types of crushers
Impact Crushers: This division is represented chiefly by the various styles of hammermill; also by the cage type disintegrator.
Combination Impact and Sledging Crushers. In this class we have the single or double sledging roll crushers. An example of the former is the Fairmount crusher, of the latter, the Edison roll crusher.
Some further subdividing and qualification might be applied to these general classifications, but these, for the most part, are not of particular importance. Pressure crushers, for example, may be divided into two subclasses: the reciprocating, and the continuous-pressure, types. The gyratory and jaw crushers come under the first category, the crushing rolls under the second. Strictly speaking, the gyratory motion is not a reciprocating one, but it is so with respect to any vertical radial plane through the crushing chamber; therefore it is convenient to view it in that light. Some roll crushers, notably the light coal crushing type, have more of a tearing action, as contrasted to the heavy sledging performance of such machines as the Fairmount crusher.
During the same years wherein the industry was concerned with development of larger and still larger primary crushers,another member of the family was born: the single, sledging- roll crusher. The Allis-Chalmers Co. entered this field in 1911, building two sets of 36 dia. x 60 face single-roll crushers, flux limestone plant. Taking the name of its proving ground, this machine was christened the Fairmount crusher. The machine quickly achieved a high degree of popularity, and although its field of application is relatively limited, quite a number of them were in-stalled for primary crushing service. The line was expanded to include smaller sizes, as well as the big 60- x 84-in. machine.
Development of concentration and cyanidation in the mining industry called for finer crushing than was feasible in the gyratory or jaw crushers then available. This requirement was met for a number of years by the double smooth-face crushing rolls, originally known as Cornish rolls. As the mining industry during the period we are discussing was a very active one, the development in this type of crusher had reached a fairly high stage before the end of the century, and some excellent heavy-duty roils were available at that time. That this machine was not used to any considerable extent in the commercial crushing plants of that period was due simply to the fact that there was no demand for the smaller sizes of crushed stone, at least not any more than could be taken care of by the crushing methods then in vogue in such plants.
This brings us to the rather significant fact that, while all of the interesting and rather remarkable development we have outlined was going on, very little, if anything, was being done to develop special crushers for secondary and fine-reduction work, other than the work on crushing rolls just described.
a jaw, b cone, c mushroom, d hammer, e roller;
1 fixed cheek with the rotation axis; 2 a movable cheek; 3, 4 the eccentric shaft; 5 rod; 6 hinged rear bearing spacer cheeks; 7 spring; 8, 9 width adjustment mechanism of the discharge gap; 10 pull the lock device; 11 bed; 12 still cone; 13 cone moving; 14 traverse; 15 hinge suspension rolling cone; 16 cone of the shaft; 17 drive shaft; 18 eccentric; 19 amortization spring; 20 foot ring ;21 regulating ring; 22 thrust bearing cone; 23 rotor; 24 liner plates; 25 grate; 26 hammer; 27 main frame; 28 crushing rolls.
jaw crusher working principle
A sectional view of the single-toggle type of jaw crusher is shown below.In one respect, the working principle and application of this machine are similar to all types of rock crushers, the movable jaw has its maximum movement at the top of the crushing chamber, and minimum movement at the discharge point. The motion is, however, a more complex one than the Dodge motion, being the resultant of the circular motion of the eccentric shaft at the top of the swing jaw. combined with the rocking action of the inclined toggle plate at the bottom of this jaw. The motion at the receiving opening is elliptical; at the discharge opening, it is a thin crescent, whose chord is inclined upwardly toward the stationary jaw. Thus, at all points in the crushing chamber, the motion has both, vertical and horizontal, components.
It will be noted that the motion is a rocking one. When the swing jaw is rising, it is opening, at the top, during the first half of the stroke, and closing during the second half, whereas the bottom of the jaw is closing during the entire up-stroke. A reversal of this motion occurs during the downstroke of the eccentric.
The horizontal component of motion (throw) at the discharge point of the single-toggle jaw crusher is greater than the throw of the Dodge crusher at that point; in fact, it is about three-fourths that of Blake machines of similar short-side receiving-opening dimensions. The combination of favorable crushing angle, and nonchoking jaw plates, used in this machine, promotes a much freer action through the choke zone than that in the Dodge crusher. Capacities compare very favorably with comparable sizes of the Blake machine with non-choking plates, and permissible discharge settings are finer. A table of ratings is given.
