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milling machine market size, growth | global industry report, 2026

milling machine market size, growth | global industry report, 2026

Milling machines are expected to exhibit a moderate growth rate owing to their functional versatility in operations across several industries. Some of the functions that they can perform are drilling, chamfering, turning, slot cutting, fillet making, and others. Milling machines are very essential tools used in metal cutting applications. Their ability to perform various tasks efficiently and effectively make them the most critical machines required by multiple industries for different operations.

Growing demand from the end-users is making the industries to augment their manufacturing process. With the increase in the manufacturing process, companies are looking for reduced operational costs provided by these machines, further fueling the milling machine market growth. Milling machines provide high-quality products along with less production time, which aid the companies in reducing the cost and minimizing wastage. Additionally, the demand for easy-to-install and multi-functions provided by the machines would also propel the market demand. Moreover, the primary application of milling machines into industrial manufacturing as they provide different functions when required for multiple purposes.

Milling machines produces customized products in bulk quantity. The consumer market is looking for products with differentiation and with the latest updates in the hardware and technology. This has resulted in an increased and continuous production process for various industries such as electronics, automobiles, general manufacturing, etc. Furthermore, companies are looking for seizing every opportunity in order to have increased market share; hence they are looking for continuous improvement in their manufacturing facility for increased output. Moreover, the connected industry, industry 4.0, automation, and robotics are emphasizing the companies to have an automated production process resulting in the demand for milling machines.

Milling machines are an important aspect of the machine tools market but provide limited milling functions as drill, lathe, etc. Due to this limitation, the industries are required to install other machines as well, which increases the capital investment required. Moreover, multiple machines have different wear and tear schedules thereby resulting in increased maintenance costs to the company. On the other hand other types of machine tools such as machining centers provide multiple functions in which milling is also included; hence, the customers tend to opt for machining centers instead of milling machines. These factors are anticipated to restrict the growth of the market.

Based on type, the market is divided into vertical mills, horizontal mills, & others. The vertical mills segment is expected to grow moderately over the anticipated period, owing to its multiple functions in various industries. Furthermore, this type of mills can be installed quickly and have high energy efficiency and superior performance as compared to horizontal mills. Moreover, horizontal mills provide a more refined surface finish, thus limiting its use at precision engineering and automotive industries. Horizontal mills are used for systematic purposes and complicated parts; hence, they have comparatively extended tool life. Additionally, other types of mills that are included in the scope are mills with different axis options, gantry mills, etc.. These types of mills are comparably compact in sizes, hence are installed and operated by small and medium scale industries.

Based on application, the market is divided into automotive, general machinery, precision engineering, transport machinery, & others. The precision engineering application segment is expected to grow with substantial CAGR during the forecast period compared to the other applications. This is owed to the function of both horizontal as well as vertical types of mills in the industry. Moreover, the increasing demand from the emerging economies for consumer goods and tools is also expected to fuel the growth. Transport machinery & general machinery segments are expected to have a slow growth rate during the forecast period. Both applications have constant requirements of the milling machine, but due to the slow growth rate of the industry, it is impacting the growth of the market. The automotive application of milling machines is expected to grow at a slow but steady pace. The automotive industry is going through a change that will also impact the demand for the milling machine. Other applications include electrical, construction equipment, and power & energy, which constitute a minor part of the market.

Europe milling machine market is anticipated to showcase significant growth in the market as compared to North America, MEA, and LATAM. The region is focused on developing energy-efficient milling machines and a technologically equipped product line. Moreover, increased demand in the manufacturing and processing operations is also fueling the demand in the European market. Furthermore, North America is expected to showcase stagnant growth in the forecast period, owing to the adoption of this machine for industrial applications where these machines are being installed for manufacturing components efficiently. Manufacturers are expanding the business lines in the developing regions by focusing on having their manufacturing facilities along with mergers and acquisitions.

Asia Pacific is anticipated to have a dominant market share during the forecast period, owing to the presence of various manufacturing industries in countries such as China, Japan, India, South Korea, etc. Factors such as increased awareness about the energy-efficient production process, rise in economically developing countries, and rapid industrialization are fueling the milling machine market growth. Additionally, key manufacturers are focusing on establishing their manufacturing facilities in Asia Pacific as the region provides low-cost labor, land, and expenses. Countries, such as India, Japan, & South Korea, are expected to have the highest milling machine market revenue, owing to the rise in demand for high output products with less downtime.

The Middle East & Africa and Latin America are expected to grow at a slower rate during the forecast period. This is owed to the slow growth of the manufacturing sector. Moreover, the companies are focusing on shifting their manufacturing facilities in either Asia Pacific or in Europe.

Players such as, DATRON Dynamics, Inc., Haas Automation, Inc., YAMAZAKI MAZAK CORPORATION, & FANUC CORPORATION are dominating the market. The growth of these companies is attributable to their strong regional presence along with their comprehensive product portfolio. Approximately, these machine manufacturers account for 27% of market share around the globe.

Moreover, these companies are focusing on investing in new technologies and delivering unique functions of the machines, such as installing multiple cutting blades for swift output and higher production rates.

The global milling machine market is expected to have a slow yet steady growth over the time period, owing to the reliable performance, enhanced finishing, serviceability, and increased production capacity.

Milling machines have substantial functions across various industries, thus making them a critical aspect during the production process. Moreover, they use multiple technologies such as manual, semi-automatic, and CNC, thereby making them an ideal solution for various industries. With the increased installation by various industries the milling machine market is expected to show steady growth during the forecast period. In the near future, this machine can be an ideal solution in the pharmaceutical industry, food & beverage industry, and others.

The global milling machine market report offers qualitative and quantitative insights on solutions and services and the detailed analysis of market size & growth rate for all possible segments in the market.

Along with this, the market report provides an elaborative analysis of market dynamics, emerging trends, and competitive landscape. Key insights offered in the report are the adoption trends of milling machines solutions by individual segments, recent industry developments such as partnerships, mergers & acquisitions, consolidated SWOT analysis of key players, Porters five forces analysis, business strategies of leading market players, macro and micro-economic indicators, and key milling machine industry trends.

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milling | food processing | britannica

milling | food processing | britannica

For efficient extraction with water, malt must be milled. Early milling processes used stones driven manually or by water or animal power, but modern brewing uses mechanically driven roller mills. The design of the mill and the gap between the rolls are important in

Cereal processing is complex. The principal procedure is millingthat is, the grinding of the grain so that it can be easily cooked and rendered into an attractive foodstuff. Cereals usually are not eaten raw, but different kinds of milling (dry and wet) are employed,

The purpose of milling and pressing is to make the starch or sugar more available for enzyme action. Crushing and pressing (grapes and other fruits), milling (cereal grains), or a combination of milling and pressing (sugarcane) are used.

The milling of wheat into flour for the production of bread, cakes, biscuits, and other edible products is a huge industry. Cereal grains are complex, consisting of many distinctive parts. The objective of milling is separation of the floury edible endosperm from the various branny outer

Milling methods used in most of Asia are primitive, but large mills operate in Japan and some other areas. Hulling of the paddy is usually accomplished by pestle and mortar worked by hand, foot, or water power. Improvements are slowly taking place. The yield

of up to eight four-roll mills, it is forced against a countercurrent of water known as water of maceration or imbibition. Streams of juice extracted from the cane, mixed with maceration water from all mills, are combined into a mixed juice called dilute juice. Juice from the last mill in

taking the troubles out of tube mill tooling: preventing and solving some common problems

taking the troubles out of tube mill tooling: preventing and solving some common problems

In today's tube and pipe producing industries, the need to run the tube/pipe mill faster, reduce changeover times, and produce a higher-quality tubular product has put an increased demand on the tube mill tooling.

The tooling's job is to take a continuously coiled flat strip, form it so that the two edges come together, hold the edges in place while they are welded, and then size and straighten the finished tubular product to the required specifications. With some tube mills running at 1,000 feet per minute, the tooling must be able to perform consistently.

This article discusses some troubleshooting practices to help mill operators correct and compensate for some of the most common tooling problems that arise in tube production. However, before production troubleshooting is discussed, consideration should be given to preventing trouble before production begins.

Specifying. When requesting a quotation for tube/pipe mill tooling, the tube producer should specify all required tooling set parameters, including the tube size, wall thickness, material type, and required tolerances. The mill type also should be specified, along with any new features or recent modifications to the mill.

Ordering. The tooling order should be placed with an experienced tube/pipe mill tooling designer/manufacturer. All necessary tube parameters should appear on the purchase order when the order is placed.

