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most efficient ways of mining of iron ore

iron ore mining | techniques | metal extraction

iron ore mining | techniques | metal extraction

Iron ores are rocks and mineral deposits from which clanging iron can be reasonably extracted. The ores are generally prosperous in iron oxides and fluctuate in color ranging from dark grey, bright yellow, deep purple, to even rusty red. The iron by its own is usually found in the structure of magnetite (Fe3O4), hematite (Fe2O3), goethite, limonite or siderite. Hematite is also identified as "natural ore". The nomenclature dates back to the early years of drawing out, when certain hematite ores comprised 66% iron and could be fed reliably into iron edifice blast furnaces. Iron ore is the unrefined substance utilized to formulate pig iron, which is one of the most important untreated materials to compose steel. 98% of the hauled out iron ore is used to produce steel.

Uncontaminated iron ore is almost nameless on the exterior of the Earth apart from the combination of Fe-Ni alloys from meteorites and very atypical forms of unfathomable mantle xenoliths. For that reason, all sources of iron ore are utilized by human diligence take benefit of iron oxide minerals, the chief form which is used in industry is known as hematite.

However, in a number of situations, more substandard iron ore sources have been utilized by manufacturing societies when right of entry to high-grade hematite ore was not obtainable. This has incorporated operation of taconite in the United States, predominantly during World War II, and goethite or bog ore utilized in the times of the American Revolution and the Napoleonic wars. Magnetite is often utilized for the reason that it is magnetic and hence effortlessly progressive from the gangue minerals.

Iron ore mining techniques differ by the type of ore that is being hauled out. There are 4 types of iron ore deposits that is being worked on at present, Based on the mineralogy and geology of the ore deposits.

Deposits of iron ore such as haematite containing iron oxide are found in sedimentary rocks from which the oxygen is removed from the iron oxide in a blast furnace to give iron as a result since iron ores consists of the element iron combined with other elements, mostly oxygen. Haematite and magnetite are the most commonly found iron ore minerals.

The smelting process allows the iron ore to be heated with carbon. The carbon combines with the oxygen and carries it away, leaving behind iron. Blast furnaces are so hot which is why they melt the iron, and drain it off to be poured into moulds to form bars, called ingots.

Iron ore mining can be broadly divided into two categories namely 1) manual mining which is employed in small mines and 2) mechanized mining is suitable for large iron ore mines. Manual mining method is normally limited to float ores and small mines. Mining of reef ore is also being done manually on a small scale. The float ore area is dug up manually with picks, crow bars, and spades, and then the material is manually screened and then stacked up. The waste is thrown back into the pits. The blasted broken ore is manually screened, stacked for the purpose of loading in dumpers for dispatch.

Mechanized mining is executed by the extraction of iron ore from surface deposits. The mining areas require all the operations to be mechanized and mining is exceptionally done through systematic formation of benches by drilling and blasting. The physical processes are followed which then remove impurities and the processed ore is stockpiled and blended to meet product quality requirements and then made available to the customers.

Extracting iron from its ore requires a series of steps to be followed and is considered as the penultimate process in metallurgy. The steps need the ore to be concentrated first, followed by the extraction of the metal from the concentrated ore after which the metal is purified.

