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mining beneficiation

mining and beneficiation | ownerteamconsultation

mining and beneficiation | ownerteamconsultation

OTCs multidisciplinary consultants are trusted by our minerals and beneficiation clients for their depth of knowledge and experience. We work with established mining organisations, as well as entrepreneurs looking to develop new mining opportunities or wanting to improve their existing operations. As trusted advisors we are able to help these organisations evaluate and optimise their business holistically, solve problems and take advantage of new opportunities.

Our approach has evolved over many years and our methodology is adaptable to meet our clients unique requirements. We will always ensure that business objectives are translated into project outcomes. We have developed a comprehensive knowledge base of proven best practices which we use in assignments.

We provide focused advice and solutions to clients from exploration through feasibility, mine/process planning, and production to mine closure. Our consultants have concept-to-completion expertise in the minerals and beneficiation industry. We provide subject matter expertise, process facilitation, project and business advisory support to our clients.

We often take on the role of owner representative and/or as members of a project team together with developers, financiers, contractors and operators to optimise and deliver on shared business objectives. We also have an extensive network of strategic partners and alliances which can be quickly drawn on to ensure the best possible outcomes.

Koos has over 38 years experience in multidisciplinary mining, mineral beneficiation and the cement industry in various executive, projects, operational, engineering, business development and consulting roles. He is a registered professional engineer with a degree in Mechanical Engineering. More...

Chris is a process engineer with over 27 years experience in projects in a number of roles in gas, petrochemical, inorganic chemicals, infrastructure, mining and metals processing and process control systems. He has founded PB&SC, an OTC partner focused on developing opportunities in Southern Africa. More...

Riaan holds a B.Eng (Mining) and MBA. He has 38 years experience in mining, holding several positions in Anglo American (Gold and Coal), and CoAL (now MC Mining). These ranged from Section Manager, General Manager and Chief Operations Officer. His skill set includes executive- and general production management, directors duties, optimisation, mine design and project management, DD and feasibility studies, as well as safety/risk management and auditing.

This is the second of a two-part series of articles on the hydraulic fracturing of rock, also known as fracking. This is a technology that everyone has an opinion on, but few take the trouble to understand what its all about. The two parts are as follows: Part 1:...

This is the first of a two-part series of articles on the hydraulic fracturing of rock, also known as fracking. This is a technology that everyone has an opinion on, but few take the trouble to understand what its all about. The two parts are as follows: Part 1:...

what is beneficiation?

what is beneficiation?

In the mineral industry, beneficiation is a process which is designed to improve the yield from a deposit of ore. This increases the potential profits available from the ore, and allows a company to increase the overall profitability of a mine and its business in a particular area. A number of processes are used to accomplish beneficiation objectives, and several companies which make mining equipment have lines of products which are designed to help companies get more out of their ore.

The goal of beneficiation is to eliminate inefficiency and waste by ensuring that as much recoverable material as possible is extracted from ore. A number of techniques can be used for this, often starting with grinding the ore into particles. Once ground, the particles can be sifted and sorted to extract usable material and set waste aside. For example, the particles may be suspended in water to allow various components to separate out, making it easy to access usable ore.

For rare resources, beneficiation is critical, because it takes advantage of every scrap of material available. This practice can also make a marginal mining facility more practical than it might otherwise be, and may in fact be used to extract ore from a facility previously believed to be exhausted. The potential for beneficiation is also considered when evaluating sites of prospective mines, to determine whether or not the expense of mine operation will be outweighed by the products of the mine.

People concerned with sustainable development and ethical business practices also use the term beneficiation, but in a slightly different way. Rather than meaning that the maximum potential of a resource has been exploited, beneficiation refers to business practices which benefit the communities where products are mined, harvested, and otherwise taken. Historically, major companies have tended to enter small communities, take resources, and then leave, with no benefit to the populace.

This practice of exploiting a community and then leaving has become frowned upon as a form of exploitation of people and national governments, making beneficiation increasingly popular. With beneficiation, a company does things like moving some of its operations to the country where a product is harvested or mined, giving back to the community, and doing more work to keep some of the profits and benefits in country. For example, if a company is mining opals, it might open a facility for cutting and polishing opals near the mine, rather than shipping them overseas for processing, to create more job opportunities for the local community. Likewise, a company taking timber might operate a mill near the forest rather than shipping raw timber overseas.

Ever since she began contributing to the site several years ago, Mary has embraced the exciting challenge of being a InfoBloom researcher and writer. Mary has a liberal arts degree from Goddard College and spends her free time reading, cooking, and exploring the great outdoors.

Ever since she began contributing to the site several years ago, Mary has embraced the exciting challenge of being a InfoBloom researcher and writer. Mary has a liberal arts degree from Goddard College and spends her free time reading, cooking, and exploring the great outdoors.

beneficiation - an overview | sciencedirect topics

beneficiation - an overview | sciencedirect topics

Beneficiation includes crushing, grinding, gravity concentration and flotation concentration. Beneficiation is followed by processing activities such as smelting and refining. The beneficiation process begins with milling, which is followed by flotation for further beneficiation. At the first stage, extracted ores undergo the milling operation to produce uniformly sized particles for crushing, grinding, wet or dry concentration. The type of milling operable in a certain plant is chosen by capital investment and economics. The degree of crushing or grinding, which is required for further beneficiation, is dependent on capital. Crushing is a dry operation which only involves dust control using water spray (Drzymala, 2007). A primary or jaw crusher is located at the mine site and reduces the particle diameter of the ores into<6 in. The crushed ore is then transported to the mill site for crushing, grinding, classification and concentration. The second stage, grinding, is a wet operation which requires initial flotation and water to make a slurry. The hydrocyclone operates between each grinding operation to classify the type of particles: fine or coarse (Long etal., 1998).

This process is used to adhere to ore mineral or a group of minerals with the air bubbles after involving chemical reagents in operation. Chemical reagents got reacted with the desired mineral in the flotation process. The effectiveness of the flotation technique is dependent on four factors: the degree of oxidation of the ore, the number of copper minerals present, the nature of the gangue and the presence of iron sulphides. There are some other important factors such as the particle size, minerals compatible with the reagents and the condition of the water. Conditioners and regulators might be used during or after the milling time for ore treatment (Drzymala, 2007). Flotation is an effective method to concentrate the targeted elements existed in minerals based on the difference in physicochemical properties of various mineral surfaces. It can easily separate copper (Feng etal., 2018b), lead (Feng etal., 2017a), zinc (Feng and Wen, 2017) and tin (Feng etal., 2017b) minerals from gangue minerals by addition of flotation reagents. The concentrates of minerals must go through pyrometallurgical methods like smelting and refining. However, before these steps, the concentrates may require roasting and sintering, which depends on the processing method. The ore concentrate undergoes partial fusion which turns it into agglomerated material suitable for processing operations (Drzymala, 2007). The sintering operation consists of blending, sintering, cooling and sizing. At first, the raw material concentrates are blended with moistures in mills, drums or pans. This step is called blending. In the next step, the concentrate feed is fired or sintered and then cooled (Long etal., 1998). The sinter gets crushed with being cool. Then the concentrate will be graded. After grading, it is crushed to produce a smaller sinter product. In roasting, gassolid reactions are involved at elevated temperatures, which purify the metal by treating it with hot air (Shedd, 2016).

Dry beneficiation has two important advantagessaving water, a valuable resource, and no tailings pond and subsequently, no leaching of the trace/toxic elements into ground water. In dry beneficiation of coal, coal and mineral matter are separated based on differences in their physical properties such as density, shape, size, luster, magnetic susceptibilities, frictional coefficient, and electrical conductivity [2325]. Dry beneficiation gives a clean coal as well as reduces some of the polluting elements associated with minerals. It cannot remove the inorganic matter in coal present as salts resulting from the marine environment during coalification. Azimi etal. [26] evaluated the performance of air dense mediumfluidized bed separator in removing trace elements, such as Hg, As, Se, Pb, Ag, Ba, Cu, Ni, Sb, Co, Mn, and Be. Their study revealed the association of Pb, Ag, Ba, Cu, Mn, and Be with ash-forming minerals. Elements such as As, Se, and Sb showed some organic bonding. High rejection of Hg was achieved through dry beneficiation of coal where Hg is mostly associated with pyrites.

The beneficiation and obtainment of raw materials often has a severe effect on the environment and generates byproducts that in many cases cannot be further processed into suitable products. The high concentration of REs (mainly in the form of oxides) in spent glass polishing material would therefore enable the easier and resource-saving production of predominantly cerium and lanthanum oxides. As a consequence, the focus of this chapter was on reviewing and investigating recovery processes for REs, whereas all mineral acids of technical relevance were taken into account. The presence of RE compounds containing fluoride made digestion with nitric and HCl more complex and achieved maximum leaching yields for lanthanum of 70%, whereas the extraction of cerium was higher than 90% using high acid concentrations and excess as well as hydrogen peroxide to some extent. However, the main advantage of these process types is that less wash water is required compared with sulfuric acid processing. On the other hand, off-gas and wastewater treatment seems to be more easily manageable in the case of H2SO4. Nevertheless, because polishing agents are usually based on noncritical REs, which in some cases (especially cerium) are even being overproduced nowadays, the economic viability of such processes has to be carefully analyzed.

Mineral beneficiation begins with crushing and grinding of mined ore for near-complete separation of ore and gangue minerals as well as between ore minerals. Each processing step is designed to increase the grade (concentration) of the valuable components of the original ore. Mined ore undergoes comminution by crushing and grinding, and gravity concentration by Dense Media Separation (DMS) removes the bulk of the rocks and gangue minerals. Installation of a DMS unit between the crusher and the grinder is extremely beneficial to eliminate large volumes of waste rocks from the ore. Consequently, the grinder, milling, and flotation unit will treat a significantly lower volume of higher-grade preconcentrate at a reduced operating cost with respect to energy, grinding media, and flotation reagents. The mineral pyrrhotite is often magnetically separated, collected, and treated to recover the minerals of PGEs and nickel. Sulfide minerals are further concentrated by froth flotation. The final concentrate upgrades the PGE content to 0.0150% (100400g/t) PGEs. The wet concentrate dewatered is thickened in large tanks, and filtered by disk or drum filters. The concentrate is dried in a spray drier or flash drier to reduce the energy requirement for smelting and the possible occurrence of explosions in the furnace. Dry concentrate is transferred pneumatically from the drier into the furnace for smelting.

Mineral beneficiation, particularly base and noble metals, is sensitive to optimum use of reagents, recovery of metals, and clean concentrate. High fluctuation of feed grade at flotation cells yields loss of metals to tailing. The offline analytical procedures discussed at Chapter 7, Section 7.5, are not appropriate under changing feed grade. The process is not capable of continuous in-stream detection and spontaneous corrective measures. This is surmounted by complete concentrator automation. The circuit is comprised of three major integrated units: probe or sensor, in-stream analyzer, and digital process control module.

The in-stream X-ray analyzer (Fig.13.5) employs sensors acting as a source of radiation, which is absorbed by the sample causing fluorescent response of each element. The analyzer probes are installed in feed, concentrates, and tailing streams. The metal content (Pb, Zn, Cu, Fe, Cd, Ag, Au, etc.) and pulp density, in the form of electrical signals from the probes (sensors), are conveyed in electronic circuits (detectors generating a quantitative output signal) to a digital computer in the control room. A continuous screen display and/or printout showing the elemental dispersion at every minute is available for manual or automatic control of reagents in the flotation process. The field instruments for the flotation circuits comprise pH and metal probes and magnetic flow meters with control valves for reagent dosing pumps. The system improves the recovery of each metal as well as concentrate grade. The regulated feed reagents, apart from improved metallurgy, result in significant savings of reagent cost.

Figure13.5. Mill sampling system by in-stream analyzer. The probe is installed in the slurry stream of feed (conditioner) and reject (tailing) for continuous sensing of metal grades and simultaneous digital process control of reagents.

The steps to be taken for proper functioning of the slurry pond, handling of coal rejects and their utilization, periodic desilting, arrangement for water recirculation, measures to prevent water pollution from slurry ponds, arrangement for surplus water overflow, etc. shall be indicated in the mine closure plan. Reject dumps should be properly benched and graded on cessation of washery/mining operations and the area should be reclaimed biologically. Similarly, slurry ponds should be dismantled and dewatered and the area reclaimed at the end of washery/mining operations.

In the beneficiation of phosphate ores the tailings generated still carry significant phosphate content. The recovery has been difficult as the tailings carry a large proportion of clay minerals, magnesium oxide and iron carbonate mineral known as ankerite, an iron carbonate. Until recently, there was no suitable method for separating phosphate from such clayey wastes.

Progress has been made to recover some fraction of phosphate from these wastes. Separation of ankerite mineral has been attempted by magnetic separation with some success (Abdel-Khalek et al., 2001). The magnetic stream enriched with phosphate is further processed by flotation to separate magnesium oxide. A product containing 3132% P2O5 by processing tailings with 20% P2O5 has been produced (Abdel-Khalek et al., 2001).