Receiving. Upon delivery of the tooling, the tube producer should receive from the manufacturer a complete set of tooling drawings and a tooling setup chart, along with written verification that the tooling was physically inspected and that it conforms to all of the design parameters specified on the drawings. The tube producer also should visually check the tooling when unpacking it from the shipping container to ensure no damage occurred during shipment.

Maintaining. Storing the tooling in an organized and clean fashion will assist the mill operator when it is time to set up on that size again. Tooling should be cleaned as it comes off the mill and inspected for damage or wear; bad bearings should be replaced at this time. Special attention should be given to worn faces, bores, or contours and for pickup on the contour areas; these problems should be taken care of before the tooling is stored.

Keeping Records. The purpose of keeping good records is to achieve an adequate tooling condition for each rolling, maximizing the footage run and quality of the product while minimizing reconditioning costs and providing for timely reordering of worn-out rolls.

A chart of the actual setup gaps between rolls should be kept for every run. This chart should be filled out for each pass on the mill at or near the end of each production run. This will allow the operator to start up the next run where the last one left off and will allow for a comparison between the actual running gaps and the gaps specified on the tooling manufacturer's setup chart. When the two gap measurements begin to differ excessively, tooling reconditioning may be required.

Reconditioning should be done by an experienced tube/pipe mill tooling designer/manufacturer. It usually involves taking a light cut of material off the tooling contours and returning all of the contour dimensions and root progression back to original specifications. The diameters, however, typically are undersized by a certain amount and need to be compensated for accordingly.

The results of the tooling recondition process should be documented and submitted on a regrind chart that shows print size, before size, and after size. This chart should be kept with the other tooling set records.

Roll tooling often is considered the most critical part of the tube mill operation because it forms the tube shape that controls most of the mechanical factors that influence weld quality. However, the tooling will perform only as well as the mill on which it is installed.

Some potential mill problems include bent or worn shafts, worn housings, worn bearings, and general mill misalignment. Other problems can be generated by the mechanical drive system, the welding equipment, and/or the coiled strip.

Following are some common problems that could arise during a production run on a tube/pipe mill, along with possible causes and solutions. Only the most common problems and solutions are discussed here.

Pinching. Putting a strip that is too thick into the tooling set usually causes pinching or deformation of the strip edges in the breakdown section. When tooling is designed, the tube producer specifies a maximum strip thickness. The tooling then is designed based on this parameter; anything thicker causes the strip edge to be pinched. To run a thicker strip, the top breakdown tooling must be modified.

Rolling. This problem can occur anywhere in the mill; however, it is most common between the welding section and the sizing section. Tooling surfaces that are not aligned properly usually cause rolling. This problem could be in the location of contours on the tooling, or it could be a mill alignment problem.

All driven shafts should be checked for parallelism, and all side passes should be checked for on-centerline adjustment. In most cases, the problem can be narrowed down to one stand. It sometimes can be corrected by adjusting the mill, or it may require some shimming.

Rocking. The problem of strip rocking back and forth usually takes place near the end of the breakdown section and/ or before the fin section. Rocking can be caused by inadequate or nonexistent edge guiding or edge trapping, as well as improperly adjusted tooling and excessively narrow strip.

The easy way to compensate for this problem is to adjust the entry guide, trap tooling, and/or fin tooling and make them tighter to accommodate the existing inadequacies. The long-term solution is to have the tooling designer review the design and/or to modify the incoming strip width.

Buckling. Buckling is an undulating (waviness) of the upper part of the strip near the strip edges. This problem usually is found in the transition between the breakdown section and the beginning of the fin section. Buckling typically is a problem only on light-wall tubing products; it generally appears on products having a 40-1 or larger ratio of diameter to wall thickness.

This condition usually is caused by a speed differential between the strip's upper and lower areas of the strip and a lack of tension on the strip. It can be contained by keeping a constant pressure on the upper part of the strip, which provides additional support to the strip's upper edges. This pressure can be built into the tooling, but usually it needs to be supplemented with an additional mechanical device placed between the breakdown section and the fin section.

Additional tension can be created on the strip in a number of ways, such as increasing the root progression, using a different forming application, and/or incorporating a downhill forming technique. However, care should be taken not to create so much tension that the strip experiences stretching problems.

Breathing. This term describes the in and out motion of the strip as it is being formed. Although it occurs naturally throughout the forming process, it must be kept to a minimum in the welding section by proper root progression in the tooling.

Tooling that is running out excessively is a major contributor to breathing. The runout can be caused by incorrectly made tooling, worn bores on the tooling, worn or bent mill shafts, or general misalignment. Good tube/pipe mill maintenance procedures can help minimize this problem.

Fluctuating Size. Size fluctuations usually result from problems with the sizing section tooling. If the problem is with a new tooling set, each pass, from the weld pass to the last sizing pass, should be checked to determine where the problem is occurring. If the problem cannot be compensated for on the mill, the tooling most likely needs to be corrected. If the problem is with an existing set of tooling, a recontour of the tooling set probably is needed.

Marking. Marking is very common and can occur in just about any pass on the tube mill. It can be caused by anything from incorrectly made rolls to worn-out rolls, from misalignment of the mill to the use of incorrect lubricants. It most commonly occurs at the gap area where the two rolls meet.

A marking problem often can be narrowed down to one pass. When the problem pass is located, the operator should analyze the tooling and mill in that pass for possible causes, verify that the tooling in that pass matches the print, and verify that proper relief angles are machined onto the tooling.

Eliminating potential problems before production start-up greatly reduces trouble when the product is run. Fewer problems during production usually result in a better-quality product, more uptime, faster production rates, and less scrap.

Mill operators should get involved with the tooling design process and present the designer with questions, concerns, and ideas. Supplying feedback to the designer helps ensure that problems are not repeated on tooling sets in the future.

Along with establishing this relationship, tube producers must maintain the tube mill and tooling in the best possible condition and keep accurate records of production runs and tooling. The result of these actions should be increased mill production and a better bottom line for the tube/pipe producer.

overview of milling techniques for improving the solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs - sciencedirect

overview of milling techniques for improving the solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs - sciencedirect

Milling involves the application of mechanical energy to physically break down coarse particles to finer ones and is regarded as a topdown approach in the production of fine particles. Fine drug particulates are especially desired in formulations designed for parenteral, respiratory and transdermal use. Most drugs after crystallization may have to be comminuted and this physical transformation is required to various extents, often to enhance processability or solubility especially for drugs with limited aqueous solubility. The mechanisms by which milling enhances drug dissolution and solubility include alterations in the size, specific surface area and shape of the drug particles as well as milling-induced amorphization and/or structural disordering of the drug crystal (mechanochemical activation). Technology advancements in milling now enable the production of drug micro- and nano-particles on a commercial scale with relative ease. This review will provide a background on milling followed by the introduction of common milling techniques employed for the micronization and nanonization of drugs. Salient information contained in the cited examples are further extracted and summarized for ease of reference by researchers keen on employing these techniques for drug solubility and bioavailability enhancement.

powder milling and grinding processing equipment supply | mpt - mill powder tech

powder milling and grinding processing equipment supply | mpt - mill powder tech

Mill Powder Tech (MPT) has been a grinding and mixing machinery manufacturer from Taiwan for 70 years, and their client is a leading seasoning powder supplier. Hot pepper, black pepper, white pepper and cinnamon are the spices mainly sold by the client to Europe and Japan. As soon as you walk into their plant, among all the production lines from countries such as Taiwan, Japan, Europe and China, you can see three sets of turnkey projects from MPT. At ALLPACK Indonesia tradeshow, twenty years later, the client decided to order two extra production lines from MPT for their new factory. Why MPT? For the last 20 years, none of the machines from MPT needed any repairs, even during busy seasons when they required the machines to operate 24 hours a day.

A lifespan three times longer, quality powder delivery, malfunction-free, high production, low labor cost, simple installation, and easy maintenance are what the client experienced. They never needed MPT to install the production line - that's how uncomplicated it is. For spices that are dry, crispy and contain less than 15% oil, PM6 is perfect. Actually, sugar is the major grinding product for most of buyers. MPT's pin mill turnkey project has been maximizing its production capacity and providing evenly sheared powders, which permits the Indonesian client to sell high-quality seasoning powders globally.

As a spice supplier, two factors necessary in order to provide high-quality spice powder are: to ensure the scent of spice is perfectly preserved, as well as to ensure each spice is evenly ground. For the last 70 years, beginning with Japanese style, to today's German milling system, MPT's milling and grinding equipment has avoided the heat effect on powder. Their client's spice milling turnkey project consists of feeding hopper, belt conveyor, hammer mill, pin mill, cyclone separator, dust collector and discharge rotary valve. The design, which separates the motor from the bearing and belt, along with hammer mill and pin mill's heat dispersion from rotor's rotation, means that powder's standard is elevated.

