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limestone extraction mining equipment requirements

limestone extraction underground mining techniques, drilling, blasting processes

limestone extraction underground mining techniques, drilling, blasting processes

Every year increasing companies based in Iowa turn out about 35 million tons of raw material from over a wide spread network of 500 locations to bring in a multitude of construction assignments across the state. The major part of this contribute is hauled out from the well-known pits and quarries where nettle dumps and limestone bedrock are nearer to the ground surface.

In locations where geologic and market stipulations authorize, limestone for collective is mined from underground mines. Despite the fact that mining is more expensive than quarrying, the underground mining of mineral can be a combination of both economical and necessity in some areas of the state.

A foremost element of the mining process is breaking up the rock. This breakup is accomplished by detonating volatiles set in blast holes. The rock face to be gusted is typically 40-feet in width by 20- to 25-feet high. A premeditated pattern of 40 to 50 horizontal holes are drilled for the dimensions of 2 inches wide by 12- to 14-feet deep.

An emblematic maneuver can drill and blast up to 5 rounds per day, slackening tons of rock in several diverse headings. The time-delayed detonation not only amplifies blast efficiency, but will greatly shrinks down the ground vibration. These rocks are then lifted into haul trucks which transport it to a rock pounder sometimes based outside the mining area.

Limestone is a sedimentary rock comprising about 15% of the earths sedimentary crust. Limestones are generally mined in the method of open pit mining and underground mining based on the economic and environmental conditions.

All over the world, the limestones are generally mined from a quarry or the open pit mining. It is the easiest way to remove the limestone without causing much destruction. In surface mining or open pit mining, the top soil and the overburden covering the mineral is removed. Then by the process of drilling the rocks or broken. Overburden or large rocks that are difficult to break through drilling are removed by the explosives to extract the limestone. Then the ore is hauled to the crushing plant. The equipment varies according to each process based on each operation. Surface mining requires only simple machines to operate the mine when compared to underground mining. There are many factors to consider in surface mining are the selection of equipment required at each operation, production capacity, size and shape of the deposit, haul distances, estimated life of the operation and transportation cost to reach the urban centers.

The underground mining is done when the ore is present in more than 100m depth or when the availability of limestone is abundant. Other factors that determine underground mining is that topsoil covering the mineral is hard like rocks. The first process to start underground mining is considering the economical factors. As the specialised equipment and machineries are needed for underground mining, it is only done when there is a large deposit of the minerals. There are a series of processes in case of underground mining, let us get a glance through this.In case of drilling in the underground mining, drilling equipment like horizontal drills and down hole track drills are required. The drilling process completely differs from the open pit mining. The horizontal and hole track drill will produce much smaller blast holes. Explosives are sent to the hole and produce a lower volume of rock with each blast. Other equipment that are required in underground mining are powder loaders, scaling rigs and roof bolting equipment. The powder loaders send the ammonium nitrate fuel oil mixtures into the blast holes. After blasting the loose rocks from the ribs and roof of the mine are removed by the scaling rigs. Roof bolting equipment is also used in underground mining.The room and pillar type operations are undergone to recover the ore from both headings and the benches. It has several benches in the underground with height upto 30m. The thickness depends on the thickness of the deposit. The drill used will determine the size of the room. To maximize the amount of rock produced V-type drill pattern is used. Then the extracted rocks are sent for further processing.The underground mining is considered to be the most efficient method that will be used in the future. However, there are many concerns about underground limestone mining including noise, dust, vibrations due to blasting and other traffic associated with quarry operations.

Looking at what the nature has to offer, it conveys a lot of information when it comes to things that it holds in it, within it and on it. With need for minerals and its wide spread application getting widened each day, the stint of its very existence is getting blink and its depreciation in its source which is its over usage is on the high.

literally means extraction .Our Mother Earth has lots of resources deep within her and mining is the method of extracting all these valuable resources from the earth through different means.There are different methods to extract these resources which are found in different forms beneath the earth's surface.