The beneficiation study of vein-type apatite from Mushgia Khudag deposit, Mongolia, wascarried out to gain knowledge for processing an extremely REE-enriched igneous-hydrothermal ore type associated with Upper JurassicLower Cretaceous, c. 140Ma, syenite magmatism.

In the field, the studied apatite veins range from centimeters to several meters in width and crosscut the syenite. The main REE carrier phase is apatite, which contains an average of 14.7% total REO, with the highest values reaching 20.8%. This is the highest concentration of REE reported in apatite to date.

Apatite is accompanied by minor amounts of other REE phases, such as cheralite, monazite, parasite, synchysite, bastnaesite, and xenotime. Apatite typically occurs as idio- to hypidimorphic grains varying from 0.1 to 4.0mm in diameter.

In the composite sample, the content of REE was calculated as 1.74%, most of which comprised light REE. Y was the only heavy REE. The ratio of heavy to light REE was found to be very low. The recovery of apatite (REE) is the main aim of the beneficiation work.

Over 90% TREE recovery was obtained at the mass recovery of 22%. After three time cleaners, the final concentrate was of the grade TREE 9.3% at the recovery of 85.0% and of the grade P2O5 22.3% at the recovery of 85.7%. The enrichment ratio of the process was 5.3 for TREE and forP2O5.

Mineralogical studies indicated that after rougher and cleaner flotation, the contents of the two REE-bearing minerals in the concentrate, apatite (REE) and monazite, had increased to 80.39% and 0.69% from the original 11.19% and 0.1%, respectively.

Apatite-hosted REE ores are expected to represent an increasingly important source for REE in the future due to the abundance of apatite and other phosphates in various geological environments including igneous, igneous-hydrothermal, and sedimentary systems.

Most ore beneficiation methods require large volume of water. It is necessary in the process of separation of various valuable and gangue minerals. The final concentrates as produced contain high proportion of moisture. Smelters, captive or custom base, are generally located at long distances from mining- beneficiation sites due to inadequate infrastructure. Shipment of concentrate in pulp form to long distances is not advisable. Pulp transport by road, rail or sea route is unsafe even at exorbitant high cost. Therefore, dewatering or solid-liquid separation is performed to generate dry concentrate. However, partial presence of water is desirable, say between 5 and 10% moisture content, for easy handling and safe transport. Metal losses are expected if the moisture content is totally dry or too low. It often becomes serious environmental issue on account of spreading air-driven concentrate in dry and dust form. Dewatering is done at successive stages of sedimentation or thickening, filtration and thermal drying.

Sedimentation is natural gravity settling of the solid portion of the concentrate pulp. It takes place in a cylindrical thickening tank in the form of layers (Fig. 12.50). Pulp is fed continuously from the top of the tank through pipe. The clear liquid overflows out of the tank. The thickened pulp settled at the bottom is taken out through a central outlet. The deposition process can be accelerated and the settled solids can be pushed toward the central outlet by rotating suspended radial arms performing as automatic rake mechanism. Sedimentation process would produce thickened pulp of 55-65% solids by weight.

Filtration is the second stage of solid-liquid separation, normally after thickening, by means of a porous medium. The most common filter media is cotton fabrics but can be extended to any one of jute, wool, linen, nylon, silk and rayon. The filter pads allow liquid to percolate and retain the solid on the outer surface. The filter media is washed and cleaned at regular interval for better performance and longevity. Several types of filter mechanisms are in use. The most widely used filters in mineral processing applications are disc, drum and horizontal type. Filtration produces moist filter cake of 80-90% solids.

Disk filters are used with vacuum filtration equipment. It is made of several large discs (Fig. 12.51). Each disk consists of sectors that are clamped together. The ribs between the sectors are designed in a radial fusion narrowing at the center. The semidry feed enters from the side. The disc rotates slowly so that cake forms on the face of the disc and semidry cakes are lifted above the slurry. The cake is suction dried. It is removed by scraper blades fitted on the side of each disc and pushed to discharge chutes. Generally, disk filters are used for heavy-duty applications such as dewatering of lead-zinc-copper concentrate, low-grade iron ore-taconite, coal, and aluminum hydrate.