We all now that overheated powder milling equipment can result in a change in the spice's flavor, scent preservation, and machinery malfunctions, along with shortened lifespan (70% of usage of machine is recommended), by allowing each component to operate independently, the machine's lifespan is prolonged. PM6, the spice grinding and milling production line, is designed for mass production without thermal influence.

When you insert 100 kg of spices into a grinder turnkey project, the output is also 100 kg. Nothing is wasted. Cyclone separator plays a role in directing where the powder gets collected. For new plant expansion, the cyclone separator is tailored for hygienic reasons. After multiple of shearing and grinding cycles, powder that can't pass through the filter mesh will get collected by the cyclone separator. Powder that does pass through would be the product that is ready for sale. The hammer mill and pin mill are responsible for the grinding processes, and the dust collector ensures nothing is wasted.

At the new plant, the PM6 production line used to mill hot pepper, white pepper, black pepper and cinnamon, is a combination of feeding hopper, belt conveyor, hammer mill, pin mill, cyclone separator, dust collector and discharge rotary valve. It is a heavy duty 50 HP milling system that is suitable for mass production, with150-200kg per hour and 20mesh ~ 150mesh fineness.

The Indonesian client chose a pin type milling machine to pulverize their spices. Stud type, pin type, and knife type rotors are optional for grinding raw spices into powders. Choosing a rotator gives you different results from grinding after going through three shearing and grinding procedures, adjusting filter mesh and changing knife size enhances the powder fineness in the end. Various kinds of spice milling can be done by switching washable knife and filter mesh, although single machine for one kind of spice is recommended, unless ozone treatment is applied.

Particle size distribution report paper is delivered with the milling machinery procurement, which proves filter mesh's efficiency and expectation of powder fineness is achieved. Generally, MP6 is a set of milling and grinding equipment with adjustable production amount and cutting size. If PM6 operated 24 hours a day, the production capacity would be 24 tons for sugar, 12 tons for rice, and 6 tons for seasoning spices.

To cut bigger objects such as ginger, hot pepper, herbs or sugar, TM series cutting equipment is available. It has no filter mesh, therefore, alternate knife sizes is how you can cut with desired size. Pin mill (PM) grinding equipment suits dry and crispy foods that contains less than 15% oil, including coffee, sugar, beans, spices, flour, rice, etc. For oily or sticky products that contain over 15% oil, such as sesame and peanuts, PMM series grinding machine is available. For extra fine powder milling, APM grinding equipment is available.

PM6 is a powder milling turnkey project that has been around for so long that its design has been modified to include simple installation and easy maintenance over the course of time. Rotor is the only part that needs to be obtained from PMT, since all the holes are fixed, and so buying it somewhere else can be risky. Other than that, ordinary maintenance, such as changing bearing oil or switching air discharge cloth and filter screen, can simply be done by the client. In addition, having all the washable parts makes cleaning easy. Overloaded machine shuts down with its auto protection, and the user can simply unload everything and restart the machine.

We have many clients that we haven't heard from for 20 years, because their machines never have major issues. The goal of our business is to provide good service to retain happy relationships., said a manager of PMT. In order to provide total solutions, if you are new to finding suitable grinding equipment, there is information you need to provide before receiving constructive suggestions, including the food that you wish to mill, the plant size and location, production capacity, and powder fineness requirements. Sometimes a buyer would send a sample product for MPT to grind.

The progress report is given prior to machine assembly, onsite and offsite lab testing and electricity examination videos are provided. Communication is always there thoughout the whole process. Operation training and the machine manual are delivered to ensure user's proper use of the machine.

In Japan, people's green environmental expectations and the trend of using recycled material to create dynamic product is common. Paper recycling is one of the most common types of recycling. In order to use recycled paper as a housing construction material, a Japanese company, HRD, purchased Mill Powder Tech (MPT)'s turbo mill to establish quality paper powder for their plant in the Philippines.

MPT is a powder mill supplier with over 70 years of experience. When HRD handed them a paper powder sample, MPT sent them a design sketch of a customized turbo mill that is specifically designed for the purpose. HRD uses three different types of papers including poster paper, carton and A4 paper. Thus, paper powder's character is required to be elastic and sticky with cushion and with cotton's look and feel. To meet HRD's requirements, instead of using the traditional paper pulp method, MPT designed a turbo mill that uses multiple blades to generate high speed vortexes and vibrations. The powder handling processing equipment turnkey project contains the turbo mill, blender and mixer, separation treatment equipment, etc.

"It was a concept and MPT made it happen." said Tony Ling, the sales manager of MPT. MPT designed a powder handling and processing equipment turnkey system that is cost-saving and in the end created the most valuable paper powder to benefit their customer's business. "Because of our turbo mill, HRD's paper powder has become their best-selling housing construction material, a material that is anti-humidity, non-flammable and earthquake-proof, which is perfect for Japanese houses."

The paper powder is made of recycled paper after using a mixture of chemicals. To form an elastic character, the size of each particle matters. Too small or too big can fail to meet the standard. "Our turbo mill is designed not only to fabricate fine quality of paper powder, but also has high production capability," said Mr. Ling.

Japan is one of the high-tech countries that is famous for delivering high quality powder processing equipment. While other nations are imitating their technology and trying to catch up, Taiwan's seasoned equipment building experience, turnkey project implementation ability and reasonable price is attracting them over to seek material handling machinery solutions.

Paper Recycling Turnkey Grinding System consists of a hammer mill, metal remover, turbo mill, U type screw conveyor (scrapers), explosion outlet, cyclone separator, rotary valve, level switch, cooling water inlet and explosion outlet.

6000 gauss magnetic separator is ideal for paper recycling; It removes metal particles from recycled papers. Recycling paper goes through a metal remover before going into a turbo to prevent damage turbo mill, it is also equipped after hammer mill.

By lowering the temperature in the spiral chamber and allowing particle's self-impact, and by using four blades' grinding enforcement, Mill Powder Tech's screen-less turbo mill, TM-600, was made to grind 5mm particles of processed seaweed powder into 100 mesh per second, along with 80-100kg per hour production in order to meet a client's expectations.

Located in Italy, the client was one of the few seaweed powder providers mainly supplying Agar-agar and carrageen (also called Carrageenan) to food and pharmaceutical companies. And their newly developed products required finer powders. Knowing Mill Powder Tech has over 70 years of powder mill experience, at a tradeshow, the client challenged them to process their agar-agar, the hardest seaweed to process.

Due to agar-agar's elastic and dense textures, it is difficult to grind. With the regular turbo mill, the temperature rises once it starts cutting. Furthermore, dry agar-agar is very tough and elastic. Therefore, instead of ordering a whole powder processing line, the client only requested the turbo mill in order to test out Mill Powder Tech's capability.

Overall, heat elimination is important. Mill Powder Tech's Turbo Mill is screen-less, operated with cold water recycling system to cool down the grinding temperature in chamber. Screw transportation was replaced with vacuum suction to eliminate agar-agar's cluster.

For the last 35 years, TPM has been dedicated to developing turbo mills that would produce smaller particles without changing material textures or odors. Today, Mill Powder Tech provides five series of turbo mills, ranging from TM-250 to TM-1000; rotation speed from 1,200 to 8,000 (r.m.p), horse power from 15HP to 150HP and particle size in a range of about +18 to 325 mesh.

Heat can change the texture of any particle that is dense and glutinous, also; the material generates heat if grinding requires more power. To avoid heat, the turbo mill was designed without screen to assure wind's smooth flow. As a result, the cooling system successfully reduced the heat, and a fine and white powder was created.

There are five series (TM250, TM400, TM600, TM800, TM1000 ) of turbo mills which each contain a number of blades. When particles are put in the feeder, besides their self-crushing, shearing and grinding are also conducted in a few seconds to meet specific size expectations.

Along with agar-agar and carrageenan, materials that easily generate heat can also be pulverized by Mill Powder Tech's powder grinding machine, including plastic, sugar, pigment, toner, leather, asbestos, etc.

In the end, Mill Powder Tech's client was able to deliver high quality processed seaweed powder to their pharmaceutical company clients, and decided to buy the whole powder handling processing line and subsequently to make further orders later on.

After a year of testing and trials, a completed ginger powder processing line was built by Mill Powder Tech, based in Taiwan, for a company named Wakaya Perfection Ltd. The powder handling processing equipment was designed with 150kg per hour production capacity, FDA approval, 1/3 energy-saving, and the ginger was ground profoundly to meet the required standards.

Organic pink Fijian ginger only grows on Wakaya Island in Fiji, its unique character has allowed Wakaya Perfection to sell the ginger powder to high-end consumers in the U.S. The quality of ginger powder has to be top rated, which means no change of color or odor, and its fineness has to be delicate. Ginger powder is used in beverage or capsule form, thus the process requires food-grade standards. The processed powder will be tested for FDA approval. Also, because of the shortage of resources on the island, water and energy conservation should be considered.