The metal mining was one of the traditions that have been passed on meritoriously over the past years so that we meet our day-to-day needs of the desired material usage starting from the equipments that are ornamental as well as purposeful coordination of information's.

Jadeite is a pyroxene mineral and is one of the two types of pure jade. The other is known as nephrite jade. Jadeite is the rarer of the two jades, and as a result, it is considered to be more precious and valuable. Due to its striking and emerald green color it is also known as "imperial jadeite".

Surface mining is basically employed when deposits of commercially viable minerals or rock are found closer to the surface; that is, where overstrain (surface material covering the valuable deposit) is relatively very less or the material of interest is structurally unsuitable for heavy handling or tunneling.

Underground mining is carried out when the rocks, minerals, or precious stones are located at a distance far beneath the ground to be extracted with surface mining. To facilitate the minerals to be taken out of the mine, the miners construct underground rooms to work in.

Gold is a chemical component with the symbol Au that springs up from the Latin derivative aurum that means shining dawn and with the atomic number 79. It is a very sought-after valuable metal which, for many centuries, has been utilized as wealth. The metal resembles as nuggets or grain like structures in rocks, subversive "veins" and in alluvial deposits. It is one of the currency metals.

Platinum, is a heavy, malleable,ductile, highly inactive, silverish-white transition metal. Platinum is a member of group 10 elements of the periodic table.It is one among the scarce elements found in Earth's crust and has six naturally occurring isotopes. It is also achemical element.

Diamonds and supplementary valuable and semi-precious gemstones are excavated from the earth level via 4 main types on mining. These diamond withdrawal methods vary depending on how the minerals are situated within the earth, the steadiness of the material neighboring the preferred mineral, and the nonessential damage done to the surrounding environment.

