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phosphate beneficiation flotation

phosphate beneficiation process

phosphate beneficiation process

Large scale mining and processing of phosphate is essential for operating at a profit. In the Florida area, Phosphate Beneficiation by flotation unlocked the door to vast tonnages of ore which in the past could not be recovered by conventional washing methods which saved only the coarser pebble phosphate. Many of the areas now being mined contain very little or no pebble phosphate, so the main recovery is from the fine sands.

In the treatment of phosphatic shales for recovery of phosphate, a simple low cost flexible flowsheet is highly desirable. Since all grades of ore from low to high P2O5 content may occur in a deposit it is important to consider the possibility of either mixing the ores or to segregate them into grades for separate treatment. Laboratory and pilot plant work is very valuable in establishing the final treatment which will give the maximum net economic return.

Electrically operated drag lines strip off the overburden from the mining area and deposit the phosphate matrix around a pump pit. Here it is sluiced with streams of high pressure water to the suction of a large centrifugal pump which transports the matrix slurry to the washing plant which may be a mile or two away.

At the washer the water-matrix slurry discharges into a surge receiving bin or tub and is screened for removal of clay, sand and fine phosphate from the mud balls. The screen oversize passes through a hammer mill to break down the mud balls and occasional large pebbles. The screen undersize and disintegrated mud balls pass to a pebble washing and screening section consisting of a trommel screen and log washer. Here, clean washed pebble phosphateusually plus 14 mesh, depending upon the character of matrixbeing minedis removed. Tramp oversize is recycled to the hammer mill for further disintegration, and 14 mesh matrix slurry passes to the fine recovery section.

Sub-A Flotation Machine (Phosphate Type). Please note free-flow of pulp for fast-floating ore and high tonnage operation. Shaft assembly is removable as one unit. Repeated pulp circulation (as indicated) assures proper agitation and aeration. Supercharged air can be added down standpipe or down hollow shaft, or both, as conditions require.

Following removal of the pebble, the balance of the ore or matrix flows by gravity to a large hydroclassifier for separation of the sands from the slimes at 150 mesh. The 150 mesh slimes containing the colloidal clay, very fine silica and phosphate are discarded.

Fines are removed from the storage bins by a centrifugal pump, fed through pinch valves and regulated by high pressure water jets. The pump discharges into a spiral or rake classifier, the overflow going to a secondary hydroclassifier, and the sands to a hydraulic classifier. This classification system splits out a +20 mesh pebble phosphate, a 20 +35 mesh fraction for agglomerate separation, and 35 mesh which is the feed to flotation. All classifier overflow and excess water accumulated in the washing steps are diverted back to the large primary hydroclassifier for retreatment. Wet cyclones can be successfully applied in the classification systems to eliminate slime and excess water from the fines.

The 20 +35 mesh phosphate-sand mixture is further deslimed and conditioned with reagents at high density, 70-75% solids in a rotary drum type conditioner. The phosphate particles are filmed with the fuel oil, fatty acid, caustic mixture which renders them non- wettable. This coarse pulp then is subjected to tabling, spiraling, or belt agglomerate treatment which separates the phosphate from the silica particles. This usually produces a finished, high grade phosphate concentrate and a clean waste product. In some cases it may be necessary to clean the phosphate product by silica flotation, as indicated by the alternate flow lines.

The 35 mesh matrix is fed from the fine recovery bins to a rake or spiral classifier for further desliming, and the sands at high density, 65 to 70% solids, are introduced in a Heavy Duty Open Type Duplex Phosphate Conditioner. Two or more conditioning tanks are generally used in series. Caustic soda, fuel oil, and tall oil are metered to the conditioner feed and agitated to thoroughly film all the phosphate particles.

The discharge from the conditioning circuit is diluted down to about 25% solids and fed directly to a Sub-A Flotation Machine. Since tonnages are high, usually in excess of 100 long tons per hour to each circuit, the No. 30 (5656) Sub-A Flotation Machinehaving 100 cubic ft. of volume per cellis standard for the fatty acid flotation separation. Phosphate is removed in the froth product and the silica passes out the end of the machine to waste. Flotation is very rapid when the feed is properly conditioned and metered to the machine. Usually at least 4 cells are used in series for each circuit. In some cases, one stage of cleaning is necessary to produce an acceptable grade in the fatty acid flotation section. Grade is usually 68 to 72% BPL (Bone Phosphate of Lime).

Neoprene wearing parts are necessary to withstand the action of the fatty acid-fuel oil flotation reagents and large adjustable sand reliefs are standard in the Cells for phosphate flotation. Because of the high percentage of phosphate to be removed in the froth product, a double overflow machine with froth paddles is standard. Supercharging improves performance and reduces power requirements for flotation.

Usually, when it is necessary to produce concentrates having 72-78% BPL, the fatty acid flotation concentrate is subjected to reverse flotation in which the phosphate is depressed and the silica contaminant activated and floated in a separate circuit.

The fatty acid froth product, in this case, flows by gravity to another set of Heavy Duty Acid Proof Conditioners. These are neoprene lined. Sufficient concentrated sulphuric acid is added to the pulp to produce a low acid pH. This cuts and removes the fatty acid reagents from the phosphateparticles. The reagent and acid water is removed by thorough washing and desliming. The classifier sand product containing the de-activated phosphate and silica impurity passes to a second Sub-A Flotation Circuit for removal of silica in a froth product. Cationic reagents, such as amine acetate, are used to activate and float the silica.

In some circuits, the phosphate concentrate from the coarse agglomerate separation section, if not high enough grade, is introduced into the silica flotation section along with the product from the fatty acid flotation section. This is done when a high purity product, usually 76-78% BPL, is required. The flotation circuits are set up for maximum flexibility to accommodate changes in tonnage and character of feed as well as requirements on the finished products.

In the treatment of phosphatic shales for recovery of phosphate, a simple low cost flexible flowsheet is highly desirable. Since all grades of ore from low to high P2O5 content may occur in a deposit it is important to consider the possibility of either mixing the ores or to segregate them into grades for separate treatment. Laboratory and pilot plant work is very valuable in establishing the final treatment which will give the maximum net economic return.

Extensive tests have established that where mining can be controlled the ores should be selectively mined and treated as two distinct operations, namely: to produce ore with a low or medium phosphate content and an ore with high phosphate content. For the low grade and medium grade ores, containing 18 to 22% P2O5, generally a coarse waste product can beproduced and rejected. Treatment of the high grade ores containing about 28% P2O5 will generally result in the production of a coarse phosphate product. This is in addition to production of granular fines as an acceptable phosphate and a slime waste product.

In case only one crusher is used for both types of ore, the crushing period can be divided to accommodate the respective tonnages. Usually crushing is confined to one or two shifts per day, depending upon the size of the operation.

Water is added to give a feed density of approximately 67% solids. Retention time in the scrubber is important to thoroughly break down and scour the slime from the ore. Retention time will vary from 5 to 30 minutes depending upon the grade and character of the ore. The scrubbed ore passes the trommel section of the scrubber where the + oversize is removed. Sprays are applied to give a clean oversize product.

In the case of low and medium grade phosphatic shale ores the + fraction is low grade and is rejected as a waste product. This usually amounts to 9-10% of the feed tonnage. The high grade ores, on the other hand, when treated in this manner, give an oversize product + sufficiently high in P2O5 content to be a finished product. About 8% of the weight represents this fraction of acceptable product + size.

In the case of the low grade ores, the screening is done at 35 mesh. The screen oversize +35 mesh is usually not a finished product and therefore requires further grinding. High grade ores will generally produce an acceptable product at +20 mesh without further treatment.

Low grade - to 35 mesh screened and washed oversize is reduced to minus 35 mesh in a pheripheral discharge Rod Mill which is in closed circuit with the vibrating screen. An elevator or SRL Pump can be used to transfer the mill discharge to the screen. The rod mill action polishes off the softer shale fraction from phosphate particles and keeps sliming of phosphate to a minimum. The feed to the rod mill will approximate 12% of the initial feed tonnage.

Extensive pilot plant tests have shown that wet cyclones provide a very efficient method for removal of slimes which are largely minus 400 mesh. The slimes, so produced, are low in P2O5 content and are discarded to waste. Two stages of cones are required and the underflow from the secondary stage constitute a final product ready for filtration.

In the case of low and medium grade ores, the 35 mesh cone feed represents about 90% of the plant tonnage and will reject 35 to 36% as slimes to waste. The 20 mesh feed for high grade ores represents about 85% of the plant tonnage and the overflow to waste will be about 15 to 16%. Underflow from the primary cones constitutes feed to the secondary cones.

Secondary cones in the case of low and medium grade ores, receive 62% of the initial plant feed. The overflow is recycled back to the primary cone feed. The overflow fraction amounts to 6-7% of the original plant feed. The underflow, representing about 55% of the plant feed at 65% solids, is ready for filtration. In the case of high grade ores, the secondary cone feed is about 70% and the recycled overflow is about 4% The underflow product representing 65 to 66% at 65% solids is fed to the filter.

No water needs to be added to the primary cone pump sump. Water is necessary in the secondary cone feed pump and the resulting cone overflow then becomes dilution for the primary cone circuit. Primary cone overflow will vary between 4 and 8% depending upon the type of ore being treated.

The discharge from the secondary cones is a slime free granular product containing about 65% solids. This is ideal filter feed, but it is necessary to use a top feed or horizontal filter for efficient de-watering.

The slime overflow from the primary cones at 4 to 8% solids is fed to a thickener for water reclamation. The slimes will settle to about 25% solids and are pumped from the underflow to tailing ponds. Special precautions should be taken when impounding this material due to the almost complete absence of sand. Several separate ponds may be necessary to store this waste.

With reclamation of plant water from the slime tailing in a thickener, the amount of new water for low and medium grade ores will be about 300 gallons per ton of ore treated. High grade ores require about 150 gallons per ton. This is well within the range of average mill water requirements when reclamation is a part of the system.

Phosphate rock being a low-priced material is produced as near the fertilizer market as possible and haulage costs determine production. Flotation of fine sand from the pebble mines in Florida is economical because the material has been mined and presents a disposal problem if not salvaged.

Generally a fatty-acid reagent combination is employed to float the phosphate from the silica to produce a grade of 70 to 72 per cent BPL. Reagents are caustic soda, fuel oil, and Tall oil added to the pulp and conditioned at high density, 70 to 75 per cent solids, before flotation. For producing premium grade phosphate, the fatty-acid-floated product is conditioned with sulphuric acid to neutralize and cut off the oil film, washed, repulped, and the silica floated with a cationic reagent such as amine acetate. Flotation is very rapid. It is very important to employ the proper high-density conditioning technique to bring about thorough activation and selectivity in both the fatty acid and cationic flotation steps.

Flow-sheet of a Florida phosphate plant recovering 35+150 mesh phosphate by flotation. De-sliming and conditioning at 65 to 70 percent solids with reagents is essential for proper separation by flotation.

phosphate beneficiation | arrmaz

phosphate beneficiation | arrmaz

Phosphate is a key element in all living organisms. It is found in phospholipids in every biological membrane, as a component in adenosine triphosphides (ATP) which fuel cell functions, and in bones and teeth as calcium phosphate. There is no synthetic substitute for phosphate, which makes the responsible and sustainable mining of phosphate deposits worldwide vital to the health and wellbeing of our global population.

Mined phosphate is sold to processing plants that digest the rock using sulfuric acid to make phosphoric acid. The vast majority of phosphoric acid is used in the production of fertilizers to grow the food the world needs, but phosphoric acid is also used as an additive in livestock feed and even in food products.

When phosphate is brought out of the ground it is naturally mixed with unwanted material called gangue. Gangue is removed from the phosphate ore through beneficiation, a process which includes screening at varying size fractions, washing and flotation. During phosphate beneficiation, producers use ArrMazs anionic flotation reagents to selectively separate the desired phosphate from the gangue with a focus on maximizing the amount of phosphate recovery possible.

Just as each phosphate deposit is unique in composition, so too are ArrMazs flotation reagents. The ArrMaz technical group formulates reagents for specific phosphate ores to ensure producers maximize grade and recovery. Depending on the type and quantity of impurities found in the phosphate deposit, ArrMaz can custom formulate anionic and cationic collectors, frothers, flotation additives and pH modifiers for direct and reverse flotation in primary, secondary and cleaner floats. We offer a complete line of mining chemicals to overcome specific challenges faced in phosphate processing. ArrMazs technical experts also offer process consultation and flowsheet design services to optimize process and cost performance.

The best way to maximize the value of your phosphate ore is to involve ArrMaz from the very beginning of your phosphate project to capitalize on potential synergies when formulating reagents, selecting plant equipment and designing the overall flowsheet. Let us innovate a complete chemical solution for your phosphate opportunity.

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beneficiation of saudi phosphate ores by column flotation technology - sciencedirect

beneficiation of saudi phosphate ores by column flotation technology - sciencedirect

Phosphoric acid industry is expected to develop in Saudi Arabia in the near future. This is ascribed to the discovery of phosphate in AI-Jalamid area located in the northern region of Saudi Arabia, the availability of sulfur as a by-product from petrochemical industries and the construction of phosphate fertilizers required by the growing agricultural sector. The discovered Saudi phosphate ores are of sedimentary origin with calcite and dolomite as the main impurities. The beneficiation of this type of ores is a key factor for the successful production of phosphoric acid by the wet process. In the present work, a flotation column has been designed and applied in the beneficiation of Al-Jalamid Saudi phosphate ores of the calcareous type by reverse scheme. The significant parameters like superficial gas velocity, slurry feed rate, particle size of processed ore, wash water consumption and collector dosage of flotation process are investigated to achieve the best recovery and quality of the beneficiated ores.

The results of this study revealed that column flotation technology is a promising tool for beneficiation of calcareous phosphate ores. A high purity ore of 35% P2O5 can be easily achieved at a high recovery value of 95% starting from a rock contains 25% P2O5, high calcite content (52.7% CaO) and CaO:P2O5 ratio equals 2.1.

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