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open pit mining
 | epiroc us

open pit mining | epiroc us

The Kevitsa Mine in Finnish Lapland, 130 km inside the Arctic Circle, continues to develop with Atlas Copco equipment. Among the latest acquisitions are two Pit Viper 271 drill rigs which are now in full operation.

The Kevitsa Mine in Finnish Lapland, 130 km inside the Arctic Circle, continues to develop with Atlas Copco equipment. Among the latest acquisitions are two Pit Viper 271 drill rigs which are now in full operation.

impact of outbreak of covid-19 on mining lubricants market the courier

impact of outbreak of covid-19 on mining lubricants market the courier

Both surface and underground mining environments could be quite hard on the mining equipment. Draglines, hydraulic shovels, loaders, scoops, and rock drills are made to undergo continuous heavy loads, extreme pressure, and continuous operation. All of these can lead to heavy wear and tear over time. In an effort to reduce downtime and losses arising out of machinery replacement or maintenance, the utilization of high-end lubricants in proper applications is important. This propels growth of the global mining lubricants market over assessment tenure.

Whether one is mining for coal, oil sands, metals or minerals, the expectation with the equipment lies in its reliable performance and efficiency profit maximization. In addition, it is also needed to ensure safe operation at the site and protection of environment at large. As such, such factors are likely to fuel the expansion of the global mining lubricants market in years to come.

Mineral oil lubricants come cheaper than bio-based mining lubricant and synthetic lubricant. In addition, they make an offering of more working benefits at by providing the equipment with stable structure. Mining is of immense significance in many of the Asian countries like Indonesia, Australia, China, and India. Asia Pacific is estimated to rise rapidly over the tenure of assessment. Coal and iron are widely extracted resources in this part of the world.

In addition, iron is one of the most consumed metal in countries like China and India, which increases demand for iron ore in Asia Pacific region. It is as such likely to boost the growth of the global mining lubricants market in years to come.

In the recent past, the mining industry has transitioned from underground mining to open pit mining. Open pit mining is increasingly practiced worldwide, especially in developed countries. Numerous machines are used in mining including shovels, long wall machines, loaders, scoops, roof bolters, shuttle cars, draglines, and haul trucks. These machines are in-built with transmission system, bearings, wire ropes, and heavy gear system, which assist in their efficient performance.

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For these machines to function efficiently, they require to be lubricated periodically. Their performance should also get monitored time to time, to identify any mechanical fault. The lubrications used for these machines must have properties such as hydraulic stability, high boiling point, high viscosity index, good thermal stability, ability to absorb shock loads, resistance to oxidation, and corrosion resistance.

The market of mining lubricants relies on mining activities. Mining lubricant is therefore used in bearings, gear boxes, wire rope, and open gears. Open gear system can suffer pitting and wear due to insufficient lubrication. To lubricate open gear systems, synthetic lubrications are used. Synthetic lubrications do not contain heavy metals and are environment friendly. They are designed to protect open gear systems from heavy shock loads.

Mining lubricants are used in machines used for mining of iron ore, coal ore, and other earth minerals. As the production of coal is higher than other minerals, the demand for mining lubricants from for this end-use industry is higher than others. Expansion of the mining lubrication market is therefore corresponds directly to the growth witnessed in mining activities. On the downside, instability in government policies with regards to the mining industry, environmental upkeeps, and volatility in prices of raw materials may act as restraints for this market. Nevertheless, industrial growth and High energy consumption are expected to boost the mining lubricants market.

The mining industry underwent a transformation, from underground mining to open pit mining, during the 20th century. Open pit mining has become common in developed countries. Haul trucks, draglines, shuttle cars, roofbolters, scoops, loaders, longwall machines, and shovels are some of the machines used in mining. These machines possess heavy gear system, wire ropes, bearings, and transmission system.

These need to be lubricated from time to time. A lubricant should be such that it decreases maintenance costs and increases the machine life. It must have high viscosity index, corrosion prevention, high boiling point, resistance to oxidation, ability to absorb shock loads, good thermal stability, and hydraulic stability. The mining lubricants market relies on mining activities. Expansion of the mining lubricants market depends upon the number of mining activities.

Based on application, the mining lubricants market can be segmented into open gears, wire rope, gear boxes, and bearings. The open gears segment dominates the mining lubricants market. Open gears system suffers from wear and pitting because of insufficient lubrication.

Asphaltic-based lubricants and synthetic type lubricants are most commonly used in open gears system. Synthetic lubricants do not contain heavy metals. They are environmentally-friendly and are designed to protect from heavy shock loads on open gears system. Mining gear boxes tend to overload. This causes premature failures. A suitable gear oil with properties such as protection due to shock loadings and protection from water contamination should be applied. Lubricant with improper sealing mechanism contaminates the bearing boxes and results in bearing failures.

Based on end-use industry, the mining lubricants market can be divided into coal ore, iron ore, and other earth minerals. Production of coal ore is higher than that of iron ore and other earth metals. Hence, the coal ore segment leads the mining lubricants market. High energy consumption and industrial growth are anticipated to boost the mining lubricants market.

Based on region, the mining lubricants market can be classified into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Middle East & Africa. Mining activities in Asia Pacific, especially in China, India, and Australia, are high. Therefore, these countries dominate the mining lubricants market in Asia Pacific. China leads the use of mining lubricants due to the high production of coal ore and iron ore in the country. Asia Pacific is followed by North America.