limestone

limestone

Analyses Limestone Purity 47-49 Limestone Purity 49-52 Limestone Purity 53-55 25-50 mm 15-25 mm 06-15 mm 0-50 mm 0-40 mm 50-150 mm 40-80 mm Morvarid Bandar Pol Limestone (CaCO3) Morvarid Bandar Pol (MBP) Company has been actively mining limestone for around two (2) decades up to present. We are manufacturing, supplying, transporting limestone to our valuable customers using the most advanced limestone production lines, limestone sizing and limestone washing equipment. Our company is regularly supplying our limestone product to all cement factories, and steel factories of our region in huge quantity and without limitation. Our mine is located near the port specifically, Shahid Rajaee port complex which is the biggest port in Islamic Republic of Iran, within west area of Bandar Abbas, Iran. It is very accessible for us to deliver limestone due to our utilization of updated machineries and equipment in our factory, as well as providing land transportation services with using modern trucks for easy delivery and exportation of our customers cargoes. Morvarid Bandar Pol Limestone Features Different types of limestone as per customer requirements and demands. 2 decades of consecutive activities in producing limestone and sizing of limestone. Utilizing rich and super quality limestone mines. Equipped with most advanced and technical machineries and equipment. One of the best Limestone producer, manufacturer, supplier and exporter in Bandar Abbas Iran. Possessing great in-land transportation fleet for facilitating the shifting of limestone from mine to the Shahid Rajaee port. Wide ranges of limestone equipment, limestone mining machinery, and especial limestone storage yard in Shahid Rajaee port complex. Utilizing a comprehensive expert team for limestone handling, limestone loading, limestone unloading, limestone release, and customs formalities inside the port. Pure, good quality mines with 40km proximity to Shahid Rajaee port Bandar Abbas Hormozgan province. Close to the huge steel factories, aluminum factories, and other projects on construction in west of Bandar Abbas and south of Iran. Close to Persian Gulf islands such as Qeshm, Kish, Lavan, Hormoz, Larak, Abu moosa, Greater Tunb, Lesser Tunb, Hendorabi How Limestone is Made Limestone formations created through evaporation are chemical sedimentary rocks, also known as travertine. They are formed when droplets containing calcium carbonate leak through cave ceilings and evaporate. As each evaporated droplet leaves behind a small amount of calcium carbonate, a stalactite forms. If droplets fall to the floor and then evaporate, a stalagmite extends upward as the calcium carbonate starts to pile up. Many caves are filled with these characteristic limestone teeth. Biological sedimentary limestone forms most often in warm, shallow marine waters in areas between 30 degrees latitude north and 30 degrees latitude south. This type of limestone is formed as marine organisms with calcium carbonate shells and skeletons die and accumulate layer by layer. Eventually, with extensive pressure and time, that calcium carbonate sediment hardens into limestone. These types of rocks often have fossils present in them. A less common method of limestone formation is through the direct accretion of calcium carbonate from either salt or fresh water. Limestone is formed in two ways. It can be formed with the help of living organisms and by evaporation. Ocean-dwelling organisms such as oysters, clams, mussels and coral use calcium carbonate (CaCO3) found in seawater to create their shells and bones. As these organisms die, their shells and bones are broken down by waves and settle on the ocean floor where they are compacted over millions of years, creating limestone from the sediments and the pressure of the ocean water. The second way limestone is formed is when water containing particles of calcium carbonate evaporate, leaving behind the sediment deposit. The water pressure compacts the sediment, creating limestone. The area around the Great Lakes, such as Michigan, Indiana, and Illinois, has a large amount of limestone. Scientists use this along with evidence of fossils to hypothesize that at one time the area was underwater, which created a lot of limestone. Because limestone is often formed from shells and bones, it is a light color like white, tan, or gray. The color of the limestone depends on the other sediments in the mixture besides the mineral calcite, which is white; impurities such as sand, clay, and organic material are also present in limestone and affect the color. There are a few ways to recognize limestone. First of all, it is a soft stone and when it is scratched with a sharp object, it becomes a white powder. When limestone comes in contact with an acid like vinegar or hydrochloric acid (HCl), the stone will actually bubble and deteriorate and then neutralize the acid. Morvarid Bandar Pol Limestone Mine Capabilities Good quality limestone mine which is located in Bandar Abbas with 40km proximity to Shahid Rajaee port Bandar Abbas city south of Islamic Republic of Iran. Using advanced technology and limestone producing method, expert Q.C teams, latest achievements