How is iron extracted from its ore? Iron is concentrated by the process of calcinations. Once it is concentrated, the water and other volatile impurities such as sulfur and carbonates are removed. This concentrated ore is then mixed with limestone (CaCO3) and Coke and fed into the blast furnace from the top. It is in the blast furnace that extraction of iron occurs. The extraction of iron from its ore is a very long and forlorn process that separates the useful components from the waste materials such as slag. What happens in the Blast Furnace? A blast furnace is a gigantic, steel stack lined with refractory brick where the concentrated iron ore, coke, and limestone are dumped from the top, and a blast of hot air is blown into the bottom. The purpose of the Blast Furnace is to reduce the concentrated ore to its liquid metal state. The iron ore, coke and limestone are crushed into small round pieces and mixed and put on a hopper which controls the input. The most common ores of iron are hematite Fe2O3, and magnetite, Fe3O4. These ores can extract iron by heating them with the carbon present in the coke. Heating coal in the absence of air produces coke. Coke is cheap and acts as the heat source and is also the reducing agent for the reaction. Hot air is blown into the bottom of the furnace and heated using the hot waste gases from the top at a temperature of about 2200K. It is important to not waste any heat energy since it is valuable. The coke which is essentially impure carbon burns in the blast of hot air to form carbon dioxide and provides the majority of heat, thus producing a strong exothermic reaction, which is the main source of heat in the furnace. C + O2 ----------------> CO2 Due to high temperatures at the bottom of the furnace, carbon dioxide reacts with carbon to produce carbon monoxide. C + CO ----------------> 2CO This carbon monoxide is the main reducing agent in the furnace. Fe2O3 + 3CO -----------------> 2Fe + 3CO2 In the hotter parts of the furnace, the carbon acts as a reducing agent and thus reduces iron oxide to iron. At these temperatures the product of the reaction is carbon monoxide along with iron. Fe2O3 + 3C -----------------> 2Fe + 3CO The hot temperature of the furnace melts the iron which runs down to the bottom where it can be tapped off. Iron ore isn't pure iron oxide as it also contains some variety of rocky material. Such substances cannot melt at the temperature of the furnace and in due course would end up congesting it. As a solution, the limestone is added to the blast furnace to convert this into slag which shall melt and run to the bottom. The heat of the furnace causes the decomposition of the limestone for producing calcium oxide. CaCO3 ------------> CaO + CO2 Since this requires absorbing heat from the furnace, it is an endothermic reaction that takes place. Therefore it becomes essential to not add too much limestone as it can cause the furnace to cool rapidly. Calcium oxide obtained on decomposition reacts with acidic oxides such as silicon dioxide present in the rock. Being a basic oxide it reacts with silicon dioxide to produce calcium silicate. CaO + SiO2 -------------> CaSiO3 The calcium silicate produced melts and flows down the furnace to form a layer on top of the molten iron from where it can be tapped off every now and then as slag. This slag can be used in road making and as "slag cement" - a final ground slag which can be used in cement, often mixed with Portland cement. The molten iron from the bottom of the furnace can be used as cast iron. Cast iron is flowy in nature when it is in molten state and doesn't contract much when it solidifies and is the major reason why it is useful in making castings. Nevertheless, it is actually impure as it contains about 4% of carbon. The presence of carbon makes it very hard, but also very fragile. When hit hard, it tends to shatter rather than bend or deplete. This cast iron is used for things like manhole covers, cast iron pipes, valves and pump bodies in the water industry, guttering and drainpipes, cylinder blocks in car engines, Aga-type cookers, and very expensive and very heavy cookware. Larger amount of molten iron from the Blast Furnace is used to make varieties of steel. Steel isnt just one substance, but a family of alloys of iron with carbon and several other metals. TOP IRON PRODUCING COUNTRIES: IRON PRODUCTION IN THE WORLD : Studies reveal that Australia and China are known to contribute as the world's largest iron ore mine producers, producing 1.5 billion metric tons and 660 million metric tons, respectively, in the year 2014. In the recent years, Brazil has bagged the second position in major production of iron. Following are other countries like China, India and Russia among the five topmost countries known for contributing towards iron production. Rank Country Usable iron ore production (thousand tonnes) World 2,280,000 1 Australia 880,000 2 Brazil 440,000 3 China 340,000 4 India 190,000 5 Russia 100,000

The most common ores of iron are hematite Fe2O3, and magnetite, Fe3O4. These ores can extract iron by heating them with the carbon present in the coke. Heating coal in the absence of air produces coke. Coke is cheap and acts as the heat source and is also the reducing agent for the reaction. Hot air is blown into the bottom of the furnace and heated using the hot waste gases from the top at a temperature of about 2200K. It is important to not waste any heat energy since it is valuable. The coke which is essentially impure carbon burns in the blast of hot air to form carbon dioxide and provides the majority of heat, thus producing a strong exothermic reaction, which is the main source of heat in the furnace.

In the hotter parts of the furnace, the carbon acts as a reducing agent and thus reduces iron oxide to iron. At these temperatures the product of the reaction is carbon monoxide along with iron.

The hot temperature of the furnace melts the iron which runs down to the bottom where it can be tapped off. Iron ore isn't pure iron oxide as it also contains some variety of rocky material. Such substances cannot melt at the temperature of the furnace and in due course would end up congesting it. As a solution, the limestone is added to the blast furnace to convert this into slag which shall melt and run to the bottom. The heat of the furnace causes the decomposition of the limestone for producing calcium oxide.