Key players operating in the mining lubricants market are Total Oil (Australia), Exxon Mobile Lubricants & Specialties (the U.S.), Royal Dutch Shell Plc. (the Netherlands), Chevron (the U.S.), Perma-tec GmbH & Co. KG (Germany), Quaker Chemical Corporation (the U.S.), Petro Canada Lubricants Inc (Canada), BP Lubricants (the U.S.), Conoco Phillips Inc (the U.S.), Aarna Lube Private Limited (India), Lubrication Engineers, Inc. (the U.S.), Engen Botswana Limited (South Africa), Vivo Energy (Mauritius), and Interlube Limited (the U.K.). Large players operating in the mining lubricants market design their products.

Total Oil is one of the major players in the mining lubricants market. It manufactures and supplies lubricants across the globe. The companys lubricants have a long life and ensure complete protection to the mining equipment. Total Oil provides lubricants to drag lines, loaders, excavators, haul trucks, and diggers, among others. Petro Canada Lubricants Inc develops products for underground mining and open pit mining.

For underground mining, the company uses VULTREX Rock Drill EP000, which is designed for in-line pneumatic systems and mist-free lubrication of rock drills. It markets products under the brand names VULTREX OGL Synthetic Arctic, an open gear lubricant for cold regions, VULTREX OGL Synthetic All Season, an open gear lubricant for all seasons, and PRODURO for gears and bearings. Volatility in prices of raw materials, environmental upkeeps, and instability in government policies related to the mining industry are some of the restraints of the mining lubricants market.

open pit mining | intechopen

open pit mining | intechopen

Open Access is an initiative that aims to make scientific research freely available to all. To date our community has made over 100 million downloads. Its based on principles of collaboration, unobstructed discovery, and, most importantly, scientific progression. As PhD students, we found it difficult to access the research we needed, so we decided to create a new Open Access publisher that levels the playing field for scientists across the world. How? By making research easy to access, and puts the academic needs of the researchers before the business interests of publishers.

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Open pit mining method is one of the surface mining methods that has a traditional cone-shaped excavation and is usually employed to exploit a near-surface, nonselective and low-grade zones deposits. It often results in high productivity and requires large capital investments, low operating costs, and good safety conditions. The main topics that will be discussed in this chapter will include an introduction into the general features of open pit mining, ore body characteristics and configurations, stripping ratios and stripping overburden methods, mine elements and parameters, open pit operation cycle, pit slope angle, stability of mine slopes, types of highwall failures, mine closure and reclamation, and different variants of surface mining methods including opencast mining, mountainous mining, and artisan mining.

Open pit mining is defined as the method of extracting any near surface ore deposit using one or more horizontal benches to extract the ore while dumping overburden and tailings (waste) at a specified disposal site outside the final pit boundary. Open pit mining is used for the extraction of both metallic and nonmetallic ores. Open pit mining is considered different from quarrying in the sense that it selectively extracts ore rather than an aggregate or a dimensional stone product.

Open pit mining is applied to disseminated ore bodies or steeply dipping veins or seams where the mining advance is toward increasing depths. Backfilling usually occurs until the pit is completed; even then, the high cost of filling these pits with all of the waste removed at the end of the mine life would seriously risk the projects economics. Few large open pits in the world could support such a costly obstacle. Open pit method is usually nonselective, and it includes all high and low-grade zones; whereas mining rate is nearly over 20,000 tons mined per day and often necessitates a large capital investment but generally results in high productivity, low operating cost, and good safety conditions [1]. The main purpose of this chapter is to discuss the general features of open pit mining, ore body characteristics and configurations, stripping ratios and stripping overburden methods, mine elements and parameters, open pit operation cycle, pit slope angle, stability of mine slopes, types of highwall failures, mine closure, and reclamation. The chapter will also discuss different variants of surface mining methods including opencast mining, mountainous mining, and artisan mining.

Compared to underground mining methods, the open pit mining method requires removing significant amount of overburden from the pit and moving it outside the mine. The cost of extraction of the ore from open pit constitutes the bulk of the total cost of mining operations, because the access to the ore body is so fast and requires less time compared to underground mining, i.e., extracting the ore below overburden can only begin with some lag time from the start of removing overburden. Also, open pit has virtually an unlimited ability to create and use high-performance large-sized mining and transportation equipment that can provide the highest technical and economic parameters. Open pit mining has higher productivity (35 times of underground methods), lower production costs, more safe and hygienic working conditions, more complete recovery of a mineral, and lower per unit production cost.

Open pit mining is characterized not only by its high share of total minerals production, but it is also considered as one of the surface mining methods that contributes to the construction of powerful performance quarries (100150 million tons of rock a year reaching to a depth of 500 m). Capital cost of such huge open pits/quarries is very high, and the total cost for excavation of rock in the long term reaches hundreds of millions of dollars or more. Therefore, decisions on the construction of new or existing quarries should be economically justified. Table 1 shows the advantages and disadvantages of open pit mining method [2, 3].

Open pit mining is widely used with metallic ore bodies (aluminum, bauxite, copper, iron), and nearly all nonmetallic (coal, uranium, phosphate, etc.). It is a traditional cone-shaped excavation (although it can be of any shape, depending on the size and shape of the ore body) that is used when the ore body is typically pipe-shaped, vein-type, and steeply dipping stratified or irregular [4]. The major open pit and ore body configurations are classified into the following:Flat lying seam or bed, flat terrain (e.g., platinum reefs, coal), as shown in Figure 1.Massive deposit, flat terrain (e.g., iron-ore or sulfide deposits), as shown in Figure 2.Dipping seam or bed, flat terrain (e.g., anthracite), as shown in Figure 3.Massive deposit, high relief (e.g., copper sulfide), as shown in Figure 4.Thick-bedded deposits, little overburden (e.g., iron ore, coal) as shown in Figure 5.

