat treatment is used to strengthen and increase the mechanical properties of austenitic manganese steel. The normal heat-treatment method consists of solution annealing and rapid quenching in a water bath.

Considering the mechanical properties, it is difficult to imagine that a casting made from Hadfield steel could suffer failure in service. However, cases like this do happen, especially in heavy-section elements and result in enormous losses of material and long downtimes. The reason for such failures is usually attributed to insufficient ductility, resulting from sensitivity of austenitic manganese steel to section size, heat treatment, and the rapidity and effectiveness of quenching [21]. Poor quench compounded by large section size results in an unstable, in-homogenous structure, subject to transformation to martensite under increased loading and strain rate. This article investigates the cause of incessant failure of locally produced crusher jaws from Hadfield steel.

According to the recent marketing research data conducted by the foundry an estimate of 15,000metrictons of this component is being consumed annually in the local market. This is valued at about $30million. From this market demand, the foundry plant can only supply about 5% valued at $1.5million. This is because the crusher jaws produced locally failed prematurely. Hence, this study aimed at investigating the causes of failure.

Annual wine exports in the European Union is around 21.9 billion (Eurostat) with France being the main wine exporting country followed by Italy and Spain. The wine production process (Fig. 9.1) can be divided into the following stages (Sections 9.2.1.19.2.1.4).

Grape crushers or crusher destemmers are initially used via light processing to avoid seed fracture. Sulfur dioxide is added to the mass to prevent oxidation. At this stage, grape stems are produced as one of the waste streams of the winery process. The mash is pressed in continuous, pneumatic, or vertical basket presses leading to the separation of the pomace (marc) from the must. Microbial growth is suppressed via sulfur dioxide addition.

The solids present in the must are removed before or after fermentation for white wine production. Fining is achieved by combined processes including filtration, centrifugation, flocculation, physicochemical treatment (e.g., activated carbon, gelatin, etc.,), and stabilization to prevent turbidity formation (e.g., the use of bentonite, cold stabilization techniques, etc.). Clarification leads to the separation of sediments via racking.

Wine production is carried out at temperatures lower than 20C for 610 weeks in stainless steel bioreactors or vats with or without yeast inoculation (most frequently Saccharomyces cerevisiae). At the end of fermentation, the wine is cooled (4C5C) and subsequently aged in barrels or wooden vats. The sediment that is produced during fermentation and aging is called wine lees and constitutes one of the waste streams produced by wineries. Current uses of wine lees include tartrate production and ethanol distillation. Lees could also be processed via rotary vacuum filtration for recycling of the liquid fraction and composting of the solid fraction.

Wine is cooled rapidly to facilitate the precipitation of tartrate crystals. Fining is applied for the separation of suspended particles using bentonite and gelatin. Filtration is subsequently applied to remove any insoluble compounds. The wine is finally transferred into bottles.

The main differences in the red wine production process are skin maceration duration, fermentation temperature, and unit operation sequence. Whole crushed grapes are most frequently used in red wine fermentation, which is carried out at 22C28C to facilitate the extraction of color and flavors. The remaining skins, seeds, and grape solids after fermentation are pressed to recover wine with the correct proportions of tannins and other compounds necessary for the final wine product.

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