Horizontal belt filter consists of a highly perforated horizontal rubber drainage conveyor deck fitted with filter media. Slurry is fed at the starting point of the deck and moves to the other end. Filtration starts partly by gravity and partly by vacuum mechanism attached to the bottom of the moving drainage deck. The cake is discharged as the belt reverses over a roller.

Drum or rotary drum filter works on the same principle as that of a disc filter. The drum is mounted horizontally and rotates in slow motion (Fig. 12.52). The surface of the drum is tightly wrapped with filter media and divided into several compartments, each one attached with drain lines. The filter is partially submerged in slurry feed. The drum rotates slowly through the slurry and produces filtered cakes while moving out of the submergence level. Partially dry cakes are removed by a combination of reversed air blast and automatic scraper knife.

Drying of concentrate is done prior to shipment. Rotary thermal dryer is widely used for production of final salable concentrate. It consists of a long cylindrical shell mounted on a roller at little slope to rotate the unit in uniform speed. Hot air at about 980 C is passed inside the cylinder through which the wet feed moves from feeding point to discharge end by gravity. Dry concentrate at 510% moisture moves on conveyer to the stockyard before being loaded onto trucks or rail wagons as required for shipment.

A simple process of beneficiation has been selected, which will be low in capital cost. As the scheme is a simple one, the cost of operation and maintenance will be minimal. The process technology is so chosen that it should be able to meet the quality parameters laid down by consumers. The flow scheme is briefly described here:

The scheme of beneficiation indicated here is a simple and effective technique that does not take into consideration either small coal or fines. This simple scheme may be applicable both for consumption in the power sector and the cement industry. However, depending upon the raw coal characteristics and needs of the consumer, total washing may be needed, as in the case of coking coal (Fig. 9.6).

mining and beneficiation - sciencedirect

mining and beneficiation - sciencedirect

This chapter explains that mining is designed to first liberate the coal from the host clastic rock and beneficiation to liberate higher grade coal and discard stone and poorer quality coal through a process of comminution, density separation, and flotation that is controlled by particle size and surface chemistry. For mines producing thermal coals, keeping rank and grade to specification is the prime task, along with tracking deleterious trace elements in product and reject. For mines producing metallurgical coal products, coal type or vitrinite content is an added factor as are element distributions such as phosphorus and sulphur. The chapter also highlights the different ways of estimating coal strength and hardnesscompressive strength, fracture toughness, or grindabilitybut all will show a trend relative to rank, type, and grade of the coal. The measurement of coal strength is affected by the size of the test specimen, the orientation of stress relative to banding, and the confining pressure of the test.

mineral beneficiation is the next frontier - mining zimbabwe

mineral beneficiation is the next frontier - mining zimbabwe

The country is home to the worlds second largest platinum group metals (PGMs) and chrome deposits after South Africa. It has a high gold yield per square kilometre, huge deposits of iron ore, nickel, copper, lithium and possibly oil and gas.

Mining already contributes 60 percent of the countrys total exports, accounts for 16 percent of the countrys gross domestic product (GDP) and an estimated 6 percent to 10 percent of total formal employment.

Addressing the Chamber of Mines of Zimbabwe annual general meeting (AGM) in Victoria Falls, the President said realising the full potential in mining could materially transform the economy and create the much-needed employment opportunities.

Guided by the Africa Mining Vision and National Development Strategy 1 targets, the sector is challenged to ensure equitable and inclusive broad-based development through enhanced beneficiation of our mineral endowments, he said.

This would augment the industrial development focus on value addition and beneficiation, export-led industrialisation and job creation among other things. Execution of commitments for the establishment of beneficiation plants should be urgently pursued, the President said, adding that he had noted efforts by players in platinum, chrome and lithium.

Mining is the largest foreign-currency earner (circa US$3,2 billion), but we also want to make sure that it moves away convincingly from just extraction to value addition and that job creation and export growth are further enhanced, said Prof Ncube.

However, it is common knowledge that the prices of value-added metal products such as jewellery, electronic products, etcetera, seldom fall in response to the drop in the prices of gold, platinum or related metals from which the products are made . . .

The fact that 60 percent of world trade is in intermediate products strengthens the case for value addition and beneficiation in Zimbabwe, hence the need to move away from export of raw and semi-processed minerals.

Mining Zimbabwe our core focus is the Zimbabwe Mining Industry, Zimbabwe Mining News, trends, new technologies being developed and used to improve this crucial sector, as well as new opportunities and investments arising from it.

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