When the ginger is put in the ginger washing machine, all the ginger is tumbled and rinsed back and forth with 9 nylon brushes to remove the dirt and peel off the skin without using a great amount of water. Next, the washed ginger is put into a feeding hoper for slicing. The ginger cutting machine comes with different sets of knives that cut ginger into pieces. When the fiber in the ginger is trimmed, it enhances the quality of the ginger powder. Moreover, the slicing process reduces the time for drying, which saves electricity and money.

Once the ginger is done cutting, it is delivered to the oven for the drying process. The two-door drying machine has the capacity to handle up to 40 trays of ginger. It has multiple blades to carry out hot air and the hot air can be re-used, which is energy-saving. As you can see from the video, even the bottom layer of ginger is dried entirely.

Rather than sourcing from different manufacturers for various machines, Wakaya Perfection had Mill Powder Tech to design and supply the entire production line. In the end, the processed powder was sent to the U.S. and received FDA approval, and its reasonable production costs positively benefited Wakaya Perfection's business.

The advantage of the ginger washing machine is its 9 nylon brushes and controllable back and forth rotating function. The patented designed allowed all ginger to roll out automatically without extra labor. It is also designed to use the minimum amount of water to get the job done. In Fiji, the source of water is rain; therefore, the ginger washing machine's water is drained and reused.

Cutting is an important procedure before drying. If ginger is not sliced to the right thickness, it can lead to different colors of powder. Mill Powder Tech's cutting machine, SM-2, is adjustable to slice ginger in various thicknesses. The thinner a ginger slice gets, the shorter the fiber is, and the easier it is to dry. It comes with three sets of knives including 2-8mm, 3-8mm, and 8-20mm. The size of the cutting machine is 750*520*900 mm, weight 70kg, horse power: 1HP *1, 0.5HP *1 and its production capacity is 300-1000kg/ hr.

The quality of ginger powder is related to the dryness of sliced ginger. Too wet, the color of ginger powder won't be even, it is harder to grind, and the smell is not as fresh. The ginger drying equipment, DM-480, is a two-door dryer that is designed to blow dry in different directions with controllable temperature between 20C to 160C. It has an auto-stop function when it reaches expected temperature; it is energy-saving and has capacity of up to 40 plates of gingers.

Before turning dried ginger into ginger powder, the hammer mill is equipped for the 1st stage crushing. The hammer mill's dimensions are 900*540*900 L*W*H mm, rotating speed is up to 3200 RPM with 80-200 kg/hr production capacity.

Ginger has fibers. Having a cup of ginger tea with fibers in it would change the texture of tea. To fix it, fiber has to be cut into shorter strands. Turbo mill, TM400, consists of a 4-blade shearing knife that would cut the fiber into smaller pieces in a few seconds. In addition, because of the short fiber, it's easier to grind, thus, less heat is generated.

A good cup of coffee is a blended coffee that contains different coffee beans from various regions, since it is very rare for a single type of coffee to meet all of the preferences, including flavor, aroma, body and aftertaste. Hence, coffee bean blending has become a fine art, and many coffee companies have developed their own blended coffees as their specialties.

In Sydney, Australia, Cofi-Com TRADING PTY LTD is a commercial green coffee producer that supplies blended coffee designs and roasted coffee analyses. The beans come from different regions of the world, which allows for creating recipes of beans. Their own blended coffees, namely Venus Superior Blend and Aroma, are well-known and sold to famous coffee shops such as illy, Starbucks, etc. After using the same ribbon mixer for years, Cofi-Com wanted to replace the old blending equipment in order to sustain the quality of mixing. Hence, they contacted Mill Powder Tech with their requirements. Mill Powder Tech is a Taiwanese powder handling equipment manufacturer with over 70 years' experience. Based on Cofi-Com's requests, 3 tons handling amount, a complete production line design and also presentable to their visitors, Mill Powder Tech designed a ribbon mixer production line with total solutions.

Ribbon Mixer's blending was the most important step in the turnkey project. To prevent unstable coffee taste, 100% uniform mixing was required. To show how precise Mill Powder Tech's ribbon mixer was, rather than using coffee beans, Mill Powder Tech used beans with dynamic colors; there were yellow, green, red, black and brown beans. After a series of tests and trial, you could see the different colors of beans spread out evenly.

Normally rotary cone mixer is recommended for coffee bean mixing, however, because Cofi-Com preferred a machine that is more flattering, therefore, Mill Powder Tech customized horizontal mixer to meet their specific needs. Mill Powder Tech adjusted the width between ribbon and barrel, and the width of ribbon itself to prevent breaking of beans occurred while mixing.

The blending coffee's turnkey design consisted of a bucket elevator, a destoner machine, a ribbon blender, a dust collector, a storage bin and an automatic sewing machine. When coffee beans were dumped into a feeding hopper, a bucket elevator would carry them to a destoner machine that shakes out the unqualified ones. Later, the beans were sent to a ribbon blender for mixing. Once done blending, the dust collector was connected to remove the particles. In order to ensure the continuation of operation, well mixed beans were stored in a storage bin temperately while conducting packaging and sewing with sack bags.

Overall, the whole coffee blending processing line was designed with 3 tons of handling capacity. For production efficiency, the storage bin was designed to allow non-stop processing, and to assure bean quality, destoner machine was equipped. At the end of the production line, an automatic sack sewing machine was connected to conduct packaging procedure. It was a one-stop production line with outstanding mixing job and assured time and money was saved. As a result, Cofi-Com was thrilled with Mill Powder Tech's high performance machinery. So far, the ribbon mixer processing line has been operating efficiently.

Mill Powder Tech is located in Taiwan and has over 70 years of industrial powder handling equipment and turn-key system experience. Mill Powder Tech's great flexibility in customization will help you save costs and energy in the long run to ensure your business benefits.

Nestl S.A. is a Swiss multinational food and beverage company headquartered in Vevey, Switzerland. It is the largest food company in the world measured by revenue. In 2007, they came to Taiwan intending to find a qualified supplier making Nestl beverages, namely, Nescaf Coffee and Nestl MILO. Besides having their own World Standard processing equipment testing and production procedure systems, Nescaf also requested meeting GMP certification and custom-made mixing turnkey system.

Three years later after negotiation, commissioning to the extra purchasing, Mill Powder Tech (MPT) delivered state of the art powder processing equipment with high production capability. When you walk into the plant, you can see a large production system with six ribbon mixer (mixing blender) processing lines - three for Nescaf Coffee and another three for Nescaf MILO, packing in highly intense speed. The whole industrial blender turnkey project was rigorous, but MPT pulled it through with their seasoned powder handling processing equipment building experience.

In Nestl's custom built processing plant, horizontal mixers (RM-300 & RM-500) are used for the 3-in-1 coffee and MILO powder mixing process. They are a total six powder handling processing equipment lines; they are GMP certified patented (patent # I311923), meet Nestl International Processing and Production objectives and is the only one in Taiwan.

Ribbon Mixer can handle a maximum batch volume of 4,800 litres (2,000 kg) of product with rotation speed between 18-36 RPM. It is designed to meet high-speed dry powder mixing efficiency. Ribbon mixer's shaft seal and bearing are specifically designed to reduce rolling friction which allowed long-term usage. Agitator ribbon assures pure additive blends by performing mixing operations. Both inner and outer sides of the ribbon mixer are polished and easy-to-clean.

Industrial cone blender is applicable for mixing particles such as drugs that are made of various components with versatile gravities. For RC-3000, its production capacity is 50 to 3,000 kg and 120 to 7,000 liters.

Because of the conical shaped blender and the separated motors (outer barrel and inner blades), cone mixer is able to spin at an angle of 0 to 360 degrees with 4-way mixing action. Overall, it is an optimal mixer for products of high viscosity and density.

Double cone mixer, DC-50 and DC-100, is an economical blender that is used to combine multiple small batch materials including food preparations, cosmetic manufacturing, resin powder additions, 3-in-1 coffees, herbal medicines, plastics, vitamins and minerals etc. It is an efficient and adaptable blender for mixing dry powder and granules homogeneously.

Mill Powder Tech (MPT) turbo mill handles what other powder processing and handling equipment can't surpass namely German machine quality in the market with solid reputation. With more than 70 years of powder handling experience, MPT has sold their powder machine to over 70 countries and grounded hundreds of types of materials into high quality powders.