The single-toggle type jaw crusher has been developed extensively. Because of its simplicity, lightweight, moderate cost, and good capacity, it has found quite a wide field of application in portable crushing rigs. It also fits into the small, single-stage mining operation much better than the slower Dodge type. Some years since this type was developed with very wide openings for reduction crushing applications, but it was not able to seriously challenge the gyratory in this field, especially when the high-speed modern versions of the latter type were introduced.
Due to the pronounced vertical components of motion in the single-toggle machine, it is obvious that a wiping action takes place during the closing strokes; either, the swing jaw must slip on the material, or the material must slip along the stationary jaw. It is inevitable that such action should result in accelerated wear of the jaw plates; consequently, the single-toggle crusher is not an economical machine for reducing highly abrasive, or very hard, tough rock. Moreover, the large motion at the receiving opening greatly accentuates shocks incidental to handling the latter class of material, and the full impact of these shocks must be absorbed by the bearings in the top of the swing jaw.
The single-toggle machine, like the Dodge type, is capable of making a high ratio-of-reduction, a faculty which enables it to perform a single-stage reduction of hand-loaded, mine run ore to a suitable ball mill, or rod mill, feed.
Within the limits of its capacity, and size of receiving openings, it is admirably suited for such operations. Small gravel plant operations are also suited to this type of crusher, although it should not be used where the gravel deposit contains extremely hard boulders. The crusher is easy to adjust, and, in common with most machines of the jaw type, is a simple crusher to maintain.
As rock particles are compressed between the inclined faces of the mantle and concaves there is a tendency for them to slip upward. Slippage occurs in all crushers, even in ideal conditions. Only the particles weight and the friction between it and the crusher surfaces counteract this tendency. In particular, very hard rock tends to slip upward rather than break. Choke feeding this kind of material can overload the motor, leaving no option but to regulate the feed. Smaller particles, which weigh less, and harder particles, which are more resistant to breakage, will tend to slip more. Anything that reduces friction, such as spray water or feed moisture, will promote slippage.
Leading is a technique for measuring the gap between fixed and moveable jaws. The procedure is performed while the crusher is running empty. A lead plug is lowered on a lanyard to the choke point, then removed and measured to find out how much thickness remains after the crusher has compressed it. This measures the closed side setting. The open side setting is equal to this measurement plus the throw of the mantle.
The minimum safe closed side setting depends on:
Blake (Double Toggle) Originally the standard jaw crusher used for primary and secondary crushing of hard, tough abrasive rocks. Also for sticky feeds. Relatively coarse slabby product, with minimum fines.
Overhead Pivot (Double Toggle) Similar applications to Blake. Overhead pivot; reduces rubbing on crusher faces, reduces choking, allows higher speeds and therefore higher capacities. Energy efficiency higher because jaw and charge not lifted during cycle.
Overhead Eccentric (Single Toggle) Originally restricted to sampler sizes by structural limitations. Now in the same size of Blake which it has tended to supersede, because overhead eccentric encourages feed and discharge, allowing higher speeds and capacity, but with higher wear and more attrition breakage and slightly lower energy efficiency. In addition as compared to an equivalent double toggle, they are cheaper and take up less floor space.
Since the jaw crusher was pioneered by Eli Whitney Blake in the 2nd quarter of the 1800s, many have twisted the Patent and come up with other types of jaw crushers in hopes of crushing rocks and stones more effectively. Those other types of jaw crusher inventors having given birth to 3 groups:
Heavy-duty crushing applications of hard-to-break, high Work Index rocks do prefer double-toggle jaw crushers as they are heavier in fabrication. A double-toggle jaw crusher outweighs the single-toggle by a factor of 2X and well as costs more in capital for the same duty. To perform its trade-off evaluation, the engineering and design firm will analyze technical factors such as:
1. Proper selection of the jaws.
2. Proper feed gradation.
3. Controlled feed rate.
4. Sufficient feeder capacity and width.
5. Adequate crusher discharge area.
6. Discharge conveyor sized to convey maximum crusher capacity.
Although the image below is of a single-toggle, it illustrates the shims used to make minor setting changes are made to the crusher by adding or removing them in the small space between the crushers mainframe and the rea toggle block.