The parameter known as the stripping ratiorepresents the amount of uneconomic material that must be removed to uncover one unit of ore, i.e., the ratio of the number of tons of waste material removed to the number of tons of ore removed. Also, the ratio of the total volume of waste to the total volume of ore is defined as the overall stripping ratio.A lower stripping ratio means that less waste has to be removed to expose the ore for mining which generally results in a lower operating cost [5]. The major types of stripping ratios are overall, instantaneous, and break-even.

In order to specify the maximum allowable stripping ratio (SRmax) of a surface mine, break even ratio can help to establishes the pit limits. SR max defined as the ratio of overburden to ore at the ultimate boundary of the pit, where the profit margin is zero. It can be calculated as:

The maximum allowable stripping ratio enables us to locate the ultimate pit boundary or limit based on prevailing economic, physical, and geometric conditions in the pit. A copper pit designed in this manner with varying ore grades and critical SRmax 2.5 m3/ton (3.0 yd3/ton) is shown in Figure 6. Ore occurring in the ore body beyond this maximum stripping ratio will have to be left or mined underground.

Solution:Volumetric stripping ratio= 27/2.5 =10.8 m3 of overburden per m3 oreWeight stripping ratio= (27 1.7)/(2.5 1.36) = 13.5 tons of overburden per ton oreStripping ratio= 27/(2.5 1.36) = 7.9 m3 of overburden per ton ore

The head assay of a copper ore is 0.8% Cu. The expected overall copper recovery from the ore is 88%. Calculate the maximum stripping ratio if the total cost of production (excluding overburden removal) is $5.90 per ton of ore and overburden removal costs are $0.3 per ton of waste. Assume copper values of $1.00, $1.25, and $1.50 per kg of refined metal at the smelter.

Overburden is a waste rock material that must be removed to expose the underlying ore body. It is preferred to extract as little overburden as possible in order to access the ore of interest, but a larger volume of waste rock is removed when the mineral deposit is deep. Most removal operations (which includes drilling, loading, blasting, and haulage) are cyclical. This is true for hard rock overburden which must be drilled and blasted first. An exception to the cyclical effect is dredging method used in hydraulic surface mining and some types of loose material mining (soil) with bucket wheel excavators. The percentage of waste rock to ore excavated is defined as the stripping ratio. Stripping ratios of 2:1 up to 4:1 are common in large mining operations. Ratios above 6:1 tend to be less economically feasible depending on the type of ore extracted. Once removed, overburden can be used for road and tailings construction or may have a non-mining commercial value as a backfilling material. In selecting a particular stripping method and its corresponding equipment, the ultimate aim is the removal of material (waste and burden) at the least possible cost [6]. Stripping methods are classified into:declining;Increasing; andconstant.

In this method, each bench of ore has to be mined in sequence, and the waste in the particular bench has to be removed to the pit limit. The ore is easily accessible in the subsequent benches and the operating working space is widely available. Furthermore, all equipment usually work in the same level and so no contamination from waste blasting is left above the ore body. This method is highly productive especially at the beginning where equipment required is at minimal toward the end of the mine life. The primary disadvantage of this method is that the overall operating costs are at maximum during the initial years of operation when the maximum repayment of capital is needed and so cashflows are required to handle interest and repayment of capital (see Figure 7).

In this method, stripping of overburden is performed as needed to uncover the ore. The working slopes of the waste faces are essentially maintained parallel to the overall pit slope angle. This method also allows for maximum profit in the initial years of operation and greatly reduces the investment risk in waste removal for ore to be mined at a future date. It is considered as a very popular method whereas mining economics or cutoff stripping ratio is likely to change in a very short time. This method is sometimes impractical because of its small spaces (narrow benches). It is available for operating a large number of equipment especially at the beginning of stripping (see Figure 8).

This method aims to remove the waste at a rate estimated by the overall stripping ratio. The working slope of the waste faces starts very shallow, but increases as mining depth increases until it equals the overall pit slope. This method has the advantage of removing the extreme conditions of the former two stripping methods outlined. Equipment fleet size and labor requirements throughout the project life are relatively constant. In this method, a good profit can be generated initially to increase cash flows. The labor and equipment fleet can be increased to maximum capacity over a period of time, and then, they can decrease gradually toward the end of the mine life. Distinct mining and stripping areas can be operated simultaneously, allowing flexibility in planning (see Figure 9).

Open pit mines are constructed of series of benches that are bisected by mine access and haulage roads angling down from the rim of the pit to the bottom. The bench height is the vertical distance between each horizontal level of the pit. The elements of a bench are illustrated in Figures 10 and 11, unless geological conditions dictate, otherwise all benches should have the same height. The bench height should be designed as high as possible within the limits of the size and type of the machine or equipment selected for the required production. The bench should not be so high that it will cause safety problems. The bench height in open pit mines will usually range from 15 m in large mines (e.g., copper) to as little as 1 m in small mines (e.g., uranium) [7]. The slope angle of the pit walls is a critical factor. If the slope angle is too steep, the pit walls may collapse. If it is too shallow, excessive waste rock may need to be removed. The pit wall has to remain stable as long as mining activity continues. The stability of the pit walls should be examined as carefully as possible. For example, rock strength, faults, joints, and fractures are key factors in the evaluation of the proper slope angle.

