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magnetic separation recovery of saleable iron and steel from

the basics of magnetic separation as applied to municipal solid waste reclamation plants - sciencedirect

the basics of magnetic separation as applied to municipal solid waste reclamation plants - sciencedirect

Magnetic separation of ferrous metallics from municipal solid waste is based on technology developed for, and profitably applied to, ore beneficiation, slag reclamation, automobile shredding, and scrap processing industries. No one system or type of magnet can be used for all ferrous waste recovery. Above all, the system must initially be engineered into the process to provide recovery of a product that is readily marketable. Various magnet arrangements in the recovery system separate, clean and transport the recycled ferrous material. There are a number of basic magnetic system configurations and typical applications, some of which are presented here.

woodchip / bio mass - magnetic separations

woodchip / bio mass - magnetic separations

Description:Magnetic separators such as the suspension magnet, magnet drum, and magnetic pulley have been represented in this market segment for many years now. The eddy current separator used for separating non-ferrous metals such as aluminium and brass has also been enjoying huge success. STEINERT GmbH based in Cologne is one of the most experienced manufacturers of such metal separators and also has considerable experience in this area. Since a wide variety of much more complex structures have been developed in the field of wood utilisation, other metals such as stainless steel and other small metal parts that can be broken down into smaller pieces can also be found. On account of the considerable throughputs in scrap wood recycling and the fact that conventional stainless steel can be separated neither by magnets nor eddy currents, Steinert recently carried out tests with new types of metal separators, its inductive sorting systems ISS.

As is often the case in the preparation stage, individual separators only work efficiently in certain grain size ranges. The goal of metal separation in scrap wood recycling is not the purity of the metal itself, but the removal of all metal parts. As a result, considerable volume throughputs are possible and wood loss is acceptable. The iron-bearing objects are almost completely separated by magnet drums and usually electromagnetic top belt separators. Nevertheless, the purity of the iron product is very clean and saleable. Alternating poles in the permanent suspension magnet or transverse poles in magnet drums allow the iron separation to be arranged in a targeted manner.

In the preliminary stages of scrap wood processing, however, the high-performance separation of non-ferrous metals such as aluminium and brass is ultimately the most important thing. The eddy current separator (also referred to as a non-ferrous metal separator) with a working width of up to two meters is capable of processing around 200 m3/h of comminute scrap wood. In the market, a distinction is made between two design principles with a central or an eccentric magnetic pole system. As is the case in other industries, the specific structure of the STEINERT eddy current separator with its patented, eccentric pole system has proved particularly successful. The figures speak for themselves: More than 1,500 such units are currently in use all over the world. The unique feature of being able to adjust the pole system is beneficial to the separating process. This means that the time at which the sorting force should be exerted can be adapted to meet the exact requirements of the respective process. Smaller iron impurities can damage neither the pole drum nor the extremely thin belt. The first of these factors is not possible and the second cannot be avoided when using a central system.

Magnetic and non-ferrous metal separation removes virtually all metal parts. They are ideal as inexpensive and low-maintenance mass flow methods for the separation of individual metal parts and coarse metal composites. Intimate metal composites as well as stainless steels and lead, on the other hand, cannot be separated or can only be separated to a limited extent using these devices.

magnetic nanoparticle recovery device (magnerd) enables application of iron oxide nanoparticles for water treatment | springerlink

magnetic nanoparticle recovery device (magnerd) enables application of iron oxide nanoparticles for water treatment | springerlink

An optimized permanent magnetic nanoparticle recovery device (i.e., the MagNERD) was developed and operated to separate, capture, and reuse superparamagnetic Fe3O4 from treated water in-line under continuous flow conditions. Experimental data and computational modeling demonstrate how the MagNERDs efficiency to recover nanoparticles depends upon reactor configuration, including the integration of stainless-steel wool around permanent magnets, hydraulic flow conditions, and magnetic NP uptake. The MagNERD efficiently removes Fe3O4 in the form of a nanopowder, up to >95% at high concentrations (500ppm), under scalable and process-relevant flow rates (1L/min through a 1.11-L MagNERD reactor), and in varying water matrices (e.g., ultrapure water, brackish water). The captured nanoparticles were recoverable from the device using a simple hydraulic backwashing protocol. Additionally, the MagNERD removed 94% of arsenic-bound Fe3O4, after contacting As-containing simulated drinking water with the nanopowder. The MagNERD emerges as an efficient, versatile, and robust system that will enable the use of magnetic nanoparticles in larger scale water treatment applications.