mining machinery. Limestone storage private area more than 7 hectares in Shahid Rajaee port Bandar Abbas Hormozgan province. Limestone port services such as limestone loading and unloading vessels, barges, landing crafts, limestone loading/unloading in containers. Limestone stevedoring. Limestone port handling. Limestone clearing, shipping agencies, ship chartering. Limestone land transportation with using modern trucks. Accept customers valuable limestone order with any method of the delivery. Producing, supplying, exporting limestone from Bandar Abbas Iran to any ports of India, Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore, Vietnam, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Qatar, Bahrain, Kuwait, UAE, China, Tanzania, Mozambique, Djibouti, Kenya, and east African countries. Types of Limestone There are several different types of limestone, including travertine, oolitic, and fossiliferous. All types of limestone form from a combination of calcium carbonate-containing minerals, primarily calcite and aragonite: Calcarenite Calcarenite is composed of sand-sized grains of calcite, usually in the form of tiny fossils, shell fragments and fossil debris. Some calcarenites contain oolites and if the oolites are present in sufficient quantity, the stone is called oolite limestone. Oolite limestone is a sub-category of calcarenite. Coquina Coquina consists of raw, unaltered shell fragments, often quite large, loosely cemented by calcite. It is generally very coarse and porous, frequently consisting of oyster and sea shells and fragments. Dolomite Dolomite is a sedimentary carbonate rock composed of calcium and magnesium carbonate. Also called "magnesium limestone", it contains from 5 to 40% magnesium carbonate. Microcrystalline limestone This is a limestone structure of crystals too small to be seen without magnification. Oolitic limestone Oolitic limestone is a calcite cemented calcareous stone composed of shell fragments, practically non-crystalline in character. Generally, without cleavage, and extremely uniform in composition and texture, oolitic limestone adjusts to temperature changes. Travertine A calcium carbonate, usually light in color, travertine can be extremely porous or cellular. It is usually deposited from solids in groundwater. Morvrid Bandar Pol Limestone Types Limestone for cement factories Limestone for cement factories Limestone for especial Industries Limestone for agricultural Industry Limestone for manufacture of glass Limestone for sugar industry Morvarid Bandar Pol Limestone Sizes Limestone with size 06 15 mm Limestone with size 15 25 mm Limestone with size 25 50 mm Limestone with size 50 150 mm Limestone with size 10 50 mm Limestone with size 10 40 mm Limestone with size 30 80 mm Limestone with lump size Limestone with rock field size Limestone with any size as customer requirement Uses of Limestone Cement Cement is a substance manufactured from limestone and shale, with other minor additives, at temperatures in excess of 1200C. It has unique properties - as a powder it is loose and friable, but mixed with water it hydrates into a paste and then as it dries it sets hard and binds all the surrounding particles together. Even once it seems to be solid, cement will continue to hydrate and chemically interlock so that a concrete structure will continue to gain in strength for at least a month, and in some cases three months, after formation. Virtually all of the cement produced is used in concrete. Agriculture Lime is taken up by plants (either crops or grass) and trees but is also naturally lost from soils through leaching by rainwater and the use of fertilizers. This can result in an increase in acidity, loss of fertility in the soil and sometimes an adverse effect on soil structure. To redress the balance, 'agricultural lime' is applied to fields to maintain the necessary growing conditions for crops or grassland. Lime can be simply ground limestone or dolomite (which also contains magnesium) or burnt limestone, (or burnt dolomite) where the rock is heated in a kiln. Glass Glass is made from melting silica sand at a high temperature, in the presence of sodium as a flux. The molten glass, at approximately 1000C is poured continuously from a furnace onto a shallow bath of molten tin, where it spreads out evenly. It is then cooled quickly before crystallization can occur. Industrial and other uses Limestone is used as a flux in the extraction of iron from iron ore. Iron is extracted from ore by heating in a furnace. Limestone is added so that the silicon in the ore forms a calcium silicate (with the calcium carbonate that is limestone) otherwise it would form an iron silicate and thus reduce the quantity of metallic iron produced. The calcium silicate, together with other impurities, forms the 'slag' and this substance can be used as a lightweight secondary aggregate. Sand, usually silica sand, is used to make molds in a foundry. These are the hollow containers into which molten metal is poured to produce a casting of a particular shape. The exact type of sand used depends on the particular metal or alloy that is to be cast, but it usually contains clay and/or some other material to bind