Since this requires absorbing heat from the furnace, it is an endothermic reaction that takes place. Therefore it becomes essential to not add too much limestone as it can cause the furnace to cool rapidly. Calcium oxide obtained on decomposition reacts with acidic oxides such as silicon dioxide present in the rock. Being a basic oxide it reacts with silicon dioxide to produce calcium silicate.

The calcium silicate produced melts and flows down the furnace to form a layer on top of the molten iron from where it can be tapped off every now and then as slag. This slag can be used in road making and as "slag cement" - a final ground slag which can be used in cement, often mixed with Portland cement.

The molten iron from the bottom of the furnace can be used as cast iron. Cast iron is flowy in nature when it is in molten state and doesn't contract much when it solidifies and is the major reason why it is useful in making castings. Nevertheless, it is actually impure as it contains about 4% of carbon. The presence of carbon makes it very hard, but also very fragile. When hit hard, it tends to shatter rather than bend or deplete.

This cast iron is used for things like manhole covers, cast iron pipes, valves and pump bodies in the water industry, guttering and drainpipes, cylinder blocks in car engines, Aga-type cookers, and very expensive and very heavy cookware. Larger amount of molten iron from the Blast Furnace is used to make varieties of steel. Steel isnt just one substance, but a family of alloys of iron with carbon and several other metals.

Studies reveal that Australia and China are known to contribute as the world's largest iron ore mine producers, producing 1.5 billion metric tons and 660 million metric tons, respectively, in the year 2014. In the recent years, Brazil has bagged the second position in major production of iron. Following are other countries like China, India and Russia among the five topmost countries known for contributing towards iron production.

Looking at what the nature has to offer, it conveys a lot of information when it comes to things that it holds in it, within it and on it. With need for minerals and its wide spread application getting widened each day, the stint of its very existence is getting blink and its depreciation in its source which is its over usage is on the high.

literally means extraction .Our Mother Earth has lots of resources deep within her and mining is the method of extracting all these valuable resources from the earth through different means.There are different methods to extract these resources which are found in different forms beneath the earth's surface.

The metal mining was one of the traditions that have been passed on meritoriously over the past years so that we meet our day-to-day needs of the desired material usage starting from the equipments that are ornamental as well as purposeful coordination of information's.

Jadeite is a pyroxene mineral and is one of the two types of pure jade. The other is known as nephrite jade. Jadeite is the rarer of the two jades, and as a result, it is considered to be more precious and valuable. Due to its striking and emerald green color it is also known as "imperial jadeite".

Surface mining is basically employed when deposits of commercially viable minerals or rock are found closer to the surface; that is, where overstrain (surface material covering the valuable deposit) is relatively very less or the material of interest is structurally unsuitable for heavy handling or tunneling.

Underground mining is carried out when the rocks, minerals, or precious stones are located at a distance far beneath the ground to be extracted with surface mining. To facilitate the minerals to be taken out of the mine, the miners construct underground rooms to work in.

Gold is a chemical component with the symbol Au that springs up from the Latin derivative aurum that means shining dawn and with the atomic number 79. It is a very sought-after valuable metal which, for many centuries, has been utilized as wealth. The metal resembles as nuggets or grain like structures in rocks, subversive "veins" and in alluvial deposits. It is one of the currency metals.

Platinum, is a heavy, malleable,ductile, highly inactive, silverish-white transition metal. Platinum is a member of group 10 elements of the periodic table.It is one among the scarce elements found in Earth's crust and has six naturally occurring isotopes. It is also achemical element.

Diamonds and supplementary valuable and semi-precious gemstones are excavated from the earth level via 4 main types on mining. These diamond withdrawal methods vary depending on how the minerals are situated within the earth, the steadiness of the material neighboring the preferred mineral, and the nonessential damage done to the surrounding environment.

old school runescape: 9 pro tips for leveling mining | game rant

old school runescape: 9 pro tips for leveling mining | game rant

Old School RuneScape endures while other games have failed due to its compelling mechanics and its nostalgia factor.How many MMORPGs make it to their 20th anniversary? Even its sequel,RuneScape 3, has an impressive player count showingJagex knows how to capture some fantasy magic.

As the game continues tobreak itsconcurrent player records, many players, old and new alike, arelogging on to see the game in 2021. It can be difficult to level up skills for players who don't know the most efficient way to do so.The best way to get ore in the game is through mining and players with a higher mining scale will be able to obtain the most profitable kinds.