To aid potable water treatment, a magnetic nanoparticle recovery device (MagNERD) containing removable permanent magnets was optimized and operated to capture superparamagnetic nanoparticles from polluted water in-line under flow conditions.

Gmez-Pastora J, Bringas E, Ortiz I (2014) Recent progress and future challenges on the use of high performance magnetic nano-adsorbents in environmental applications. Chem Eng J 256:187204. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2014.06.119

Gutierrez AM, Dziubla TD, Hilt JZ (2017) Recent advances on iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles as sorbents of organic pollutants in water and wastewater treatment. Rev Environ Health 32:111117. https://doi.org/10.1515/reveh-2016-0063

Hatch GP, Stelter RE (2001) Magnetic design considerations for devices and particles used for biological high-gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) systems. J Magn Magn Mater 225:262276. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-8853(00)01250-6

Larumbe S, Gmez-Polo C, Prez-Landazbal JI, Pastor JM (2012) Effect of a SiO2 coating on the magnetic properties of Fe3O4 nanoparticles. J Phys Condens Matter 24:266007. https://doi.org/10.1088/0953-8984/24/26/266007

Mahmoudi M, Sant S, Wang B, Laurent S, Sen T (2011) Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs): development, surface modification and applications in chemotherapy. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 63:2446. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addr.2010.05.006

Mariani G, Fabbri M, Negrini F, Ribani PL (2010) High-gradient magnetic separation of pollutant from wastewaters using permanent magnets. Sep Purif Technol 72:147155. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2010.01.017

Reza A, Mirrahimi MA (2010) Efficient separation of heavy metal cations by anchoring polyacrylic acid on superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles through surface modification. Chem Eng J 159:264271. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2010.02.041

Toh PY, Yeap SP, Kong LP et al (2012) Magnetophoretic removal of microalgae from fishpond water: feasibility of high gradient and low gradient magnetic separation. Chem Eng J 211212:2230. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2012.09.051

Veligatla M, Katakam S, Das S, Dahotre N, Gopalan R, Prabhu D, Arvindha Babu D, Choi-Yim H, Mukherjee S (2015) Effect of iron on the enhancement of magnetic properties for cobalt-based soft magnetic metallic glasses. Metall Mater Trans A 46:10191023. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11661-014-2714-2

Westerhoff P, Alvarez P, Gardea-Torresdey J et al (2016) Overcoming implementation barriers for nanotechnology in drinking water treatment. Environ Sci Nano 3:12411253. https://doi.org/10.1039/c6en00183a

Yavuz CT, Mayo JT, Suchecki C, Wang J, Ellsworth AZ, DCouto H, Quevedo E, Prakash A, Gonzalez L, Nguyen C, Kelty C, Colvin VL (2010) Pollution magnet: Nano-magnetite for arsenic removal from drinking water. Environ Geochem Health 32:327334. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-010-9293-y

Zhu Q, Ma J, Chen F et al (2019) Treatment of hydraulic fracturing flowback water using the combination of gel breaking , magnetic- enhanced coagulation , and electrocatalytic oxidation. Sep Sci Technol:18. https://doi.org/10.1080/01496395.2019.1614061

This work was funded by the National Science Foundation (EEC-1449500) Nanosystems Engineering Research Center on Nanotechnology-Enabled Water Treatment, and the Lifecycle of Nanomaterials funded by US Environmental Protection Agency through the STAR program (RD83558001).

Powell, C.D., Atkinson, A.J., Ma, Y. et al. Magnetic nanoparticle recovery device (MagNERD) enables application of iron oxide nanoparticles for water treatment. J Nanopart Res 22, 48 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11051-020-4770-4

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