The jaw crusher discharge opening is the distance from the valley between corrugations on one jaw to the top of the mating corrugation on the other jaw. The crusher discharge opening governs the size of finished material produced by the crusher.
Crusher must be adjusted when empty and stopped. Never close crusher discharge opening to less than minimum opening. Closing crusher opening to less than recommended will reduce the capacity of crusher and cause premature failure of shaft and bearing assembly.
To compensate for wear on toggle plate, toggle seat, pitman toggle seat, and jaws additional shims must be inserted to maintain the same crusher opening. The setting adjustment system is designed to compensate for jaw plate wear and to change the CSS (closed side setting) of the jaw crusher. The setting adjustment system is built into the back frame end.
Here also the toggle is kept in place by a compression spring. Large CSS adjustments are made to the jaw crusher by modifying the length of the toggle. Again, shims allow for minor gap adjustments as they are inserted between the mainframe and the toggle block.
is done considering the maximum rock-lump or large stone expected to be crushed and also includes the TPH tonnage rate needing to be crushed. In sizing, we not that jaw crushers will only have around 75% availability and extra sizing should permit this downtime.
As a rule, the maximum stone-lump dimension need not exceed 80% of the jaw crushers gape. For intense, a 59 x 79 machine should not see rocks larger than 80 x 59/100 = 47 or 1.2 meters across. Miners being miners, it is a certainty during day-to-day operation, the crusher will see oversized ore but is should be fine and pass-thru if no bridging takes place.
It will be seen that the pitman (226) is suspended from an eccentric on the flywheel shaft and consequently moves up and down as the latter revolves, forcing the toggle plates outwards at each revolution. The seating (234) of the rear toggle plate (239) is fixed to the crusher frame; the bottom of the swing jaw (214) is therefore pushed forward each time the pitman rises, a tension rod (245) fitted with a spring (247) being used to bring it back as the pitman falls. Thus at each revolution of the flywheel the movable jaw crushes any lump of ore once against the stationary jaw (212) allowing it to fall as it swings back on the return half-stroke until eventually the pieces have been broken small enough to drop out. It follows that the size to which the ore is crushed.
The jaw crusher is not so efficient a machine as the gyratory crusher described in the next paragraph, the chief reason for this being that its crushing action is confined to the forward stroke of the jaw only, whereas the gyratory crusher does useful work during the whole of its revolution. In addition, the jaw crusher cannot be choke-fed, as can the other machine, with the result that it is difficult to keep it working at its full capacity that is, at maximum efficiency.
Tables 5 and 6 give particulars of different sizes of jaw crushers. The capacity figures are based on ore weighing 100 lb. per cubic foot; for a heavier ore, the figures should be increased in direct proportion to its weight in pounds per cubic foot.
The JAW crusher and the GYRATORY crusher have similarities that put them into the same class of crusher. They both have the same crushing speed, 100 to 200 R.P.M. They both break the ore by compression force. And lastly, they both are able to crush the same size of ore.
In spite of their similarities, each crusher design has its own limitations and advantages that differ from the other one. A Gyratory crusher can be fed from two sides and is able to handle ore that tends to slab. Its design allows a higher-speed motor with a higher reduction ratio between the motor and the crushing surface. This means a dollar saving in energy costs.
A Jaw crusher on the other hand requires an Ely wheel to store energy. The box frame construction of this type of crusher also allows it to handle tougher ore. This design restricts the feeding of the crusher to one side only.
The ore enters from the top and the swing jaw squeezes it against the stationary jaw until it breaks. The broken ore then falls through the crusher to be taken away by a conveyor that is under the crusher.Although the jaws do the work, the real heart of this crusher is the TOGGLE PLATES, the PITMAN, and the PLY WHEEL.
These jaw crushers are ideal forsmall properties and they are of the high capacity forced feed design.On this first Forced Feed Jaw Crusher, the mainframe and bumper are cast of special alloy iron and the initial cost is low. The frame is ribbed both vertically and horizontally to give maximum strength with minimum weight. The bumper is ruggedly constructed to withstand tremendous shock loads. Steel bumper can be furnished if desired. The side bearings are bronze; the bumper bearings are of the antifriction type.