All players have the optiontostart off questing to gain experience for skills. Doing quests is usually far faster than grinding the skill out manually, and it is always worth pursuing whenever possible. Luckily, players can get themselves to level 10 quickly by completingDoric's Quest. It offers 1,300 Mining experience and is a great way to get started.

Players that fork over a little real-life cash to become members have a lot more options for raising their Mining level.Here are all of the quests exclusive to members and how much experience they offer players.

Members have the optionof using more than just a pickaxe to get their ore.Players should, of course, always use the best pickaxe available to them to make things go faster,but wearing the right equipment is even more effective.

If players completeVarrock Diary,they will receiveVarrock armor.It offers a 10% chance of doubling the ore that players mine. People can also visitProspector Percytoget to the Prospector kitwhich provides 2.5% more experience while mining. Players can also get mining gloves from the Mining Guild.

Free-to-play players are going to take a long time grinding up to Level 99.Unfortunately, there aren't many other waysto level up faster that do not involvespending some real-life money to get a membership. Still, players can make sure to mine for the correct kind of oresto be the most efficient.

Formembers in the game, the routesfor efficient mining through basic grinding looks very different. Members have slightly different options for what they can even choose to mine, making the grindmore efficient.

Players can also complete tasks in theFalador Diaryto not only unlock shortcuts in the area but also be able to potentially get better awards while there. Once players hit level 70, they can gain30,000 experience per hour or more using this method.

The Volcanic Mines minigame likely offers members the fastest way to gain experience outside of working in the quarry.Players need to be above Level50before this opportunity becomes available to them. With a good team, players can get72,000 75,000 experience an hour.

Players that plan correctly can get up to63,000 experience per hour using this method.Players need tocomplete the hard tasks in theKaramja Diary to access theShilo Village minewhere they can mine for gem rocks.

Players need100% favor with theLovakengj Houseto access the Blast Mine but it can be worth it to do so. One of the problems with this mine is that it does take far more clicks and can definitely wear fingers out.

This is by far the most profitable way to level up for mining once it becomes available to members; if a player does this from level 85 to level 99, they would make873,493,983 gold.Pick those jaws up from the floor, this method isn't easy.

Players have to compete to find rune rocks as they are very rare in RuneScape and are limited in number. The easiest locations that have rune rocks are theHeroes' Guild, theMining Guild,Mor Ul Rek, andtheMyths' Guild. As there are only two rocks to mine from at each of these locations, if players want to find more, they must go to far more dangerous locales.

Linnea Capps is an award-winning author and poet who has worked writing within the gaming industry for over ten years. They have worked for esports teams, hold speedrun world records, and now writes about their favorite games and anime for Game Rant.

ores of minecraft wiki:how to get glowstone efficiently | ores of minecraft wiki | fandom

ores of minecraft wiki:how to get glowstone efficiently | ores of minecraft wiki | fandom

We recommend building a cobblestone box around your chosen vein to protect from Ghasts, or more preferably, redirect their fireballs at a vein. Now that's quite an explosive mining tip. But you would quickly have to build a platform for the dust to land on if it overhangs lava, or you may get some sizzled 'stone. Oh and what's more, the lava destroys it completely, so if it falls into lava, no more sizzled 'stone for you.

Every Glowstone Block doesn't always drop 4 dusts. Mining a certain amount of glowstone blocks doesn't mean you can make them back into that excact amount, you'll get way less. To take advantage of this, use a Silk Touch tool. You will get the whole block, equivalent to 4 dusts, and you don't need to craft it because there it is, ready crafted for you. So mining that amount of glowstone blocks with a Silk Touch enchanted tool means you do get the amount of glowstone blocks you mine.

You can't enchant Ghast fireballs with the Silk Touch, so redirecting a fireball at glowstone isn't that efficient. Slowly mining it with something that does have the enchantment is way more efficient.

If you mine a glowstone block with a sword, it will be unnoticably faster, and combined with the fact that swords cannot be enchanted with Silk Touch, and that it damages the sword extra, this is inefficient.

what's the most efficient minecraft mining strategy? - arqade

what's the most efficient minecraft mining strategy? - arqade

Stack Exchange network consists of 177 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers.

When I'm not exploring fresh caves or lands in minecraft, I'm busy trying to find deposits of diamond, gold and iron deep in the earth. So far I've just been digging around just above bedrock on a whim to look for these rare minerals but I've started thinking that I should be taking a more controlled, efficient approach to mining.