A soy milk drink that is sold in Hong Kong, mainland China, Australia, New Zealand, North America, Europe, South East Asia and other markets throughout the world, this leading beverage company that has been selling soybean milk for decades - it has high-protein and sold at an affordable price to accompany everyone's breakfast.

For years, they've been using the traditional method to make soy milk - from harvesting, grading, de-hulling, grinding, formulation, sterilisation, aseptic storage to the final packaging. They also supply soy products including tofu, natural soy-based products and desserts, pasta and noodles. A few years ago, they wished to start selling soy mill in China. However, China is a big country, which means shipping fresh soy milk can be tricky, and the cost of making soy milk is high, which means they also need to find other solutions to cut down costs. Knowing MPT has more than 70 years of powder handling experience, they contacted them for advice.

MPT designed a powder processing line and showed them how the production line is going to reduce the staff cost, prolong expiry date and create an additional valuable product for them. It is an automatic production line that requires less staff to monitor and operate; it uses turbo mill to grind soybeans, which saves time and money for extra processes; and lecithin can be extracted from soybean powder. Overall, the production capability is higher!

The soybean powder production line includes a turbo mill, cyclone equipment, dust collectors, a screw conveyor, a bag filter, a soybean skin-grinding turnkey system, a tunnel type dry-cooling machine, a fine-stone vibro separator and a density filter. It is the result of years of blade structure development and relentless testing. When using MPT's turbo mill to grind soybeans, the powder is fine, the temperature is stable, the particles are constant, the flavor is contained, and the soy protein is maintained.

"Our turbo mill is sold worldwide, it is competitive regarding meeting clients' powder requirements and at the same time cost-saving. It is our goal to deliver authentic powder handling equipment for our clients." said the sales manager of MPT.

During the process, the high quality of bean powder can be stored for one month. Additionally, rather than selling regular bean related tofu products, the powder machinery system is able to create valuable lecithin after the beans are separated into three parts - coat, nut and lecithin. MPT not only solved the company's soy milk preservation problem, they also assisted them to develop a new product.

MPT delivers innovative, high efficiency powder processing equipment to leading companies in dynamic industries such as food, spices, environmental recycling material, mineral, pharmaceuticals, etc. So far, the soybean beverage company has procured two soybean powder mill lines located in Hong Kong and China and the 3rd set of powder processing machine turnkey projects is under negotiation. Their business has grown so well that the cooperation continues.

Compared to the powder-handling equipment in Taiwan, the machines in Japan and Europe are 3-5 times more expensive. In order to stay competitive, there are more and more buyers seeking powder processing machines with reasonable prices elsewhere. Mill Powder Tech (MPT) is a Taiwanese powder processing equipment supplier that has sold their grinding machines to more than 70 countries and ground hundreds of materials with prominence. Even in Europe, MPT is able to meet the strict requirements, for instance meeting CE criteria and design high quality powder machines.

In Spain, there's a well-known carrageen supplier that needed to buy powder machines to integrate with the ones in the plant due to the increasing sales. To find a qualified supplier, a series of evaluations were conducted. Because MPT's successful turbo mill stories in Asia, they contacted them. The company perceived the contrast between the carrageen powders made by MPT and others, as well as the productivity and machine performance. In the end, MPT won the order with outstanding achievements. The company ended up purchasing two sets of powder processing equipment systems with four turbo mills.

The powder system integration was a challenge but it went well. For a turbo mill, regardless its powder fineness (200 mesh) and productivity (130kg per hour), the outstanding achievements have surpassed other European competitors. Plus, the easy to operate and acceptable price is also advantageous and allowed the company to be more ambitious. Each powder handling line contains a vacuum suction, screw conveyor, vibro separator & filter, rotary valve, cyclone separator, explosion relief valve and rotary valve. Two turbo mills are the major machines among the whole project. MPT's turbo mill is a powder grinding machine that has been developed and modified for decades based on users' experience. Today, MPT's turbo mill can grind any kinds of material, and it's the only one in many regions that is capable of doing so.

Nice Group is a famous enterprise in Taiwan and owns 3 listed companies. It is one of the top 100 enterprise groups in Taiwan with a business scope covering household chemicals, food, logistics and leisure-related areas.

AGV Products Corp is one of the subsidiaries of Nice Group in Taiwan. They have been specialized in producing healthy foods and drinks for years. Due to people's increasing awareness of having good eating habits, AGV Products Corp is able to provide dynamic options of foods and beverages and become a leading company in Taiwan. MPT's turbo mill plays an important role providing reliable and efficient powder handling processing equipment to assist them to reach their production goals.

Pin mill is suitable for small scale to medium scale production, it is easy to clean, reasonable priced and easy to operate. For powder suppliers who wish to provide multiple powders, Pin Mill allows you to implement various rotors (stud type, pin type, knife type), stators and screen rings in order to meet powder fineness standards. Pin mill's easy operation permits you to replace or expand to achieve processing goals.

SFC is a Japanese baking powder company that delivers a large amount of powder every day. Mill Powder Tech (MPT) is a Taiwanese powder machine manufacturer with more than 70 years of powder handling experience. Knowing MPT from a trade show, SFC visited MPT with specific requirements. SFC required a custom-made impact classifier mill, a requirement which allowed MPT to increase their impact classifier mill's production capability - 600kg per hour production capacity and 1,000-5,000 mesh.

For general screen-less air classifying mill, after raw material is ground into fine powder in the grinding chamber, powders are classified in order to meet particular parameters. Each blade is designed with various angles to create dynamic fluent current to capture the finest powder.

"With the Japanese client's new design, baking soda's productivity is increased. Because of their new design, we've developed a new type of air classifier mill with better performance." said Tony Ling, a sales manager of MPT.

Patented S-Type Impact Classifier Mill (S-ICM) powder processing equipment is specialized in dry powder classifying. The optimal multiple responses grinding design, fine powders can be cleanly classified, stable temperature control, high speed operation, manufactured in stainless steel and special type of blades to ensure the grinding process is safe, clean, efficient and high quality. The air classifier is suitable for various industries including pharmaceutical industry, consumer goods, chemical industry, food industry, etc. In addition, custom Engineering and turnkey system design are available.

ICM-410 for CPC Corporation, Taiwan. (CPC Corporation, Taiwan (CPC) is the foremost energy enterprise in the Republic of China.)Impact classifying mill ICM-520 turnkey project for high density fine materials.

In Toronto, there are people who line up waiting outside to buy rice powder for making rice related products for their businesses. Like some businessmen, Mr. Wang started small by selling ground raw rice in a residential building using grinding equipment he bought from a Taiwanese powder handling processing machine supplier, Mill Powder Tech (MPT). MPT is a powder handling equipment builder with more than 70 years of experience and their powder processing machine is sold worldwide.

The business went extremely well, sometimes there are people waiting outside for 24 hours just to buy batches of rice powder. Two years later, the owner moved to an industrial district and purchased bigger powder processing equipment to cope with the large demand.

In two years, Mr. Wang has upgraded his turbo mill from TM 400 to TM 600, plus the later procurement of a pin mill. MPT always aims to provide environmentally friendly machinery and equipment to various fields of industry, thus, rather than using the traditional method to produce rice powder, which involves washing and soaking the rice, draining it, laying it out and then grinding it, turbo mill TM 400 and 600 are designed to eliminate the water handling process. At the beginning, the owner was concerned about the generated heat during grinding, since it may affect the texture of rice noodles made with the powder. In the end, the result showed that MPT's machine performs well. Without water handling processing, the grinding process is cost-saving and more efficient.

For rice powder buyers, their fondness for Mr. Wang's rice powder is because of its high quality. They are able to use the powder to make chewy rice noodles with great taste, as well as Chinese and Vietnamese noodles, turnip cakes, bread, rice pancakes, or any foods that require gluten-free. Overall, Mr. Wang is thrilled with MPT's powder handling processing equipment and is willing to invest more to expand his business in the future.

In Canada, Mill Powder Tech (MPT)'s impact classifier mill is sold to Confiseries which is a sugar company that is specialized in providing sugar products. They purchased ICM-750 powder processing equipment turnkey system in Nov, 2012 for making maple sugar powder, which is a famous sugar made from Canada's maple trees. They requested 300-400 kg per hour of production capability and 300 mesh of powder fineness. MPT was able to meet their requirements with great performance.

Mill Powder Tech (MPT) broke through difficulties in developing an impact knife mill that would solve spice and herb's grinding dilemmas. Due to various factors (environmental, equipment, human operation), spice and herb powder handling processing equipment can result in low quality powders. With MPT's innovative design, spice's temperature is controlled, color is sustained, productivity is increased and the price is reasonable.