This bearing arrangement adds both strength and ease of movement. The jaw plates and cheek plates are reversible and are of the best-grade manganese steel. The jaw opening is controlled by the position of an adjustable wedge block. The crusher is usually driven by a V-to-V belt drive, but it can be arranged for either V-to-flat or fiat belt drive. The 8x10 size utilizes a split frame and maybe packed for muleback transportation. Cast steel frames can be furnished to obtain maximum durability.
This second type of forced feed rock crusher is similar in design to the Type H listed above except for having a frame and bumper made of cast steel. This steel construction makes the unit lighter per unit of size and adds considerable strength. The bearings are all of the special design; they are bronze and will stand continuous service without any danger of failure. The jaw and cheek plates are manganese steel; and are completely reversible, thus adding to their wearing life. The jaw opening is controlled by the position of an adjustable wedge block. The crushers are usually driven by V-to-V but can be arranged for V-to-flat and belt drive. The 5x6 size and the 8x10 size can be made with sectionalized frame for muleback transportation. This crusher is ideal for strenuous conditions. Consider a multi jaw crusher.
Some jaw crushers are on-floor, some aboveground, and others underground. This in many countries, and crushing many kinds of ore. The Traylor Bulldog Jaw crusher has enjoyed world wide esteem as a hard-working, profit-producing, full-proof, and trouble-free breaker since the day of its introduction, nearly twenty years ago. To be modern and get the most out of your crushing dollars, youll need the Building breaker. Wed value the privilege of telling you why by letter, through our bulletins, or in person. Write us now today -for a Blake crusher with curved jaw plates that crush finer and step up production.
When a machine has such a reputation for excellence that buyers have confidence in its ability to justify its purchase, IT MUST BE GOOD! Take the Type G Traylor Jaw Crusher, for instance. The engineers and operators of many great mining companies know from satisfying experience that this machine delivers a full measure of service and yields extra profits. So they specify it in full confidence and the purchase is made without the usual reluctance to lay out good money for a new machine.
The success of the Type G Traylor Jaw Crusheris due to several characteristics. It is (1) STRONG almost to superfluity, being built of steel throughout; it is (2) FOOL-PROOF, being provided with our patented Safety Device which prevents breakage due to tramp iron or other causes of jamming; it is (3) ECONOMICAL to operate and maintain, being fitted with our well-known patented Bulldog Pitman and Toggle System, which saves power and wear by minimizing frictionpower that is employed to deliver increased production; it is (4) CONVENIENT to transport and erect in crowded or not easily accessible locations because it is sectionalized to meet highly restrictive conditions.
Whenever mining men need a crusher that is thoroughly reliable and big producer (which is of all time) they almost invariably think first of a Traylor Type G Jaw Crusher. By experience, they know that this machine has built into it the four essentials to satisfaction and profit- strength, foolproofness, economy, and convenience.
Maximum STRENGTH lies in the liberal design and the steel of which crushers parts are made-cast steel frame, Swing Jaw, Pitman Cap and Toggles, steel Shafts and Pitman rods and manganese steel Jaw Plates and Cheek Plates. FOOLPROOFNESS is provided by our patented and time-tested safety Device which prevents breakage due to packing or tramp iron. ECONOMY is assured by our well-known Bulldog Pitman and Toggle System, which saves power and wear by minimizing friction, the power that is used to deliver greater productivity. CONVENIENCE in transportation and erection in crowded or not easily accessible locations is planned for in advance by sectionalisation to meet any restrictive conditions.
Many of the worlds greatest mining companies have standardized upon the Traylor Type G Jaw Crusher. Most of them have reordered, some of them several times. What this crusher is doing for them in the way of earning extra dollars through increased production and lowered costs, it will do for you! Investigate it closely. The more closely you do, the better youll like it.
gold mining machine in thailand
Gold mining machine plant for sale in Thailand from Zenith is particularly versatile and economical for alluvial mining projects. Well suited for production and exploration - stationary or mobile. They are compact and portable with capacities ranging from 50-600 tph. Our typical design uses either a trommel or vibrating screen deck classifier that feeds into the gold ore crusher machine for primary processing.
Grinding gold ore is after the primary crushing stage. In this stage, it will need milling machines, such as ball mill, vertical roller mill, hammer crusher, ultrafine grinding mill. You can choose anyone of them for your production line according to your final production requirements.