You can place a booster to get your cart traveling at max speed in a short distance so that you can make the trip up quickly, and you can even attach chests to mine carts to carry all your findings from the mine up the track very quickly.

Normally, I have a 2x1 trunk, and branches like a standard branch mine, but instead of just going outwards from the trunk, I go up one level and out, skip two blocks, then down one level and out. I leave two blocks between branches. And I leave two blocks between floors, and line up the branches the same between floors.

There are some areas left unexplored by this pattern, but they are thin, and it is unlikely that a diamond vein with spawn entirely within that narrow region. (About 3% will). The larger number of blocks uncovered are far more likely to contain diamonds.

Also, you ought to build it so that the floor of the lowest tunnel is on level 11, to avoid falling in lava. If you find that there are few cave systems near your mine, feel free to dig lower, but caves tend to cluster, and caves level 10 and below are filled with lava.

I'm not sure if this is true anymore, but it used to be that larger deposits were formed by the word generator in multiplayer, so you were less likely to miss diamond deposits when using a wider mining pattern. Thus, this pattern

Getting down to the bottom is correct, as that is where the highest concentration of useful minerals is located, but digging a tunnel doesn't expose you to nearly the same amount of blocks as using a generated cave system.

In my primary game, I dug a mine down to the bottom, clearing out a large amount of stone, which only resulted in some coal, and very few iron, where as at the bottom I discovered a cave network (filled with lava, but some water solved that), which resulted in a large amount of coal and iron, as well as diamond and gold.

This will yield more in terms of ore versus time, as you are not mucking around walking between shafts and veins, and are spending almost all the time mining. Bring with you a diamond pick axe, and a shovel, since dirt and gravel still spawn underground. Use the cobblestone you will inevitably mine for traversing lava pools, and make sure you have torches (place them every 10 or so blocks).

My solution is to never leave the mine. Bring down some saplings, some wheat seeds, and whatever else, and build your base underground near your mine. It's a lot safer and more predictable than living on the surface, since you can completely light your cave system.

The approach, is to use a Diamond pickax, enchanted with Level 5 efficiency, and a Haste level II Beacon. With this setup, you mine stone instantaneously and can clear cut vast swaths of stone in very little time, exposing significantly more blocks / minute than with branch mining.

I've found that no matter which mining pattern I used I my diamond finds were barely enough to keep me in diamond pickaxes for mining diamonds. It was a vicious circle. I've started mining with TNT now and it's much faster. Here's how I do it:

I use the branch mining technique. For a branch off the trunk I'll use 64 TNT and 32 torches. I'll dig a 2-high tunnel off the trunk, placing a torch every 10 blocks in. When I run out of torches I know I'm 320 blocks away from the trunk.

Now I'll place a block of cobblestone on the ground at the very end with a block of TNT on top. Then I back up while placing cobblestone on the ground only, putting a block of TNT on top of every 5th cobblestone block so there are 4 empty spaces between TNT blocks.

When I get back to the trunk I set off the TNT and then run along behind the blast placing torches on the wall as I go. When I get to the end I walk back to the trunk mining whatever I see along the way and picking up anything on the ground.

Each trunk takes me about 30 minutes to dig, blast and mine. I use only a fraction of a diamond pickaxe in the process. I've been mining 12-13 levels up from the bottom and getting 15-20 diamonds per trunk. The most tedious part is collecting the sand to make the TNT. I have a mob trap that I use to collect the gunpowder at night.

I've dug straight down to bedrock as well and at the bottom carved out a 40 long by 20 wide room 4 high. This netted me a full stack of redstone, lots of lava. 2 diamond, lots of coal, almost no iron.

The straight down to bedrock approach I find is really good for redstone but not much else. I find that in the generated caves there is a lot more ore along the walls. So you really need both I think.

Dig down to bedrock with a staircase. Then make a room about 10 by 10. Finally branch out on each side of the wall. Pick one side and go with it untill it is to long. Then get another side. Once all four are branched, branch off them. I now have about 15-20 BLOCKS of diamond 20-23 BLOCKS of gold like 30-50 stacks of coal no red (I don't mine it just go around) and 40-45 BLOCKS of iron all totaling about 7 hrs of work

This a well covered question already but the technique I personally use isn't listed so I figure I'll add it to the mix. It isn't the technique for strip mining a chunk and extracting absolutely everything but it does expose lots of extra unseen blocks.