Impact knife mill is great for small and medium enterprises who wish to deliver high performance ground herbs, roots and spices. It is also cost-saving, with high production capacity and easy maintenance. Impact Knife Mill (IKM-310)

For some herbs, their roots and seeds can make the grinding process tricky, in the end, the odor can be lost, the color can be faded and the root can be very difficult to cut. They can wear the powder equipment out and the whole powder handling process becomes costly and inefficient.

Because impact knife mill's reasonable price, for powder suppliers who wish to sell great selections of species, it is affordable to buy several impact knife mills at once. It does not only save your time for cleaning and switching equipment, also avoids the chance of contamination.

In Bangladesh, ACI Limited and Square Group are both leading companies in pharmaceutical, food, construction, daily product industries. Their procurement of MPT's spice grinding systems proved their #1 selection of powder mill supplier.

The subsidiaries, ACI Foods Limited, is selling pure spices, including chili powder, turmeric powder, coriander powder and cumin powder. SQUARE Herbal & Nutraceuticals Ltd. has attained the core confidence of health care providers with the highest quality herbal products of purely eastern and western origin, as well as meeting ever expected efficacy and safety based on international standards.

"Good grinding processing equipment should be able to retain the odor of spice in its own place, leaking smell shows failure of the process. Our more than 70 years of powder mill experience has allowed us to develop outstanding blades to handle any kind of materials.", Tony Ling, a sales manager of MPT claimed.

The grinding method of conventional grinders utilizes collision, cutting, and friction to accomplish the goal of powder refinement, typically such method produces from impact surface that contaminates the out-put material. When required particle fineness is in high micron, the contamination becomes worse. On the other hand, a capable JET MILL delivers refined powder without contamination, however it presents the problem of high energy consumption and inefficiency out-put performance. Thus, Mill Powder Techs combined the advantages of the two grinding methods, without the problematic impurity issues, and creates Cyclone Mill.

Mill Powder Tech (MPT), based in Tainan, Taiwan, was founded over 70 years ago and specializes supplying industrial powder handling process equipment. Today, with 12 agents and 30 distributors located globally, MPT has sold their grinding equipment to over 70 countries. As a prominent size reduction solutions provider, more than 40 types of machines are ready to serve you with solid technology.

MPT started providing animal feeding-stuff and food size reduction equipment in 1940. In 1975, MPT developed the 1st turbo mill prototype after years of collected experience, in 2004, MPT expanded their market worldwide with outstanding patented powder processing equipment and turnkey project design targeting in material grinding, mixing and crushing.

To compete with the powder processing equipment from Europe and Japan, MPT designs GMP and CE certified powder processing equipment in a cost-effective manner. In addition, they also deliver environmentally friendly designs to meet market trends.

MPT's powder grinding machine meets 80% customers' requests, and to fulfill the needs of other clients who wish to grind what normal equipment can't, MPT is going one step further, delivering custom-made and smart turnkey projects.

"Our goal is to design powder handling equipment that is flexible, integrated, cost-effective and productive; in the end, their business is profitable based on over 70 years of seasoned engineering experience." said the Sales Manager of Mill Powder Tech.

With more than 70 years of experience, Mill Powder Tech's powder processing equipment is highly recommended if you wish to supply fine powders. The powder's temperature is controlled, color is sustained and productivity is increased when using MPT's machine. Turbo mills, blenders, pin mills, impact classified mills, cyclone mills, hammer mills, powder grinders, cutting crush machines, bread crumb grinders, vertical mills, peanut milling machines and sesame milling machines with more than 40 types of equipment is ready for you to choose. Industrial blenders and mixers, temperature controlling, pulverizers and vibratory feeders are integrated into material powder handling systems for complete processing.

Mill Powder Tech (MPT) started providing animal feeding-stuff and food size reduction equipment in 1940. In 1975, MPT developed the 1st turbo mill prototype after years of collected experience, in 2004, MPT expanded their market worldwide with outstanding patented powder processing equipment and turnkey project design targeting in material grinding, mixing and crushing. If you are looking for a powder handling expert, look no further than Mill Powder Tech from Taiwan. They've handled hundreds of materials that are involved in various industries including chemical, food, pharmaceutical, plastics & rubber, mineral, recycling, etc. Send MPT an inquiry now!

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dry milling - an overview | sciencedirect topics

dry milling - an overview | sciencedirect topics

the yield of dry mills decreases very quickly when the outputs moisture exceeds 1%. Wet output agglomerates, balls and granules are covered in a layer of adhesive and plastic fines that cushions and lowers the force exerted on the output. In addition, the product circulates poorly in the mill. For these reasons, a hot air scan is often performed which requires an efficient dust removal facility;

wet, the concentration of solid pulp must be such that the pulps viscosity reaches 0.2Pa.s. A surfactant allows for a higher solid content without increasing the fracture limit of the pseudo-plastic pulp. Production is hence increased;

with a wet path, grains circulate well and do not re-agglomerate. In addition, it seems that resistance to fragmentation decreases in water. The result is that the energy consumption is greater with dry milling than with wet milling. It is on average 30% greater;

Corn dry milling operations are specially designed to manufacture fuel-grade ethanol in a one-shot process directly from the whole corn kernels. For this purpose, shelled corn arrives at the dry-mill processing facility and through processing via a hammer mill the entire corn kernel is ground into a medium-coarse to fine flour, which is referred to in the industry as meal and processed without separating out the various component parts of the grain. The meal is slurried with water in cookers to form a mash. In the cooking system, the action of heat liquefies the starch in the corn and sacccharifying enzymes are added to the mash to convert the starch to fermentable sugars. Dry milling is the most common process used today for bioethanol production because of low capital costs required to build and operate these plants. Besides ethanol, the major by-products of the corn dry milling process are dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and carbon dioxide.39

Dry milling (Fig. 7.1) involves grinding the incoming grain, then processing it through a series of steps to liquefy the flour and generate fermentable sugars. Amylases are added at two points in the processthe initial slurry step, and the liquefaction step, which follows a jet cooking operation that uses high-temperature steam to swell the starch. Following liquefaction, the slurry is fed to a batch fermentation system, where glucoamylase and yeast are also added. The typical fermentation time is 4255h. Multiple fermenters are used to facilitate batch operation of this step, with the fermentation cycle time including a clean-in-place step prior to the addition of fresh mash that commences the start of the fermentation process. Final ethanol titers between 14 and 18wt% are typical. Once the fermentation is complete, the ethanol-laden mash is transferred to a beer well that ultimately feeds the first stage of a two-stage distillation system. The first distillation stage includes all of the unconverted solids, which are recovered at the bottom of the column, while the overhead, typically containing about 3040% ethanol, is fed to a second distillation column that purifies the ethanol to a concentration near its azeotrope (about 190 proof). The hydrous ethanol is then dehydrated using a set of molecular sieves, producing a 99.5% ethanol product. This product is then denatured to meet government regulations.

The wet solids recovered at the bottom of the first distillation column are centrifuged, with the liquid sent to a set of multiple effect evaporators to recover water for reuse in the process (typically added to the first slurry reactor), while the solubles (mainly sugars) are typically blended with the wet distillers grains to produce wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS). The WDGS may be sold as is to nearby feedlots due to the limited shelf life of the wet product, or optionally dried to produce DDGS, a stable, protein-rich product that can be shipped worldwide as animal feed.

Beer is produced mainly from barley, and the annual beer production in the European Union in 2014 was about 42.5 million tonnes (FAO). Brewing (Fig. 9.2) can be divided into the stages detailed in Sections 9.2.2.19.2.2.5 (Bamforth, 2007):

illing is crucial as it should achieve optimal material extraction and endosperm grinding with minimal husk damage. Dry milling is carried out using a roller, disk, or hammer mills. Roller mills are used when wort separation is carried out with a lauter tun, while hammer (or disk) mills are used when mash filtration is applied. Wet milling may also be applied as it has been established by the corn starch industry.

Mashing aims to produce wort with the optimal composition, leading to the production of the desired beer quality during fermentation. The milled grist is suspended in hot water to facilitate the gelatinization of starch achieved at 55C65C. The action of the indigenous amylolytic enzymes on the production of fermentable sugars can be manipulated at different temperatures during mashing. For instance, dry beers are produced at low temperatures (63C) and sweet and more full-bodied beers are produced at higher temperatures (77C).

The produced wort should be rich in nutrients and relatively free of insoluble particles. The permeability of the bed of solids (e.g., sand, clay, etc.,) used in the process, the fineness of the original milling and the husks integrity, and the temperature used affect the process efficiency and wort quality characteristics. Wort separation is achieved by lauter tuns or mash filters. A lauter tun consists of a straight-sided round vessel with a slotted or wedged wire base and run-off pipes, through which wort recovery is achieved. Arms bearing vertical knives rotating around a central axis are found within the vessel. Mash filters contain plates of polypropylene for filtering the liquid wort from the residual grains. This system allows the use of high pressures for grain crashing, overcoming the reduced permeability due to smaller particle sizes. Mass filters are used by modern breweries.