it together. The burning of coal at power stations produces Sulphur dioxide, one of the main gases that causes acid rain. Rather than simply emit this gas along with their other flue gases, most coal fired power stations today use limestone in a process known as 'flue-gas desulphurization'. Limestone is finely crushed and mixed with water to form a slurry. It is then sprayed into the absorber tower of the power station where a chemical process converts the limestone and Sulphur into gypsum. This 'artificial' gypsum is then recovered and sold for the manufacture of plasterboard. Limestone, or calcium carbonate, also has many other uses. Ground to a fine powder it is used as a whitening agent or filler in paper, adhesives, paint, plastics, PVC, toothpaste, medical tablets and cleaning products. It is also used to provide additional calcium in vitamin and mineral supplements, flour and animal feed. Properties of Limestone There are two types of sedimentary rocks: chemical and clastic. Limestone is a chemical sedimentary rock, which forms from the solidification of minerals out of solution into rock form. Because the chemicals in limestone can be readily dissolved by acidic solutions and water, they are able to form karst topography. Karst topography forms when limestone bedrock chemically reacts with liquids to form unusual features, like stalactites and stalagmites, which are the strange pointy features found in crystal caves around the world and sinkholes. When calcium-rich minerals in limestone are dissolved into groundwater, it forms what is referred to as hard water or water that has higher than normal pH and mineral content. Depending on the conditions under which they formed, limestone can take on a number of structural shapes, including granular (looking like mineral grains), massive (looking like an irregular blob), crystalline (looking like individual, well-formed crystals), or clastic (looking like fragments of rock). When limestones of any type undergo metamorphism, they re-crystallize as marble. Because all limestone contains calcium carbonate, which reacts with hydrochloric acid to produce bubbles, acid testing is considered one of the most reliable field-tests for limestone and calcite mineral identification. Limestone Classification Dunham The Dunham classification is based on the concept of grain support. The classification divides carbonate rocks into two broad groups, those whose original components were not bound together during deposition and those whose original components formed in place and consist of intergrowths of skeletal material. The latter group are called bound stones (similar to biolithite of the Folk classification). The former group is further subdivided as to whether or not the grains are mud-supported or grain supported. If the rock consists of less than 10% grains it is called a mudstone (potentially confusing if taken out of context). If it is mud supported with greater than 10% grains it is called a wackstone. If the rock is grain supported, it is called a pack stone, if the grains have shapes that allow for small amounts of mud to occur in the interstices, and a grain stone if there is no mud between the grains. Folk The Folk classification, which we will use in lab, is shown below. The classification divides carbonates into two groups. Allochemical rocks are those that contain grains brought in from elsewhere (i.e. similar to detrital grains in clastic rocks). Orthochemical rocks are those in which the carbonate crystallized in place. Allochemical rocks have grains that may consist of fossiliferous material, ooids, peloids, or intraclasts. These are embedded in a matrix consisting of microcrystalline carbonate (calcite or dolomite), called micrite, or larger visible crystals of carbonate, called sparite. Sparite is clear granular carbonate that has formed through recrystallization of micrite, or by crystallization within previously existing void spaces during diagenesis. Limestone Mining Calcite and dolomite, when heated and in some cases slurried or combined with salt, are used in making many everyday products such as paper, glass, paint and varnish, soap and detergents, textiles, refractories, baking powder, and pharmaceuticals, including milk of magnesia and bicarbonate of soda. Finely ground, they are used to control coal mine dust, to collect sulfur dioxide from power plant exhaust, to sweeten soils, and as ingredients in fertilizer and stock feeds, to name a few. Limestone is used extensively in Michigan to refine beet sugar. When burned in a kiln to drive off gases, calcite and dolomite form burnt lime. Among the uses for burnt lime, in addition to steel making, are water and sewage treatment, acid waste neutralization, and road base stabilization. Crushed calcite and dolomite are used in concrete, road construction, building materials, and as a filler in asphalt. Limestone Source Most limestone and dolomite are mined from open quarries, although in many areas economic and environmental considerations favor large-scale production by underground mining. The only carbonate materials not consistently recovered by surface or underground mining are shell products that are dredged from parts of U.S. coastal waterways. Surface Limestone Mining: The basic elements of surface mining are overburden removal, drilling, blasting and hauling ore to the crushing and processing plant. The selection of surface mining equipment varies with the particular requirements at each operation, including production capacity required, size and shape of the deposit, haul distances, estimated life of the operation, location relative to urban centers, and other social and economic factors. Other factors that must be considered in surface mining are the value of the products produced, location of competitive operations, and environmental and safety requirements associated with a particular deposit. Underground Limestone Mining: The basic operations in underground mining are drilling, blasting, loading and hauling, scaling, and roof bolting. Drilling equipment includes horizontal drills and down hole track drills. This equipment is generally quite different from that used for surface mining and results in much smaller blast holes and a lower volume of rock produced with each blast. Other equipment required in the underground mine includes powder loaders, which are used to blow ammonium nitratefuel oil mixtures into the blast holes. Scaling rigs, which are used to remove loose rocks from the ribs and roof of the mine, and roof-bolting equipment may also be required in an underground mine. Most underground limestone and dolomite mines are room-and-pillar-type operations, and many recover rock from both headings and benches. It is not uncommon for an underground limestone mine to have several benches and an overall mine height up to 30 m. Whereas the thickness of the deposit being mined is directly controlled by the thickness of the rock and related roof conditions, it is not uncommon for an individual heading to be 7.5 to 10.5 m high, and in some instances to reach as high as 15 m. Rooms are generally 13.5 to 15 m wide, which, depending on the type of drilling jumbo used, normally can be mined with one- or two-drill setups. A V-type drill pattern is commonly used to maximize the amount of rock produced with each shot to reduce the amount of unbroken rock in the shot face. Roof scaling is normally required as a safety measure; roof bolting may or may not be required, depending on roof conditions at the individual mine. Loading and hauling equipment may include standard 22 to 45-ton haul trucks and correspondingly sized front-end loaders. In some mines, the loading equipment may be more typical of underground hard-rock operations, and may include load-haul-dump units or other types of tramming equipment. Limestone Quarrying Operations Extraction (more commonly referred to as quarrying) consists of removing blocks or pieces of stone from an identified and unearthed geologic deposit. Differences in the particular quarrying techniques used often stems from variations in the physical properties of the deposit itself such as density, fracturing/bedding planes, and depth financial considerations, and the site owners preference. Nevertheless, the process is relatively simple: locate or create (minimal) breaks in the stone, remove the stone using heavy machinery, secure the stone on a vehicle for transport, and move the material to storage. The first step in quarrying is to gain access to the limestone deposit. This is achieved by removing the layer of earth, vegetation, and rock unsuitable for product collectively referred to as overburden with heavy equipment that is sometimes coupled with small explosive charges. The overburden is then transferred to onsite storage for potential use in later reclamation of the site. After the face of the limestone is exposed, the stone is removed from the quarry in benches, usually 8 to 12 feet square extending 20 feet or more using a variety of techniques suitable to the geology and characteristics of the limestone deposit. Quarrying operations typically include drilling holes along the perimeter of the bench followed by cutting the stone out of the deposit using saws equipped with diamond wire, or by splitting the stone using hydraulic splitters. If bedding planes are visible, forklifts can be used to pry up the blocks. Once the bench is cut or split loose from the deposit, heavy equipment is used to lift the limestone bench and transfer it to an inspection area for grading, temporary storage, occasional preprocessing into slabs, and eventual shipment from the site. Limestone of insufficient quality or size for current demand is stored on-site for future use, crushed for use in paving and construction applications, or stored for future site reclamation activities. Limestone Processing Operations Processing operations include much more variation than extraction. Nevertheless, the general procedures begin with initial cutting, followed by application of a finish, and conclude with a second cutting or shaping step. Due to the array of stone products, the second and/or third steps may be eliminated, specifically when the product will have a natural appearance. Processing commences with transportation of the (raw) stone from the quarry to the processing facility. It should be noted that this step may consist of multiple transportation steps; prior to reaching the doors of the facility, the stone may be transferred to a number of vendors or distribution locations worldwide. Additionally, some limestone (blocks) may have been cut into slabs before reaching the main fabrication plant. These are most commonly sliced to a thickness of 3/4 in (2 cm), 1-1/4 in (3 cm), or more in lengths of approximately 10-12 ft. and widths around 3-5 ft. The route that the stone takes through the plant therefore depends on its physical state upon arrival, as well as the product to be produced. The first step of the process is a primary cutting or shaping of the material. This is typically accomplished for limestone using a circular blade saw, diamond wire saw, or a splitter. When operating a circular or diamond wire saw, a continuous stream of water over the saw is required in order to dissipate heat generated by the process; sufficiently-elevated temperature can cause major machine and material damage. Natural-faced products, such as veneer or flooring, may be completed with this step, while other products require a finishing application, secondary cutting, or both. Limestone is often produced with a natural surface, but finishes can be applied. In such cases, often a polished or honed finishing is given to limestone products, but a variety of other finishes are also common. Polishing and honing are manually and/or mechanically accomplished through the use of polishing pads or bricks. A secondary shaping step may be necessary if the product includes any features or custom size or shape. For this procedure, a circular blade saw is frequently implemented for limestone, but a variety of hand tools are also common. Cooling water is again necessary for large circular saws. Once a product is completed, it is packaged and stored for shipment or direct sale. Limestone of insufficient quality or size for current demand is stocked on-site for future use, crushed for use in paving and construction applications, or stored for site reclamation activities. Making a Limestone Form a calcareous ooze The ocean is full of tiny organisms such as plankton and foraminifera. Many of these organisms take chemicals from the sea to produce skeletons or shells. Over a lifetime the skeleton is continually replaced, and the old material is squeezed out into the ocean. This produces a continual rain of calcium carbonate debris falling onto the ocean floor. Some of the calcium carbonate that slowly accumulates on the seafloor also comes from the dying organisms themselves, as well as from larger species like oysters, echinoderms and even occasionally from whales. The whole mixture is known as a calcareous ooze. Barrier reefs are probably the most famous example of limestones being formed today. However, reef limestones are only a small proportion of the limestone found on land today. Limestone is not all calcium carbonate. It also contains detritus sands and muds that are excreted by the organisms, have fallen off higher parts of the seabed, or have eroded off the land in rivers. Detritus is what gives limestone its grey or brown color without it the calcium carbonate would be pure white. Compress the ooze The ooze lying at the bottom of the sea is 40-80% empty space at first. As more and more calcium carbonate settles down on top, the accumulating weight forces the sediments at the bottom to compact (a process called diagenesis). Often this involves such large force that the particles will dissolve. They then recrystallise with very little space left. The detritus is forced into its own narrow bands, giving the limestone that flaggy look (although there are also other theories to explain the layered appearance of the limestone). The depth of the ooze as it forms the limestone can be a kilometer or more. Lift it out of the sea Tectonic forces beneath the Earths surface can lift the limestone out of the sea. As the seawater drains out at the bottom, fresh water circulates down into the rock, and often much of the original material is dissolved and redeposited as a cement. Once exposed to the atmosphere; wind, rain, streams and gravity begin eroding away the limestone, producing the very characteristic karst landscape of caves, gorges, depressions, blind valleys and rock outcrops Lime Manufacture In addition to being used as an industrial material, limestone is used to produce lime. Lime (CaO) is an important manufactured product with many industrial, chemical, and environmental applications. Lime production involves three main processes: stone preparation, calcinations, and hydration. Stone preparation includes crushing screening, and washing it removes impurities. Calcining is the heating of limestone to convert the calcium carbonate into calcium oxide. This process is typically carried out in a rotary or vertical shaft kiln. Required temperatures of the kilns exceed 1800 degrees. The product of calcining is quicklime which can be used as "pebble lime" or may be crushed or pulverized, depending on its intended use. The quicklime is then hydrated or combined with water, in continuous hydrators. The end product is a fine dry powder, or with excess water, pumpable milk of lime.

limestone extraction without drilling and blasting | agg-net

limestone extraction without drilling and blasting | agg-net

PJSC Ivano-Frankivskcement (IFCEM), based in Yamnytsya, in western Ukraine, produce cement clinker and around 300 other cement and gypsum products for use in construction. The raw material for the companys cement plant comes from a limestone deposit located some 15km north of Yamnytsya in a part of the Carpathian mining area that is rich in sedimentary rocks such as limestone, marl and gypsum.

For years, the limestone was extracted by drilling and blasting and then wet processed into clinker in the cement plant. In a move to increase productivity and reduce costs, IFCEM became the first cement plant in the Ukraine to initiate the transition from the wet process to a dry process, a measure that optimized the mining method for material supply.

The dry process is now considered the preferred method for clinker production as it reduces fuel consumption per tonne of material. This, in turn, has a positive effect on production costs and the environment. For an optimal dry process, the material from the quarry should have a low moisture content so that it can be crushed in a dry crusher, ground to powder in the raw mill and burnt in the rotary kiln without further pre-treatment.

To ensure that the material extracted from the quarry is as dry as possible, a radical change in the mining method was necessary. At the same time, the use of explosives for limestone extraction was having a detrimental effect on neighbouring residential areas due to the noise and ground vibrations it generated. IFCEM found the solution in Wirtgen surface miner technology. In 2012, the company purchased a 2200SM machine, followed by a second, identical model in 2015 and then, last year, a 2500 SM.

By gradually phasing out the drilling and blasting operations, the surface miners progressively reduced the time and cost involved in pre- and post-crushing the material, and also made it possible to redesign the limestone deposit working area. By ensuring a defined surface slope, with the aid of the Level Pro automatic levelling system, the surface miners created the conditions for efficient dewatering.

Compared with drilling and blasting, this allows much drier raw material to be mined and the material can enter the plants drying process without any further treatment. Thanks to the redesign of the mining area, exploitation of the deposits has also been increased, as previously unused areas can now be worked and additional material extracted.

This increase in mining volume had a major influence on the selection of the third surface niner machine. After impressive results with the smaller Wirtgen 2200 SM with its 2.2m cutting drum and maximum cutting depth of 300mm, the technical management of Ivano-Frankivskcement opted for the more powerful 2500 SM model.

Together, the three Wirtgen surface miners generate a daily output of 7,000 tonnes, which results in optimum utilization of the cement plant. The 2500SM has made an important contribution to this, as well as to increasing production in the quarry, where the limestone has a uniaxial compressive strength of between 20MPa and 70MPa depending on its depth. The 2500 SM, which has already clocked more than 4,500h, is equipped with a 2.5m-wide cutting drum fitted with cutting tools on an HT 15 quick-change tool-holder system. The HT 15 reduces the time required to replace the tool-holder from 90min to 15min, compared with conventional welded tool-holder systems.

The 2500 SM, which is capable of removing material to a maximum depth of 650mm, extracts the limestone to a depth of 400450mm. Depending on the rocks hardness, the surface miner achieves a feed rate of 5m per minute at a grain size of 0100mm, with the entire tooling arrangement being replaced at varying intervals between 200h and 500h, depending on the application.

Since its market launch, the 2500 SM has proven its performance and flexibility worldwide, as it can be used for the selective mining of raw materials with uniaxial compressive strengths up to 80MPa and in special cases even higher. The surface miner cuts, crushes and loads the rock in a single operation. Depending on the application, the material can either be loaded directly into trucks via the the machines 11.3m long slewing discharge conveyor, discharged laterally or deposited as a windrow between the machines crawler tracks. The 2500 SM is powered by a 783kW (1,065hp) engine and delivers precise mining of the mineral thanks to the Level Pro levelling system integrated into the machines control system.

The operator sits in a spacious soundproof and dustproof air-conditioned cabin. A video system with several cameras provides a complete overview during the extraction process, ensuring maximum safety. Summing up the advantages, machine operator Svyatoslav Podolyak, who has been driving the 2500SM since last year, said: This surface miner has an excellent production rate that is even higher than that of the 2200 SM, and that is already very good. Thanks to the clearly arranged instruments, I can see all the important information at a glance. The soundproofed and air-conditioned cabin also gives me an optimal view of the cutting edge and allows me to concentrate on my work in the cold winters and hot summers typical of this region.

According to Yaroslav Nesterovych Voznyak, technical manager at IFCEM, the surface miners, especially the 2500 SM, have had a positive influence on the production cycle in the quarry and in the cement plant. The purchase of the Wirtgen surface miners made the transition from drilling and blasting to a safe mining process easy to implement, he said. In addition to the environmental and production benefits, the surface miners have proven to be the best solution, especially in terms of cost-efficiency and economical operation. The grain size of the material produced is ideal for the cement plant, which is why our fleet of surface miners will grow. We are already preparing a further mining area with a volume of around 180 million tonnes of material, which we want to mine with our Wirtgen machines.

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