Use water held up by a sign at the bottom of a 1x1 shaft that is straight down starting up at the surface for dropping to diamond ore levels. To make it, dig a 1x3 section (so you don't mine beneath your feet) leave one side open for the drop shaft, fill the middle with cobble, and place ladders in the other shaft.

The drop is quick and completely safe. I use ladders for the return trip up but, if you prefer, (I think they take too long to make and are unreliable) you can make boat-waterfall ladder for coming back up.

1: Dig the standard 2x1 tunnels away from your entry point. I personally do this standing at Y: 9 so I occasionally run into unexplored caves but, if you are scared of cave mining, do it at Y:8 or Y:7. I don't suggest going to a lower depth than this because bedrock can get in the way, and ore veins that are beneath your feet will be smaller.

3: If you want to squeeze more out of this type of mine, return once you have finished a good section and bring pieces of TnT. Place them in the back of the 1x1 shafts in the sides of your mine and set them off with Flint n Steel. I don't always do this because making TnT is a pain... but it does work.

1: When mining always place torches on the right wall. When you want to come back just turn around and follow the torches that are now on your left. This is a very helpful technique for not getting lost in any mine exploring or digging.

Have you ever thought of getting the minions mod? Once you get it you have to get up to 8 levels of experiance (8 levels is recomended) then you press the "m" key then commit to evil in which you then pick one of three things, repeat untill you get the master staff, with it you right click the ground four times, one minion will appear wherever you right click in those four times. Once you have your four minions, you press the "m" key again and select the "dig mineshaft", once you have selected(right clicked) where the mineshaft is going to be, your minions will automaticly dig the mineshaft down into bedrock and place a cobblestone staircase. Once they finish that then you can press the "m" botton (once again!) and select "strip mine", once you have selected an area then one minion will work on it, going a certain number of blocks forward.

I find the easiest way to get to the bottom of a mineshaft is to set your ladder 2 blocks onto the wall. That way you can carefully fall almost the entire way to the bottom and simply hold the backwards key to reattatch yourself to the ladder just before you hit the ground.

When you find a dirt vein, pursue the dirt vein till it is exhausted (usually coming away with 5-10 coal, with the potential of getting 5-10 iron, 2-6 red, 2-6 blue, and/or 1-5 gold.) Dirt is so much easier and cheaper to mine, since you only need a shovel, and it mines twice as fast as cobblestone.

When you hit bedrock mine out all the dirt, and open a huge main mine area (roughly 75/75 blocks. You can get another 40 or so Iron, 20 or so Gold and Diamond, and atleast another 120 redstone (Well, that's what I got anyawy. I might have been really lucky).

Build a Nether portal on the surface, transfer to Nether to spawn a matching portal there. Jump down your drop shaft, then build another portal on the bottom - it will be close enough that it should link to the same Nether portal as the surface one (but the spawning algorithm should have placed the Nether portal closer to optimal coordinates for the surface one so it will be still preferred when traveling from Nether), so you will only need to exit and reenter the same portal in Nether and you'll be transported from the bottom to the surface portal.

The advantages are definitely cost and simplicity of both solutions (note: you can cast the portals with lava buckets instead of digging obsidian, if you don't want to make a diamond rock pick) and speed - both solutions are faster than most of alternatives offered by others.

The disadvantage is Nether portals are somewhat fickle. Your portal might link to the bottom portal instead of the top one, if the corresponding Nether space happens to be an extremely tall chamber. If you have any other Nether portals within several chunks, chances are you'll get linked to their corresponding Nether exits instead. It's nothing you can't overcome with a calculator, a stack of Netherrack and 10 blocks of obsidian (sorry, can't cast lava into Obsidian in Nether) to place a portal at the correct point in Nether manually, but with a little bad luck the trivial task becomes a rather daunting one, if the "correct point" happens to be an air block far above an enormous lake of lava. Nevertheless, always build a housing around the Nether portal so that a stray Ghast fireball doesn't extinguish it.

The easiest way to mine is to mine a 2x2 tunnel horizontally. You can cover 8 blocks that way, with the same amount of blocks mined as a branch mine, which only reveals 6 blocks. As for getting up and down, use a water fall cushion (to jump into, must be 2 deep) and a water LADDER (check the youtube videos to see what it is).