Wort boiling is subsequently applied for wort sterilization, the initiation of chemical reactions (e.g., isomerization of hop resins), wort concentration, the removal of unwanted volatile compounds, and the precipitation of protein/polyphenol complexes. The wort is finally cooled before fermentation using water or glycerol as a cooling agent, leading to the precipitation of solids, which is called cold break.

The fermentation process can be divided into the primary fermentation where the wort is fermented into alcohol and various flavors, and the secondary fermentation that involves beer conditioning, considering carbon dioxide concentration, and the removal of undesirable flavors. Subsequently, the temperature is reduced to 1C or 2C, promoting the precipitation of compounds that cause a haze in the beer.

After a minimum of 3 days in cold conditioning, plate and frame filters are mainly used for beer filtration with porous materials as filter aids (e.g., kieselguhr, perlite, etc.). The shelf life of beers is increased via the removal of certain proteins and polyphenols by the precipitation of such complexes. The level of gases in the beer is also regulated. Pasteurization (e.g., tunnel pasteurization of beer cans or bottles) or sterile filtration (with pores of 0.450.8m) is finally applied.

Corn ethanol is produced by dry or wet milling [13,14]. Ethanol is the main product of the dry milling process while wet milling is more efficiently designed to separate various products and parts of corn for food and industrial uses including corn starch and corn oil, as well as ethanol. In the dry milling process the kernel is ground into flour (meal) and water is added together with enzymes to convert the starch to dextrose. Ammonia is added, the mixture is heated for sterilisation and yeast is added to ferment. After (40 to 50)h, the mixture is distilled to purify the ethanol from the stillage and the ethanol is dehydrated to about 99.3vol.% using a molecular sieve system. The remaining stillage is converted to livestock feed. The process of wet milling involves adding sulphuric acid and water to the corn grain, and after treatment for (24 to 48)h, the components are separated. Grinders separate the corn germ from the mixture. Corn oil is extracted in a process that also separates the fibre, gluten and starch using screen, hydroclonic and centrifugal separators. The gluten protein and the liquor dried with the fibre co-products are feed ingredients for the poultry and livestock industry. The corn starch is converted into ethanol through fermentation as described for dry milling.

For sucrose feedstock, biomass is crushed to extract sugar juice. The corn (65%76% starch) is processed through dry milling in which the powder form of grains is heated with water at 358K. Starch is then liquefied using -amylase that converts starch into short-chain dextrins. Saccharification (pH 4.5 and 338K) is carried out using the gluco-amylase enzyme. In contrast, the rigid lignin cell wall protects carbohydrates in lignocellulose biomass. The cellulosic biomass is thus processed through milling, followed by pretreatment. The pretreatment breaks the lignin barrier, reduces cellulose crystallinity, and enhances the accessibility of carbohydrates for hydrolysis. The pretreatment is, however, very expensive, and has an enormous influence on the overall yield of ethanol. For example, pretreatment improves the hydrolysis yield to 90% from merely 20% (without pretreatment) [25]. The polysaccharides are then hydrolyzed to fermentable sugar. Hydrolysis is accomplished using either enzyme or dilute acid. The enzymatic hydrolysis is, however, commonly used (pH 4.8 and 318K323K) [26]. Cellulase and hemicellulase enzymes are used for hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose, respectively.

The sugar, starch, and cellulose are composed of hexose sugars, while both hexose and pentose sugars exist in hemicellulose. The hexose sugars are traditionally fermented by Bakers yeast. Saccharomyces cereviseae is the most common organism (at 306K and pH 44.8). The maximum yield of ethanol is 0.48g per g glucose [25]. Pichia stipitis, P. segobiensis, Candida shehatae, Pachysolen tannophilus, and Hansenula polymorpha are some of the organisms for fermentation of pentose sugars. These organisms, however, suffer from the drawback of the slow fermentation rate. The genetic modification of the microorganisms is thus done to ferment both hexose and pentose sugars. Metabolically engineered strain recombinant Escherichia coli (KO11), Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1400 (pLNH33), Zymomonas mobilis are some examples of these. The high sugar and ethanol concentration and inhibitory fermentation products are toxic to the organism. Less than 10% ethanol concentration (typically 4%4.5%) is thus maintained in fermentation broth to reduce the stress on the enzyme.

The fermentation broth is sent to the beer stripper and rectification column to obtain 95% ethanolwater azeotrope mixture. The ethanol is further purified to fuel-grade ethanol by azeotropic distillation using benzene or ethylene glycol as entrainer followed by dehydration using the molecular sieve [27]. There are several process alternatives for bio-ethanol production: (1) simultaneous saccharification and fermentation that perform enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation in the same reactor; (2) cofermentation, in which hexose and pentose sugars are fermented by single microorganism; (3) simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation; and (4) consolidated bioprocessing, in which cellulose production, cellulose hydrolysis, and fermentation happens in a single step [28]. These process variations aim to reduce the investment cost and have a lower risk of inhibition and contamination [25].

First generation bioethanol uses feedstock containing sugar (sugarcane, sugar beet, sweet sorghum) and containing starch (corn, wheat, cassava). Wet and dry milling routes are used to produce bioethanol from corn. Dry milling requires less investment and produces dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) beside bioethanol, while the wet milling produces oil and animal feed beside the bioethanol. Corn-grain is used to coproduce bioethanol and wet or DDGS as animal feed. Fig. 5 shows the basic steps of converting starch into bioethanol by biochemical process using 6-carbon sugar sources. Most corn is ground to a meal, and then the starch from the grain is hydrolyzed by enzymes to glucose (dry mill). The 6-carbon sugars are then fermented to ethanol by natural yeast and bacteria. The fermented mash is separated into ethanol and residue by distillation. Hydrated ethanol forms an azeotropic mixture; fuel grade ethanol (0.4 vol% water) can be achieved by azeotropic distillation, by means of molecular sieves, or by extractive distillation [34].

The average yield of converting corn starch to ethanol is around 100 gallons bioethanol per dry ton corn [35]. About one-third of every kilogram of corn grain is converted to ethanol, one-third to DDGS, and one-third to CO2. Ethanol is produced at ASTM D4806 standards and shipped to the refiner or distributor for blending with conventional fossil gasoline into finished gasoline.

Surplus corn in the United States and sugarcane in Brazil are used to produce bioethanol. Fermentation of a bushel of corn (approximately 25.4 kg) using the dry-mill process yields about 10.2 l of ethanol and approximately 7.9 kg of DDGS that contains 10% moisture. This coproduct is richer in protein, fat, minerals, and fiber relative to corn and hence is a valuable feed [14]. Bioethanol producers have adopted various technologies such as high-tolerance yeasts, continuous ethanol fermentation, cogeneration of steam and electricity, and molecular sieve driers to reduce ethanol production costs [35,36].

Various studies have been published of the food industry from an economic and consumer point of view (McCorkle, 1988; Connor, 1988). While these references are old, they are still accurate in an industry that does not change very quickly. The food industry is the largest by economic impact in the USA, with annual sales of over $500 billion. The industry is very diverse, but major segments include those that process raw commodities into ingredients and foods; those that preserve and modify ingredients into foods and ingredients; and those that produce consumer food products.

Corresponding to the wide range of products are the many processes involved, ranging from the relatively simple size reduction and physical separation of flour milling to the sophisticated biochemical process of fermentation and aging involved in making wine. In between are combinations of culinary and engineering art and science to reproduce on a large, commercial scale the flavor, texture and nutrition of home-prepared dishes and meals.

Food companies can be very large, with sales approaching $25 billion per year, and relatively small, with sales that might not exceed $1 million per year. (See the August issue of Food Processing (Putnam Media, Itasca, IL) each year for a list of the top 100 food companies.) In the list for 2007, the top five companies, by food sales in 2006 were:

Consolidation among large companies has made the largest multinational firms very large indeed, with operations all over the world. In the context of designing and operating facilities, one consequence is that such firms need to be cognizant of customs, regulations and cultures very different from those of their home country. As one small example, it is common in many countries to provide one or more hot meals each day to the workforce. Sometimes, dormitories are also provided for a work force that may have moved a long distance to get a job. This means that a food facility may need to have a full kitchen and extensive living quarters on site. These are not commonly found in US food facilities.

Religious and cultural practices often affect what foods are popular. Muslim and Jewish adherents do not eat pork; Hindus do not eat beef; Muslims avoid alcohol; and Chinese apparently like corn chowder, among other preferences. Such cultural practices affect what food products are likely to sell well in a given market and thus what a given facility is intended to do.

