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mining lead ftom ore process steps

lead mining concentration process, flotation, filtering, roasting, blasting

lead mining concentration process, flotation, filtering, roasting, blasting

Lead has bluish white shade when newly cut, but discolors to tedious grayish color when it is out in the open to air and is shiny chrome silver when melted into a liquid form. Lead is used in building construction, lead-acid batteries, bullets and gunshot, weights, and is element of solder, pewter, and fusible alloys. Lead has the uppermost atomic number of all unwavering elements, even though the subsequent element, bismuth, has a half-life so long it can be calculated steady. Like mercury, an additional heavy metal, lead is an intoxicating neurotoxin that accumulates in squashy tissues and fillet over time.

Lead has a monotonous luster and is an opaque, spongy, very pliable, highly acquiescent, bluish-white metal that has pitiable electrical conductivity. This lead metals is extremely opposed to corrosion, and because of this material goods, it is utilized to surround corrosive liquids. For the reason that lead is very impressionable and opposed to to corrosion it is lengthily used in building edifice, e.g. exterior coverings of roofing joints.

Lead is a toxic metal that can harm nervous connections (in particular with young children) and root blood and brain disorders. Long term experience to lead or its salts (in particular soluble salts or the physically powerful oxidant PbO2) can reason nephropathy, and colic-like abdominal trouble. The anxiety about lead's responsibility in cognitive deficits in children has brought about extensive decrease in its usage (lead disclosure has been associated to schizophrenia). Most issues of adult eminent blood lead levels are workplace-related. High blood levels are connected with belated puberty in girls.

Lead is known to naturally occur in free form in nature, but is generally obtained from the ores galena(PbS), anglesite (PbSO4), cerussite (PbCO3) and minum (Pb3O4). It is never considered to be a rare element even though it makes up only about 0.0013% of the earth's crust since it is easily mined and refined.

Lead is extracted from ores dug from under-ground mines. Lead is also found in conjunction with other metals such as silver and zinc. Lead materials are mined as a by- product of these other more valuable metals.

Extracting the lead materials from the ore is a tedious process. First the lead ore is ground into small salt-like particles. Following this, the flotation process takes place which involves mixing the powdered lead ore with water, the addition of pine oil and the introduction of air bubbles and agitation forms a froth of oil containing the lead ore, on the surface.

The froth is skimmed and then filtered to remove the water. The powder is then sintered at over 2500 to oxidize impurities such as sulphur and the resulting powder is further heated in a blast furnace, with carbon producing molten lead which is drawn off into lead molds.

At this stage, about 95% pure lead is obtained and is further refined to reach greater than 99% purity by melting and skimming impurities. Once the lead materials reach a sufficient level of purity it is cast into lead blocks as the finished product. Sometimes small quantities of impurities such as copper, antimony, tin & zinc are added to form lead alloys with various properties.

THE MANUFACTURING PROCESS OF LEAD: Mining the ore : The first step requires the lead ore to be mined from the grounds. Heavy machinery is used to drill the rocks from deep tunnels or blast it with dynamite, breaking the ore into pieces. The ore is then shoveled onto loaders and trucks and hauled to a shaft. The miners dump the ore down the shaft, and from there it is hoisted to the surface. Concentrating the ore : After the ore is removed from the mine, it is treated at a concentrating mill. Concentrating is generally removing the waste rock from the lead. The ore is crushed and grounded at the mill making it particles of diameters of 0.1 millimeter or less which appear to be finer than table salt, giving it granulated sugar like texture. Flotation process : Sulfur makes up a substantial portion of the mineral in the lead ore galena which is called lead sulfide. The flotation process helps in bringing out the sulfur-bearing portions of the ore, since it also contains the valuable metal. The finely crushed ore is diluted with water and then poured into a tank. The mixture of water and ground ore together is called slurry to which a small amount of pine oil is added. This pine oil shall attract the sulfide particles allowing the air to be bubbled through the mixture. This makes the sulfide particles to form an oily froth at the top while the gangue settles at the bottom. The X-ray analyzers play a major role in the floatation process. Using x-ray analysis, the metal content of the slurry can be checked with the floatation monitor and through this the proportion of the chemical additives to optimize the recovery of the metal can be adjusted. Hence, other chemicals like alum and lime which aggregate the metal are added to the tank to help concentrate the minerals. The salt xanthate is also added to the slurry which helps the metal particles float to the surface. As a result of this process, the lead is separated from the rock as well as from minerals such as zinc and copper. Filtering process : The concentrated ore is then filtered through which 90% of water is removed. This concentrate contains about 40-80% lead with greater amounts of other impurities. At this stage it is shipped to the smelter. The gangue which is waste rock is simply of no use as it is not mineral bearing and is forced out of the tank and then disposed into a pond or a natural lake from which the land gets replanted once it is filled. Roasting the ore : The filtered lead concentrate needs to be refined in order to remove the sulfur and other impurities. Thus, it is mixed with other lead-bearing materials along with sand and limestone. The entire mixture is spread on a moving grate. The air being heated to 2,550F is blown through the grate. The sulfur in the concentrate combusts to sulfur dioxide gas after coke is added as a fuel. This sulfur dioxide is an important byproduct of the lead refining process and is captured at a separate acid plant and converted to sulfuric acid for several uses. Once the ore has been roasted, it is known to fuse into a brittle material called sinter which is mostly lead oxide, but can also contain oxides of zinc, iron, and silicon, some lime and sulfur. When the sinter is taken off the moving grate, it is broken into lumps which are loaded into the blast furnace. Blasting process : With coke as fuel, the sinter is added to the top of the blast furnace. Through the lower part of the furnace a blast of air comes out burning the coke. This burnt coke generates a temperature of about 2,200F and produces carbon monoxide. The produced carbon monoxide reacts with lead and other metal oxides to give molten lead along with waste slag and carbon dioxide. The molten metal is then drawn off to dross kettles or molds. Refining process : The molten lead produced from the blast furnace is about 95-99% pure and is known as base bullion because of the purity attained. Again,it must be further refined to remove impurities since commercial lead must be about 99-99.999% pure. This base bullion is kept at a drossing kettle at a temperature just above its melting point which is about 626F in order to be refined. At this temperature, any copper left in the bullion rises to the top of the kettle and forms a scum or dross which can be skimmed off. The presence of gold and silver can be removed from the bullion by a small quantity of zinc added to it since both gold and silver dissolve more easily in zinc than in lead. When the bullion is slightly cooled, zinc dross rises to the top carrying the other metals along. Casting process : At last when the lead has been refined adequately, it is cooled and then cast into blocks as a finished product and may weigh in tons. Alloys of lead may also be produced at the smelter plant. Metals added to the molten lead in precise proportions produce a lead material for specific industrial uses. Examples of lead being employed in car batteries, making pipes, sheets, cable sheathing, and ammunition is blended with antimony as this increases the strength of the metal. TOP LEAD PRODUCING COUNTRIES :