The main economic goal in open pit mining is to remove the smallest amount of material while obtaining the greatest return on investment by processing the most marketable mineral product. The higher the grade of the ore, the greater the value received. To reduce the capital investment, an operation plan has to be developed in order to precisely dictate the way in which the ore body has to be extracted. Open pit mines vary in scale from small private enterprises processing a few hundred tons of ore a day to large companies operated by governmental and private corporations that extract more than one million tons of material a day. The largest mining operations can involve many square kilometers in area. The production cycle also referred to as the mine unit operation that consists of ripping and dozing, drilling, blasting, loading, and hauling (see Figure 12).

Typically, bulldozer, wheel dozers, and motor graders are the most common equipment used, in which material transport distance is short and it can be pushed by a blade. The dozer has a large blade capacity and it is designed specifically for bulk material excavation, whereas the motor grader is a machine with a long blade used to create a flat surface during the grading process. These machines cannot lift the material, i.e., they do not have a load elevation capacity (Figure 12).

The ore deposit can be mined by means of drilling and blasting in order to fracture the rock into a loadable size. Blasting parameters should be matched with mechanical machines for drilling of blast holes and charging of explosives. Blast holes are drilled in well-defined patterns, which consist of several parallel rows. In bench blasting, the normal blast hole patterns are square, rectangular, and staggered, Figure 13. The most effective pattern is the staggered pattern, which gives the optimum distribution of the explosive energy in the rock.

Nowadays, surface mining is conducted using shovels, front end loaders or hydraulic shovels. In open pit mining, loading equipment is matched with haul trucks that can be loaded in 35 cycles of the shovel. Many factors determine the preference of loading equipment. For example, with a hard digging rock, tracked shovels are more advisable. On the other hand, rubber-tyred loaders have lower capital cost and are better for loading materials that are low in volume and easy to dig. Furthermore, loaders are very mobile and well applicable for mining scenarios requiring rapid movements from one area to another. Loaders are also often used to load, haul, and dump material into crushers from blending stock piles placed near crushers by haul trucks, Figure 14.

Hydraulic shovels and cable shovels are common equipment used in open pit mining. Hydraulic shovels (Figure 15) are not chosen for digging hard rock, and cable shovels are generally available in larger sizes. Large cable shovels (Figure 16) with payloads of about 50 cubic meters and greater are used at mines where production exceeds 200,000 tons per day, whereas hydraulic shovels are more flexible on the mine face and they enable greater operator control to selectively load from both directions (top and bottom of the mine face).

The importance of haul trucks in the history of surface mining cannot be overstated. Hand labor, wheelbarrows, horse-drawn vehicles, and ore cars were the principal means of earth-moving equipment until the early twentieth century. The advent of the internal combustion engine led to the development of the haul truck in the mining industry. Open pit mining requires a great demand for truck transport of ore and waste rock. The efficiency and greater load capacity of electrical and diesel-powered haul trucks became the preferred method for hauling in surface mining, gradually replacing rail haulage by the 1960s. Today, the average cost of a new haul truck is $3.5 million [8]. Most trucks have capacities ranging from less than 50 tons per load to 363 tons per load in large trucks such as Caterpillars 797 series load truck. Some mining companies choose to replace trucks with conveyor belt systems. For example, the Brazilian mining company Vale has recently replaced its mine trucks with 23 miles of conveyor belts at its iron ore mine, linking the ore deposits to the companys processing plant [9, 10].

Slope angle is required during the early feasibility study. The degree of confidence on calculating slope angle depends upon the condition applicable. The major pit slope angle conditions can be divided into:mining a shallow high-grade ore body in favorable geological and climatic conditions. Slope angles are unimportant economically and flat slopes can be used. No consideration of slope stability is required;mining a variable grade ore body in reasonable geological and climatic conditions. Slope angles are important but not critical in determining economics of mining. Approximate analysis of slope stability is normally adequate; andmining a low-grade ore body in unfavorable geological and climatic conditions. Slope angles are critical in terms of both economics of mining and safely of operation. Detailed geological and groundwater studies followed by comprehensive stability analysis are usually required.

mining a shallow high-grade ore body in favorable geological and climatic conditions. Slope angles are unimportant economically and flat slopes can be used. No consideration of slope stability is required;

mining a variable grade ore body in reasonable geological and climatic conditions. Slope angles are important but not critical in determining economics of mining. Approximate analysis of slope stability is normally adequate; and

mining a low-grade ore body in unfavorable geological and climatic conditions. Slope angles are critical in terms of both economics of mining and safely of operation. Detailed geological and groundwater studies followed by comprehensive stability analysis are usually required.

During the pre-production period, the operating slopes should, however, be as steep as possible. The working slope can then be flattened until they reach the outer surface intercepts. The horizontal flow of stress through a vertical section both with and without the presence of the final pit is shown in Figure 17.

With the excavation of the pit, the preexisting horizontal stresses are forced to flow beneath the pit bottom. The vertical stresses are also reduced due to the removal of the rock. The rock lying between the pit outline is largely distressed. As a result of stress removal, cracks and joints can open. Cohesive and friction forces restraining the rock in place are reduced. Groundwater can more easily flow reducing the effective normal force on potential failure planes. With increasing pit depth, the extent of the stressed zone increase and the failure becomes more severe.

There are several mechanisms by which highwall instability can occur. While we cannot expect to prevent all highwall failures, a better understanding of these mechanisms will enable us to identify potential problems before they become actual problems and to limit exposure to dangerous conditions. The most common types of failure include plane failure, wedge failure, toppling failure, and circular failure. Except for the circular failure, these usually occur along preexisting discontinuities. Example of each are the following:

This slide in Figure 18 illustrates a typical plane failure of a highwall. Notice that the rockslide occurs along this discontinuity which daylights on the highwall and dips toward the pit. If this sliding plane does not daylight, or dips away from the pit, the slope is stable. Even if the joint daylights, in order for the slide to occur, the weight of this sliding block must exceed the frictional resistance along the discontinuity. Figure 19 shows an example of a slope, which is plagued by large planar failures, and leads to a slide off rocks along natural, parallel, and bedding planes.

A wedge failure occurs when two discontinuities meet and their intersecting line daylights on the slope face and dips toward the pit. If these conditions do not occur, you cannot have a wedge failure. The weight of the block also has to exceed the frictional resistance along the failure surface to have failure, Figure 20.

As shown in Figure 21, the failure can follow trends since joints tend to occur in repeating patterns. Note here the failure on the top bench, and on the next bench, should probably expect another at the next level down.

Toppling failures look like Figure 22. A toppling failure can occur when the discontinuities dip very close to vertical but away from the pit. The discontinuities can be natural or they can be caused by the mining process.

If the mine progresses from left to right, there will be continuous problems, because of the way these cracks are oriented. On the other hand, if the mine goes from right to left, mine operators do not have to worry about toppling-type failure; so, decisions made during mine planning can have a profound effect on the stability of the highwalls. Figure 23 shows a picture of a toppling failure that resulted in a fatality to a blast hole drill operator.

In slopes excavated in soil or highly jointed and weathered rock mass where there are no geological structures to control the failure, the most unstable failure surface is approximately a circular arc. This circular failure surface (Figures 24 and 25) results from a process of localization of deformations. It is an arch type of landslides; however, the specific shape of this failure surface and the associated failure mechanism cannot be generalized [11].

In general, mining has a significant negative impact on environment. Due to its nature, it leads to severe degradation of the landscape. Many factors such as drainage, air, soil and water quality, noise levels, ground vibrations, human health, and habitation are mostly affected by mining activities. When the extraction of mine reserve is over, the distorted landscape has to be reclaimed in order to reduce the damaging effects of open pit mining and bring back the landscape and its surroundings, see Figure 26.

Land use plan at the end of mining has to be set in order to determine what the mine site will look like and how the lands will be used after the mine is closed and fully reclaimed. The mine must operate and close such that the land and water in and around the mine site are less disturbed and environmentally safe and sound like original. It is the responsibility of the mining company to pay for reclamation and closure costs. To ensure that funds are available for closure, the mining company will normally be required to post a financial security (a reclamation bond) before mining starts.

Progressive reclamation is usually part of the overall closure plan. Progressive reclamation means that once a part of the mine site is no longer needed, it will be reclaimed rather than waiting for all aspects of operation to cease. For example, waste rock piles will be reclaimed as soon as they have reached their permitted size.

The general rehabilitation goals require rehabilitation of areas disturbed by mining to result in sites that are safe to humans and wildlife, nonpolluting, stable, and able to sustain an agreed postmining land use. The process of reclamation normally involves the following steps [12, 13, 14]:Recontouring: the ground is re-sloped and contoured to a profile that will be stable and that provides proper drainage, facilitates the growth of vegetation, and provides various habitats for wildlife.Capping with a growth medium: waste rock piles and other areas of the mine site will need to be covered with a soil material that is suitable for the growth of plants.Seeding and fertilizing: this usually takes place over many years. Fast growing grasses may be planted in order to stabilize the soil followed by shrubs and trees depending on the end use plan.Monitoring: plants in areas that are to be used for grazing will be tested to ensure they contain acceptable levels of metals and other possible contaminants.

Recontouring: the ground is re-sloped and contoured to a profile that will be stable and that provides proper drainage, facilitates the growth of vegetation, and provides various habitats for wildlife.

Variants of open pit mining are limited to a number of other surface mining methods, which include strip mining, high wall mining, and quarrying. Strip (open cast) mining is used extensively for the surface mining of important commodities such as coal and phosphate ores. Casting is the process of excavation and dumping into a final location. This type of mining involves removing the overburden and extracting the valuable mineral deposit. Strip mining is applicable to shallow, flat-lying deposits [15]. It is a method that is generally applied on a large scale with low mining costs and high productivity and that has minimum land degradation [16, 17]. In Jordan, strip is used for the extraction of oil shale and phosphate ores. These mines are located at the central and southern parts of the country (e.g., Figure 27).

Strip mining differs from open pit in that the overburden is not transported to waste dumps but cast directly into adjacent mind-out panels, i.e., reclamation is contemporaneous with extraction. These mines often occupy a large area of land for ore excavation and overburden disposal. Strips are large rectangular parallel pits that extend to more than a mile in length [18]. After the removal of vegetation and topsoil, the mining begins with an initial rectangular box cut. The dragline is used for overburden removal. As the overburden is removed from one portion of a mineral deposit, it is used to fill in the trench left by the previous removal [19]. The backfilled area is then replanted during the reclamation process.

Figure 28 shows typical dragline operation. Stripping process continues along parallel strips. Where the deposit becomes thinner, or dipping more below the surface, or in the case of dramatic increase in the stripping ratio, the mining operation must be ceased [19]. Shovel-truck system is currently adapted for extracting phosphate ore in several phosphate mines in Jordan (Figure 29); especially in Al-Shidiyah, Al-Abiad, and Al-Hasa mines. Since shovel truck removal of overburden generally costs at least three times as much as dragline stripping, the dragline is currently implemented for removing overburden from phosphate ore in those mines (Figure 30). On the other hand, shovel truck removal of overburden is currently used in Attarat oil shale mine (Figure 31).

In the mountainous and hilly terrains, contour mining is applied. It is also known as mountaintop mining. The mining of flat deposits in these areas follows the contour around the hill and into the hillside up to the economic limits. The extraction becomes difficult with inclination and depth increase. The top of a mountain is removed to recover the ore contained in the mountain that resulted in huge quantity of excess spoil that is placed in valleys that affected the streams flowing within these valleys [21].

Artisanal mining is a small scale mining method, which includes enterprises or individuals that employ workers in developing countries who are poor and have few other options for supporting their families and who usually use manually intensive methods for mining (e.g., panning in case of gold). Artisanal miners use elementary techniques for mineral extraction and often operate under hazardous, labor-intensive, highly disorganized, and illegal conditions [20, 22].

2020 The Author(s). Licensee IntechOpen. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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mobile mining | excavation | siemens global

mobile mining | excavation | siemens global

Siemens Mobile Mining serves the mining and construction industries. Our current portfolio comprises electrical drive systems for dump trucks, excavators and loaders. We create sustainable value for our customers based on proven, reliable technology know-how that has been compiled in more than 100 years of Siemens Mining experience. Siemens Mobile Mining combines innovative, customized system solutions for open pit and underground mining vehicles with worldwide after-sales support.

From spare parts to condition monitoring to training, SIMINE Service can help your operation achieve both goals while partnering with an industry leader in drive systems for mobile mining haulage and excavation equipment.

Spare Parts Siemens offers a global supply of the original spare parts used in our drive systems for all mobile mining applications. The same parts validated in our drive system designs are sold to you for your operations maintenance needs.

Field Service Whether you require onsite support or remote support, our experts are available around the clock. By minimizing the time to diagnose and resolve issues, Siemens experts help your operation stay on track for meeting your production goals.

Condition monitoring Siemens helps reduce unplanned maintenance and move your operation towards predictive maintenance by incorporating remote access technology and real-time monitoring of your equipment into our Midas platform for mobile mining equipment.

Repairs Siemens repair centers, backed by original parts and proven repair processes, operate at the highest standards to ensure your equipment is restored to the original factory specifications for maximum life and performance.

Training Knowledge is a vital part of everyones toolbox. Siemens offers a variety of training programs for your maintenance personnel to improve their drive system knowledge. Training classes can be customized to your specific needs and conducted in our offices utilizing drive system components or at your operation utilizing your mobile mining equipment.

Utilizing SIMINE Service from Siemens, mine owners can reach targets for productivity and availability, reduce costs, implement predictive maintenance programs and provide essential training to personnel for a total service solution for their mobile mining equipment.

For over 40 years Siemens has provided electric drive systems for mobile mining equipment. For the past 20 years Siemens has leveraged that experience and Technology to provide digitalization solutions for the mining industry.

High productivity starts with high availability. Mine owners cant afford to have their primary haulage and loading equipment idle. One way that Siemens maximizes availability is through remote access technology. The diagnosis from Siemens remote experts enables local personnel to reduce the Mean Time to Repair. Higher availability yields higher production.

Once the availability of the equipment has been addressed, productivity can be further increased by ensuring that the equipment is performing to its specification. Siemens proven Midas system provides reporting tools that enable production and maintenance supervisors to closely monitor the performance of the equipment, and provide feedback to operators and maintenance personnel to keep the machine operating at peak performance.

However, maximizing the performance of the machine requires obtaining the best cycle, every cycle. This is achieved through various phases of operator assist features, ultimately leading to full autonomy.

Electrification of open pit mining trucks Since more than 20 years, Siemens Mobile Mining offers electric truck drive systems for some of the most powerful mining trucks that are currently available on the global mining market. The portfolio ranges from drive systems for90t Trucks up to 450t Trucks.

The drive systems for these trucks normally consist of two electric motors that are integrated through gears into the rear wheels of the trucks, an electric generator and a powerful diesel engine. Converter and specialized software complement this hardware set to a typically integrated system which can be found in almost 1,000 Siemens equipped haul trucks of different size and origin in the global mining industry.

Truck drive systems based on Siemens IGBT converter technology provide high torque and enable the vehicle to accelerate fast when carrying heavy loads or driving on soft roads, even from a standstill. As a result of the high power output excellent electric braking characteristic are also provided by the drive system in order to reduce wear and tear on the mechanical brake.

The currently worlds largest mining truck with a payload capacity of 450 metric tons is equipped with a Siemens drive system.It provides 4800 kW Power to accelerate and decelerate the Truck safely by increased productivity. Proven traction motors and ingenious converter technology as well as sophisticated control tools and innovative remote monitoring devices enable maximized system performance and minimized total ownership cost.

To achieve highest possible haul performance, the Siemens e-drive system channels all available diesel-engine power efficiently to the electric driven wheels. With higher engine power utilization compared to pure mechanical drives, Siemens e-drive trucks pull hard at stall to move away from the shovel, accelerate on grade up the ramp and propel the giants to their maximum speed.

Siemens AC drives are more reliable and more efficient than DC drive systems, which leads to higher productivity and less downtime. In addition, AC driven trucks cause less maintenance expenditures which enable truck operators and mining companies to minimize total cost of ownership.

Enhanced control techniques and software features guarantee operational safety and drive system efficiency. In addition, the systems are designed to be both intrinsically secure and environmentally friendly. Furthermore, using trolley assist systems, the electric drive system consumes significantly less fuel, runs with higher efficiency and drastically reduces exhaust and noise emissions.

SIMINE truck drive systems provide high tractive forces at stall and enable the truck to move quickly, even on ramps, to transport more material in less time. Mining companies value mobile mining equipment that in terms of reliability, cost and efficiency performs above average and therefore invest particularly in excavation and transportation technologies which meet their increased production demands best.

Integrated drive systems meet these particular requirements in an optimal way as individual system components are matched to each other. Siemens integrated drive systems improve the truck performance through precisely integrated motors, traction drives, control systems and gearboxes.

Advances in electric-drive haul truck technology over the past 30 years have been remarkable. Siemens is one of the leading suppliers for AC drive systems and at the same time technology driver with enhanced knowledge and experience of applications for truck trolley technology.

The characteristics of trolley assisted drive systems allow itto use electric power provided by overhead lines in order to overcome and to eliminate the performance limitations and cost-intensive operations of diesel-engine power. By tapping into overhead electric lines, the trolley assisted drive system can boost the speed of the truck by up to 80 percent, enabling emission-free operation of the mining trucks in open-pit mines.

This is economically and environmentally viable in those parts of the world where electrical power can be generated inexpensively and in connection with comparable low carbon dioxide emissions. Truck trolley systems, which simply substitute electricity for diesel fuel, offer a number of persuasive benefits.

The benefits of truck trolley technology qualify them as a genuine alternative to pure diesel mechanical or diesel electric trucks in terms of efficiency and eco-friendliness. Long transport ways and steep grades in open-pit mines present an excellent opportunity for trolley assisted haulage. The thoughtful application of this technology leads not only to significant reduction of fuel costs and sustainable environmentally friendly operations of truck fleets, but also to a series of further advantages, such as:

Electrification of UG trucks The provision of electrical drive systems for underground mining trucks is part of a strategy which Siemens Mobile Mining pursues within the latest enhanced developments in the field of electro-mobility. Typically, these trucks are able to carry bulk material with a payload capacity of 20 to 65 metric ton per truck.

Siemens engineers are currently working on developing a highly efficient electric drive system portfolio for underground mining vehicles. At the heart of these systems are electric components, which have been successfully used for many years in a number of applications in open-pit mines.

The first solution for a drive system is being implemented in an articulated underground truck with a payload capacity of 60 tons. In this particular application, four motors are used, each one driving one wheel. Among other advantages, the architecture of this system enables to control the speed and torque of each wheel precisely. As a consequence, additional features are available like advanced slip/slide control and electrically supported steering, which allow more precise turns and lead to reduced tire wear.

The application of diesel-electric trucks creates more favorable environmental conditions for machine operators and mine personnel in underground mines. This is a direct result of less heat and exhaust from diesel engines. Enhanced use of electrical drive systems for underground haulage will allow reducing the costs for mine ventilation significantly. This is the more of importance as mine ventilation systems normally operate without interruptions throughout the life time of a mine and account for approximately one third of the total energy costs of a underground mine operation.

In addition, trucks with diesel-electric drive systems are faster than diesel-mechanical trucks because the total efficiency of the diesel-electric drive system is higher. Another advantage is higher productivity. Faster speeds allow shorter cycle times of the vehicles, from the loading point of the truck to the unloading point and back, which means that more material can be transported in a given time. Productivity thereby gets a boost.

Electrification and automation of shovel excavators In todays mining environment, it takes more than yesterdays technology to safely move the most material for the lowest cost per ton. For nearly 50 years, mining OEMs have trusted Siemens to leverage emerging technology to help them to do just that. These technologies have been introduced into our AC drive systems for electric Rope Shovels constantly.

Mines must look for the lowest costs per ton of material moved to remain profitable. This means moving the highest possible payload per hour while minimizing operating costs over the lifetime of the machine. Reliability is the harsh open pit mining is of utmost priority. Power distribution systems in open pit mining are often weak and overloaded resulting in high voltage fluctuations at the shovel terminals. Electrical machine availability of >98% with a high MTBF (Mean Time Between Failures) and low MTTR (Mean Time To Repair) is expected. Finally, many mines are located in very remote areas such as the Andes Mountains, the Tar Sands of northern Canada or the deserts of Africa or central Australia.

SIMINE Shovel is our drive and automation solution for complete range of electric mining shovels and currently used on 10 m to 70 m equipment. Combining nearly 50 years of Siemens AC mining shovel drive experience with IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor) technology guarantees the most reliable shovel solution with higher productivity and lower operating costs. Due to the mining shovels AC drives, they are able to operate faster than their counterparts with DC drives. AC induction motors allow higher stall torque, faster acceleration and higher speeds in field weakening. This results in a larger area under speed/torque curve and shorter machine cycle times. The AC squirrel cage induction motor is essential in reducing cycle time and in cutting maintenance costs. AC motors, unlike DC motors, have no brushes or commutators to wear out or to be maintained. IGBT power and digital SIBAS control modules require no routine maintenance. They come from our traction equipment line and are built to meet traction and mining specifications. The modules are interchangeable between motions, as well as different machine models. We are supporting our customers to keep all these benchmark values high over the life of the machine. There is not a more reliable system on the market.

Electrification and digitalization of draglines Many of the operating mining draglines have been powered by M-G (motor generator) sets, century old technology. Siemens offers modernization solutions to replace the inefficient M-G set technology that uses highly maintenance commutators and carbon brushes, which increases downtime and operating costs. AC motors, unlike DC motors, have no brushes or commutators to wear out or to be maintained.

Since nearly 40 years, Siemens Mobile Mining offers AC electrical systems for mining draglines with bucket capacities ranging from 25 m to 116 m. SIMINE Dragline is our electrical system solution for mining draglines. SIMINE Dragline offers fuseless power systems that combine reliable electronics and controls proven in thousands of Siemens-powered locomotives and AC mining shovels. IGBT power and digital SIBAS control modules require no routine maintenance. They come from our traction equipment line and are built to meet traction and mining specifications. The modules are interchangeable between motions, as well as different machine models. We are supporting our customers to keep all these benchmark values high over the life of the machine. There is not a more reliable system on the market.

SIMINE Dragline offers drop-in AC motors and modern technology fuseless AC drive systems. These drive systems operate with multiple staggered AFEs to reduce line harmonics and line voltage fluctuations on mine network. Innovation, efficiency, productivity, and reliability are key elements in our extensive mining portfolio. Siemens is proud to be your partner in mining, where your requirements are met with our technology.

Siemens Mobile Mining equips vehicles dedicated to open pit and hard-rock underground mining with electric drive systems. Being integral part of most mine operations and operating with frequent speed and direction changes, wheel loaders are specifically suitable for those electric drive systems.

Existing wheel loaders are typically propelled by a Diesel engine, coupled to a mechanical or hydraulical drive train. This solution only offers limited system efficiency and does not allow for energy recuperation. This feature is especially important for wheel loaders, as they offer a huge energy recuperation potential due to their cyclic operational characteristics.

Siemens Mobile Mining aims at overcoming these limitations by introducing SIMINE Loader drive solutions, optimized for usage in wheel loaders. These electric drive systems feature efficient Diesel-electric operation as well as emission-free battery electric driving. The modular drive systems consist of electric components, which have been specifically designed to withstand the harsh ambient conditions typical for a mining environment.

Diesel-electric SIMINE Loaders transfer the electric energy from the generator via Active Front End Technology (AFE) to the DC link. Applying this solution allows for energy-recuperation back to the engine or to an energy storage and thus low energy consumption.

Out of the DC link, powerful IGBT inverters supply the currents to the high-torque induction or permanent magnet synchronous motors.The inverters in combination with a smart control system insuring a smooth operation without shift shocks by providing high tractive forces.

SIMINE Loader solutions boast optimum efficiency as well as best-in-class ruggedness and reliability. Specific attention has been paid to optimize the loading of the bucket by enabling high tractive forces over sufficient time. Thus the operator is able to achieve optimum bucket fill factors regardless of the composition and consistency of the material.

Electric SIMINE Loader are faster than hydraulic or mechanic loaders because the total efficiency of the electric drive system is higher. Another advantage is higher productivity. Faster speeds allows for shorter cycle times of the vehicles, from the loading to the unloading point and back, which means that more material can be transported in a given time.

Electrification of LHD machines for underground mining Siemens Mobile Mining equips vehicles dedicated to hard-rock underground mining with electric drive systems. Due to their unique operating characteristics, load haul dump machines, LHD, are specifically suitable for electric drive systems. LHDs operate globally in numerous underground mines, transporting ore from the muck pile to chutes, shafts or crushers. Existing electric LHDs operate on a trail cable, using a fixed-speed induction motor and hydraulic drives. This solution only offers limited system efficiency and does not allow for energy recuperation back to the mine grid.

Siemens Mobile Mining aims at overcoming these limitations by introducing SIMINE LHD drive solutions, optimized for usage in LHDs. These full electric drive systems are able to power cable-driven LHDs as well as battery electric LHDs. The modular drive systems consist of electric components, which have been specifically designed to withstand the harsh ambient conditions typical for a mining environment.

Out of the DC link, powerful IGBT inverters supply the currents to the motors. High-torque permanent magnet synchronous technology in combination with single-speed transmissions enables high tractive forces and smooth operation without shift shocks.

SIMINE LHD solutions boast optimum efficiency as well as best-in-class ruggedness and reliability. Specific attention has been paid to optimize the loading of the bucket by enabling high tractive forces over sufficient time. Thus the operator is able to achieve optimum bucket fill factors regardless of the composition and consistency of the material.

The application of full electric LHDs creates more favorable environmental conditions for machine operators and mine personnel in underground mines. This is a direct result of less heat generation due to the highly efficient drive system. Furthermore, full electric drive systems do not generate any particulate or gaseous emissions. So enhanced use of electrical drive systems for underground haulage will allow reducing the costs for mine ventilation significantly. This is the more of importance as mine ventilation systems normally operate without interruptions throughout the life time of a mine and account for approximately one third of the total energy costs of a underground mine operation.

In addition, LHDs with full-electric drive systems are faster than hydraulic LHDs because the total efficiency of the electric drive system is higher. Another advantage is higher productivity. Faster speeds allows for shorter cycle times of the vehicles, from the loading to the unloading point and back, which means that more material can be transported in a given time.

Our SIMINE bulk material handling solutions help you cover long distances and, simultaneously, increase your transported load and process speed while also saving energy and money along with providing a high level of safety.

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