The distribution systems in developing countries may be relatively primitive due to poor roads, lack of refrigeration in homes and stores, and the lack of a commercial infrastructure. These conditions mean that the scale of operation may need to be smaller than it would be in the USA. Products that are shelf stable, as compared with frozen or refrigerated, are better suited for developing countries. Food manufacturers may need to establish their own system of distribution centers and wholesalers, whereas third parties in the USA often handle these functions.

Some facilities may be located to take advantage of local raw materials. Thus, for example, sugar mills are in tropical areas because sugar cane is a tropical crop. Sugar mills produce raw sugar, which is about 97% pure sucrose, and is shipped closer to markets in temperate areas for further refining. Tropical oils, such as palm oil and palm nut oil are harvested and the raw oil produced close to the palm plantations, with refining taking place closer to shipping points on the coasts of Southeast Asia.

Another factor in facility location is the relative density of the raw material and finished product. For instance, potato chip snacks, which have a low bulk density, are commonly made near population centers, while frozen and dehydrated potato products are usually made near potato producing areas.

Wheat flour mills in the USA tend to be located near wheat producing areas and near water ports on rivers, lakes or oceans. Flour users, such as bread bakers are closer to markets. Cookie and cracker bakers may have larger and fewer plants because cookies and crackers are denser than bread and have a longer shelf life.

The customers of food manufacturers are not usually consumers but the stores and food service institutions that serve consumers. About 50% of food consumed in the USA is consumed outside of the home, so the manufacture and distribution of products for food service are increasingly important. These products are different in many ways from those intended for use in the home or factory. Food service products are often refrigerated or frozen, are usually portion controlled, and may be heavily influenced by culinary concepts. This means they are conceived and developed by chefs or people with some culinary training and are meant to be used by kitchen personnel in restaurants, colleges, hospitals and prisons. Consumer food products, in contrast, are often developed by food scientists and food technologists.

Consumer food products tend to be sold in supermarkets, convenience stores and, increasingly, in mass merchandisers. Often these customers have their own distribution systems and centers (DC). Usually, food manufacturers have distribution centers as well, so there can be some redundant handling as a product moves from factory to distribution center to another distribution center and then to the store. Rationalizing the food distribution system is a major cost reduction opportunity, but the ideal solution has not emerged yet.

Some products require direct store delivery (DSD), usually because they are perishable or have such high sales volume that they need frequent deliveries. Bread, milk, soft drinks and salty snacks are examples of foods delivered daily to most stores. DSD is an expensive distribution system because it is labor intensive and because fuel costs have been increasing. DSD driver/salespeople are often paid a commission on sales, which provides a substantial incentive, but adds to costs. Some are company employees while others may be independent contractors who own their equipment. Independent contractors often service vending machines for snacks, soft drinks and confections. DSD once was largely a cash business, with store owners paying on the spot. This is less common now. Managing and controlling a widely dispersed sales and delivery force can be a challenge.

Mass merchandisers have been influencing the food industry because they demand low prices, very good service and, often, special packaging (especially in club stores). They also move very large amounts of product, so accommodating them is a major objective. Food manufacturers often open dedicated sales offices near the headquarters of mass merchandisers so as to service them better.

The case study set up is solved using CPLEX solver in GAMS modeling tool. It is then plotted into Microsoft Excel 2010 for further verification. As predicted, the result shows conflict between the environmental and the economic objectives understudy.

As emission credit is only given to C+TDM, the overall GHG impact is lowered, and the environmental cost for C+TDM is reduced. Thus the total cost for C+TDM is lower than LCEP. This is shown in Fig2.

In terms of environmental impact, stages bp, bpt, bt and ft are assumed to have the same GHG emission factor for both technologies, thus the impact for these four stages look identicial. However, without considering the emission credit, life cycle stage fp for C+TDM immediately rises to more than 160 million kg CO2-eq, which is about 2.5 times the amount for LCEP.

At the same time, the emission credit ec for C+TDM is high as well (almost 100 million kg CO2-eq), which effectively helps to lower the total GHG emission for the conversion technology, as well as increase the profit. This is shown in Fig3.

This section is fundamental to guarantee the final quality of the product, especially as regards parameters such as ash content, ash fusibility, and the occurrence of Cl, N, and other alkali metals, which are elements that directly influence the probability of occurrence of phenomena of slagging, fouling, and corrosion in combustion equipment.

Usually, after the debarking section, the shredding unit follows. These two sections can be connected by different types of equipment, the most common of which are chain draggers (Fig.5.3), which help to eliminate the inerts that are still attached to the trunks, and the metal detection unit (Fig.5.4). Which serves to detect and enable the disposal of ferrous metal parts. It is very common to find remains of saws metal sheets used in the processes of resination.

The purpose of the shredding unit is to reduce the size of the logs to a size that allows them to be admitted to the drying system. This section is usually associated with a sieving system (Fig.5.5) and also an auxiliary grinding system, referred to as green milling, because this milling occurs before the feedstock is dried. As will be seen later, In the case of the production of torrential biomass products, this step is not necessary, one of the advantages presented for this process being compared to conventional.

The feed of raw material to the drying system can be done in several ways, provided that a buffer is created that ensures a sufficient quantity of product to maintain the continuity of the process in case of failure or stop upstream, until the resolution of the situation. One of the ways to make this feed and to guarantee the intermediate storage of raw material is through mobile-floor systems (Fig.5.6). This system allows the storage of product in very significant quantities because the material can be stored and added on the floor. It also allows that in the case of the acquisition of raw material already processed, it is added to the process at this point.

Drying is one of the most determinant processes for the quality of the finished product and even for the fluidity of the production process. There are several types of dryers, but the most used are rotary drum dryers (Fig.5.7). The sizing of the dryer is based on several assumptions for the process to take place as efficiently as possible:

Drying is also one of the processes that consumes the most energy in a biomass pellet production unit. For this reason, it is essential that the process occurs as efficiently as possible, optimizing the energy use, and subsequently the associated energy costs.

The drying units can use different forms of energy, the most common being biomass and natural gas. It is very common for large biomass pellet plants to resort to biomass combustion systems (Fig.5.8), which provide heat to the drying process. This option is essentially due to two factors. First because of the economic option, because it is an energy intensive consumer, the energy costs are very high and biomass, in the form of residual forest biomass or even in the form of wastes from the peeler, always has a low cost and usually in abundance. Second, because of the location chosen for the plants to be closer to the sources of raw material, they are far from the natural gas networks, not allowing their use.

It is also common to have an intermediate storage after milling of dry product. This storage feeds the pelletizing units and must ensure that the system remains under load and with a constant supply. This intermediate storage system is also very useful for any stoppages that may occur, caused by faults or preventive maintenance needs that may occur downstream, particularly in densification systems. The feeding of pelletizers can be done in different ways, being very common The existence of a mixer where the moisture in the sawmill can be corrected and where additives can also be added to improve the qualities and properties of the materials. An example of a mixer is shown in Fig.5.10. Inside is a shaft with a propeller that allows the material to already blend and advance. This ensures homogenization of the sawmill properties, while ensuring a sufficient residence time for the same homogenization.

There are different types of pelletizers, the most common types being called vertical axis or flat matrix, and horizontal or annular array. It will be the configuration of the matrices combined with the type of layers used in the rolls that will contribute to the greater or lesser compression rate of the pellets. The most used pelletizers are those of horizontal axis, having therefore more manufacturers of this type than of pelletizers of flat matrix (Fig.5.11). The horizontal axis pelletizers always have a conditioner at their upper part, which guarantees the constant flow of material falling into the compression chamber (Fig.5.12).

The pellets produced are cut by a set of blades that will allow them to be less than a certain length, usually smaller than 35mm (Fig.5.13). The pellets after cutting fall into a conveyor system, which may be a redler or conveyor belt, which will lead them to the cooler.

The most common coolers are countercurrent, in which the pellets will enter from the top, in the opposite direction to a current of cold air, which contributes to their cooling. After the cooling system, there is very often a sieve, which can be circular or vibrating, which will clean the powder and the fine particles not pelletized, usually of a size of 5mm or less. An example of a countercurrent cooler equipped with a vibrating screen is shown in Fig.5.14.

After sieving, the pellets are ready to be stored and/or packaged, depending on their type and destination. In the case of pellets designated as industrial, with a diameter of 8mm, the most frequent is to be stored in silos or bulk containers, from which they are later shipped (Fig.5.15). In domestic pellets with a diameter of 6mm, the most frequent is to be bagged in 10 and 15kg packages (Fig.5.16), intended for trade and distribution by private customers, who consume them in boilers and domestic greenhouses, such as which are exemplified in Fig.5.17.

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