A nice method if you don't like staircasing down is to mine a 1x2 tunnel down to bedrock and then using water to get up and down. To get down, drop a water bucket in and then remove it to float down with the water. To get up, simply place blocks of water above you and then remove and replace them to work your way up. Also, mining around y 3-6 is a good strategy.

Then, dig a single-block column into a mountain two-high and three long. Place a torch at the far end on top for lighting. Then dig three down into your column, and place your ladders heading up to the face of the mountain where your column starts.

Dig away from the ladder into the column, two blocks high and three blocks out, and then down as you did with your initial colum, placing torches and ladders in likewise positions. Continue to mine downward in this manner, and you should have a 'staircase' that looks like this: (X = Walls, O = Open Space)

It may take a bit of experimenting to get it just right, and you can't hesitate when walking into it or you'll accidentally climb the ladder a little and take some fall damage (very minor). To reduce the chance of this, you can use a two-deep step instead, though it won't be as fast going down.

On the way up, however, you can put Soul sand under a water elevator, which gets you to the top in a matter of seconds, and as a bonus prevents any drowning because Soul sand produces bubbles, as shown on the image:

Unfortunately, as of version 1.14, both these methods were massively downgraded, as there is a huge movement speed penalty (maximum speed is about the same as when sneaking), because the player remains in the flying/swimming position:

The final tip I have is using subtitles. This may seem like a dumb or useless feature to use while mining, but for me it works like a cave finder. If you are mining around Y coordinate 10, which most players do, you will be able to track nearby caves very easily. Whenever you see the subtitle "lava pops", you know you are near a cave. Look in the direction the subtitles tell the sound comes from, and start digging. The sounds that are coming from a distance and are detected by the subtitles are nearly undetectable by plain listening (at least for me).

(Assuming that veins occur in 2x2 blocks) the vein has possibility of appearing in center 2 block (out of 4 wool block i.e pink and blue wool in this figure) so it can be spotted while mining corridors on alternate floor (1st , 3rd , 5th, .....)

Each method was good for somthing: The cave method for Iron & RS, the Branch mine for diamonds and the last method for losing time, getting tons of stone and breaking every last one of your pickaxes. Then the x-ray method was super, max diamonds, no coal, no Redstone. That's it. Note that the branch mine has each branch, even the main ones are 350 blocks long.

Diamonds are most common between height 5 and 12. If you try strip-mining, I recommend mining forward for how long you want, then turn and mine a few blocks in another direction, and then start mining the opposite direction that you started mining at. This way, you will not miss any diamonds. If you are in a cave, try mining around lava, or look for diamonds near lava. If you are near height 5-12, there are very likely diamonds near lava, and you can find diamonds buried in some stone nearby, where people could miss. I have found diamonds buried in stone near lava lots of times.

I don't have many tips for emeralds, but if you don't know, emeralds can only be found in extreme hills biomes, and found between levels 4-32, but height level 11 is your best option. Emeralds can also be found in village chests, villager trades, and drops by illagers during a raid.

Ores can be easily found in caves, since caves are already hollowed out, while you need to mine all the stone to get the ores when you strip mine. if you can't find any caves or you only strip-mine, then try to go to level 10 to find good ores. When you end up in a cave, try to explore it, you can find lots of ores in caves.

For transportation, I recommend you use minecarts, as minecarts can let you get around fast, and does not waste your hunger bar. If you are unable to get get or use minecarts, you can dig a very deep hole with water on the bottom, making you fall in the water, so you don't take fall damage. To get back up, make a water elevator with soul sand at the bottom, as the soul sand will cause you to go launching up to the top at a very fast speed.

Mojang made some change in the generation of resources and cave. As the branch mining was used by almost all player, Mojang decide that this was not supposed to be the best case to Find resources, as the cave where supposed to be what they wanted be the ground generation was bad at that time.

Exploring is now almost always more efficient then optimise mining. You can still use optimise mining so you can find part of the cave at the good range of level for diamonds for example (like this you can have diamonds, redstone, lapis, iron and gold).

As of the most recent 1.17 snapshot, caves have increased in size, length, and complexity, and diamonds now have "reduced air exposure". The best way to search for diamonds is now to go as low as possible (near y = -64), and go swimming in the new giant underground lake caves, as they have large amounts of exposed diamond even compared to the cave walls.

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