The first step requires the lead ore to be mined from the grounds. Heavy machinery is used to drill the rocks from deep tunnels or blast it with dynamite, breaking the ore into pieces. The ore is then shoveled onto loaders and trucks and hauled to a shaft. The miners dump the ore down the shaft, and from there it is hoisted to the surface.

After the ore is removed from the mine, it is treated at a concentrating mill. Concentrating is generally removing the waste rock from the lead. The ore is crushed and grounded at the mill making it particles of diameters of 0.1 millimeter or less which appear to be finer than table salt, giving it granulated sugar like texture.

Sulfur makes up a substantial portion of the mineral in the lead ore galena which is called lead sulfide. The flotation process helps in bringing out the sulfur-bearing portions of the ore, since it also contains the valuable metal. The finely crushed ore is diluted with water and then poured into a tank. The mixture of water and ground ore together is called slurry to which a small amount of pine oil is added. This pine oil shall attract the sulfide particles allowing the air to be bubbled through the mixture. This makes the sulfide particles to form an oily froth at the top while the gangue settles at the bottom. The X-ray analyzers play a major role in the floatation process. Using x-ray analysis, the metal content of the slurry can be checked with the floatation monitor and through this the proportion of the chemical additives to optimize the recovery of the metal can be adjusted. Hence, other chemicals like alum and lime which aggregate the metal are added to the tank to help concentrate the minerals. The salt xanthate is also added to the slurry which helps the metal particles float to the surface. As a result of this process, the lead is separated from the rock as well as from minerals such as zinc and copper.

The concentrated ore is then filtered through which 90% of water is removed. This concentrate contains about 40-80% lead with greater amounts of other impurities. At this stage it is shipped to the smelter. The gangue which is waste rock is simply of no use as it is not mineral bearing and is forced out of the tank and then disposed into a pond or a natural lake from which the land gets replanted once it is filled.

The filtered lead concentrate needs to be refined in order to remove the sulfur and other impurities. Thus, it is mixed with other lead-bearing materials along with sand and limestone. The entire mixture is spread on a moving grate. The air being heated to 2,550F is blown through the grate. The sulfur in the concentrate combusts to sulfur dioxide gas after coke is added as a fuel. This sulfur dioxide is an important byproduct of the lead refining process and is captured at a separate acid plant and converted to sulfuric acid for several uses. Once the ore has been roasted, it is known to fuse into a brittle material called sinter which is mostly lead oxide, but can also contain oxides of zinc, iron, and silicon, some lime and sulfur. When the sinter is taken off the moving grate, it is broken into lumps which are loaded into the blast furnace.

With coke as fuel, the sinter is added to the top of the blast furnace. Through the lower part of the furnace a blast of air comes out burning the coke. This burnt coke generates a temperature of about 2,200F and produces carbon monoxide. The produced carbon monoxide reacts with lead and other metal oxides to give molten lead along with waste slag and carbon dioxide. The molten metal is then drawn off to dross kettles or molds.

The molten lead produced from the blast furnace is about 95-99% pure and is known as base bullion because of the purity attained. Again,it must be further refined to remove impurities since commercial lead must be about 99-99.999% pure. This base bullion is kept at a

drossing kettle at a temperature just above its melting point which is about 626F in order to be refined. At this temperature, any copper left in the bullion rises to the top of the kettle and forms a scum or dross which can be skimmed off. The presence of gold and silver can be removed from the bullion by a small quantity of zinc added to it since both gold and silver dissolve more easily in zinc than in lead. When the bullion is slightly cooled, zinc dross rises to the top carrying the other metals along.

At last when the lead has been refined adequately, it is cooled and then cast into blocks as a finished product and may weigh in tons. Alloys of lead may also be produced at the smelter plant. Metals added to the molten lead in precise proportions produce a lead material for specific industrial uses. Examples of lead being employed in car batteries, making pipes, sheets, cable sheathing, and ammunition is blended with antimony as this increases the strength of the metal.

The largest producer of lead materials in the world is Australia followed by the USA, China and Canada. Lead is extracted from ores dug from under-ground mines. Even though more than 60 minerals contain lead, only galena, cerussite and anglesite are commercially viable. The U.S. is the worlds largest producer and consumer of refined lead metal. Major mine producers other than the U.S. include Australia, Canada, China, Peru, and Kazakhstan. In the U.S., six lead mines in Missouri, along with lead-producing mines in Alaska and Idaho, accounted for domestic mine production. Significant amounts of lead are recovered as a by-product or co-product from zinc mines, and silver-copper deposits. The top seven lead producing countries are as follows:

Looking at what the nature has to offer, it conveys a lot of information when it comes to things that it holds in it, within it and on it. With need for minerals and its wide spread application getting widened each day, the stint of its very existence is getting blink and its depreciation in its source which is its over usage is on the high.

literally means extraction .Our Mother Earth has lots of resources deep within her and mining is the method of extracting all these valuable resources from the earth through different means.There are different methods to extract these resources which are found in different forms beneath the earth's surface.

The metal mining was one of the traditions that have been passed on meritoriously over the past years so that we meet our day-to-day needs of the desired material usage starting from the equipments that are ornamental as well as purposeful coordination of information's.

Jadeite is a pyroxene mineral and is one of the two types of pure jade. The other is known as nephrite jade. Jadeite is the rarer of the two jades, and as a result, it is considered to be more precious and valuable. Due to its striking and emerald green color it is also known as "imperial jadeite".

Surface mining is basically employed when deposits of commercially viable minerals or rock are found closer to the surface; that is, where overstrain (surface material covering the valuable deposit) is relatively very less or the material of interest is structurally unsuitable for heavy handling or tunneling.

Underground mining is carried out when the rocks, minerals, or precious stones are located at a distance far beneath the ground to be extracted with surface mining. To facilitate the minerals to be taken out of the mine, the miners construct underground rooms to work in.

Gold is a chemical component with the symbol Au that springs up from the Latin derivative aurum that means shining dawn and with the atomic number 79. It is a very sought-after valuable metal which, for many centuries, has been utilized as wealth. The metal resembles as nuggets or grain like structures in rocks, subversive "veins" and in alluvial deposits. It is one of the currency metals.

Platinum, is a heavy, malleable,ductile, highly inactive, silverish-white transition metal. Platinum is a member of group 10 elements of the periodic table.It is one among the scarce elements found in Earth's crust and has six naturally occurring isotopes. It is also achemical element.

Diamonds and supplementary valuable and semi-precious gemstones are excavated from the earth level via 4 main types on mining. These diamond withdrawal methods vary depending on how the minerals are situated within the earth, the steadiness of the material neighboring the preferred mineral, and the nonessential damage done to the surrounding environment.

6 stages of the mining process | boss magazine

6 stages of the mining process | boss magazine

The mining process is responsible for much of the energy we use and products we consume. Mining has been a vital part of American economy and the stages of the mining process have had little fluctuation. However, the process of mining for ore is intricate and requires meticulous work procedures to be efficient and effective. This is why we have broken down the mining process into six comprehensive steps.

The first stage in the mining process calls for skilled workers or AI to apply their geological knowledge in identifying areas where a particular ore can be found. There are two methods workers and machines can employ during this stage:

The digging of tunnels and sink shafts when the oreor mineral depositis below the surface. Hand tools such as chisels, hammers, and wedges are used to break up waste rock, Sometimes, areas must even be blasted in order to loosen rock so workers can more easily separate the ore from the waste rockwhich are mined separately.

The next step, once the ore is excavated, is to separate the waste rock and ore using primary crushers, located at the open pit mine site. At this point, larger rocks are broken down to a size better suited for the conveyor belt to transport.

Once the ore has been processed and shipped away for sale, the final step of the mining process begins. The land which was used to obtain these resources must be rehabilitated as much as possible. The objectives of this process include:

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