For gold ore mining operators, you want to have the mining process with "crush more, grind less". It will need advanced gold ore crusher machines. Zenith's range of crushers, from large primary jaws and gyratories to cones and VSIs is complemented by a range of first class separation equipment, including a complete range of state-of-the art screens and dry magnetic separators.
Gold ore cone crusher's unique design incorporates the best in process technology to produce the highest crushing force in the industry. It stands for maximum power, and no similarly-sized conventional crusher can match this performance. The gold ore crusher machine can process more ore to the same reduction or the same quantity of ore to a finer reduction than any competings unit. In fact, up to twice the capacity per crushing station.
Zenith's gold ore milling machine designs are proven in the field and are backed by our professional technology if required. They are designed to global standards or to meet client specific requirements.
Zenith is a professional gold ore mining production line machine manufacturer. If you want to buy a whole line for gold processing machine. You should give us the following information and we will design the most suitable one for you:
mining equipment,ore mining equipment,mining crusher,mining mill,mining machine-sbm
Mining equipment like mining crusher and mining mill is an important mining tool which is widely used in stone quarrying, mining, ore dressing plant, aggregate production plant, powder making industry, recycling industry and so on. Usually, the crushing plant flow chart goes as follows: crushing, grinding, screening, washing, drying etc. SBM Machinery can supply the contractors, end users with whole unit crushing plant from primary, secondary, tertiary crushing to powder making machine, sieving, screening equipment. Complete stationary, mobile, portable systems in open-circuit or closed-circuit type are available for the customer.The popular mining equipment is: jaw crusher, cone crusher, impact crusher, VSI (vertical shaft impact) crusher, ball mill, Raymond mill, trapezium mill, ultrafine grinding mill etc.and the mining equipment is popular in many countries such as China, South Africa, Australia, America, Brazil, German etc.
At stone quarry, mining crushers like heavy duty jaw crusher, cone crusher, impact crusher, VSI crusher are widely used. In addition, we can manufacture proved small jaw crusher, HP cone crusher, single cylinder cone crusher, sand making machine for the customers application.
The mining crusher is suitable for producing building materials, roadbaselike construction aggregate building aggregate, riprap, sand, and gravelfrom natural stones such asbasalt, granite, limestone, marble, cobble stone, river stone, concrete, gravel, manufactured sandetc. at open-pit mine, and the mining crusher in stock features with high crushing capacity, low costs, low downtime, easily operate, versatile application etc.
Ore dressing plant is widely used for ore processing & extraction at an ore beneficiation plant to concentrate ore minerals. The ore dressing process contains mine crushing, screening, grinding, washing, drying and so on.
The popular grinding mills are ball mill, MTM trapezium mill, MTW trapezium mill, coarse powder mill, ultrafine mill, Raymond mill etc. The final grain size of the product can be down to 2500 mesh (or 0.005mm).
ore, mineral & slag crusher | stedman machine company
Stedman impact crushers, mills, and grinders are used in nearly every mineral, ore, and mining application. Whether you are processing iron ore, coal, rock, salt, wood chips, or clay to name a few we have your solution to size reduction.
With a wide range of equipment that performs mineral and ore crushing, size reduction, beneficiation, lump breaking, grinding, and mixing, our product line is designed to be reliable, versatile, and right for your application.
We offer custom designed solutions for your ore and mineral processing needsStedman has the industry leading Testing and Toll Processing Facilities available. With over 180 years of experience, many materials already have test reports on file. Contact us so we can help you select just the right equipment for your job no guessing.To learn more about what to expect from testing,read this articlethat ran in POWDER BULK ENGINEERING magazine.
Test Before You Buy!
Stedman's testing facilities provide real-world conditions to view your materials being processed. Test out a range of different size reduction methods, saving you both time and money when selecting the proper size reduction method.
Stedman's testing facilities provide real-world conditions to view your materials being processed. Test out a range of different size reduction methods, saving you both time and money when selecting the proper size reduction method.
Stedman Machine Company is involved in professional organizations to better understand the knowledge and skills needed to serve our customers in the Mineral & Mining Industry. These memberships give us better insight into the standards of the industry, updates to new and more efficient technologies and to the wants and needs of our customers. With the information obtained from our memberships, we can safely maintain the highest level of performance. Mineral & Mining associations include: