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primary crushers iron ore processing pdf

primary crusher - an overview | sciencedirect topics

primary crusher - an overview | sciencedirect topics

The primary crusher is located in the quarry and consists of a McLanahan 48x72 Shale King Crusher rated at 1,000 TPH (Tons Per Hour). The driving flywheel has a diameter of 2.5 meters and is motor driven through six v-belts. The capacity of the primary crusher had to be increased to 1,250 TPH to produce enough material to serve the wet and both dry lines in the plant. To enable the crusher to operate at the higher capacity, the manufacturer recommended grooving the flywheel for two additional v-belts. To avoid the costs of disassembling, shipping and reassembling, Nesher performed the machining in-place. The operation was performed using portable tools and an auxiliary motor that turned the flywheel for machining the new grooves.

Roll crushers are generally not used as primary crushers for hard ores. Even for softer ores, such as chalcocite and chalcopyrite, they have been used as secondary crushers. Choke feeding is not advisable as it tends to produce particles of irregular size. Both open and closed circuit crushing is employed. For close circuit the product is screened with a mesh size much less than the set.

Figure6.4 is a typical set-up where ores crushed in primary and secondary crushers are further reduced in size by a rough roll crusher in an open circuit followed by finer size reduction in a closed circuit by a roll crusher. Such circuits are chosen as the feed size to standard roll crushers normally does not exceed 50mm.

Secondary coal crusher: Used when the coal coming from the supplier is large enough to be handled by a single crusher. The primary crusher converts the feed size to one that is acceptable to the secondary crusher.

Detail descriptions of designs are given of large gyratory crushers that are used as primary crushers to reduce the size of large run-of-mine ore pieces to acceptable sizes. Descriptions of secondary and tertiary cone crushers that usually follow gyratory crushers are also given in detail. The practical method of operation of each type of gyratory crusher is indicated and the various methods of computing operating variables such as speed of gyration, capacities and power consumption given are prescribed by different authors. The methods of calculations are illustrated to obtain optimum operating conditions of different variables of each type using practical examples.

Shale, a low-moisture content soft rock, is quarried, transferred to blending stockpiles before it is reduced by primary crushers and dry-milled to a powder of less than 250m. This powder is homogenized and stored ready for pelletization in manner similar to that used for making aggregate from PFA except that no fuel is added. However, after the pellets have been produced to the appropriate size, which depends on the expansion required, they are compacted and coated with finely powdered limestone. The resulting pellets are spherical with a green strength sufficient for conveying to a three-stage kiln consisting of a pre-heater, expander and cooler. Unlike other aggregates produced from argillaceous materials, the feedstock is reduced to a powder and then reconstituted to form a pellet of predetermined size. The expansion (bloating) is controlled during kilning to produce an aggregate of the required particle density. Different particle densities are produced by controlling the firing temperature and the rotational speed of the kiln. The coating of limestone applied to the green pellet increases the degree of surface vitrification which results in a particle of low permeability. This product gives versatility to the designer for pre-selecting an appropriate concrete density. As Figure7.6 shows, while the particle shape and surface texture of the aggregate remain essentially the same, the internal porosity can be varied according to the bloating required for the specified density.

Mined crushed stone is loaded into trucks or onto conveyors and transported to the processing facility. The broken stone is dumped into a primary crusher where the large rock fragments are broken into smaller sizes. Crushing to the proper size usually occurs in stages because rapid size reduction, accomplished by applying large forces, commonly results in the production of excessive fines (Rollings and Rollings 1996). After primary crushing, the material is run through one or more secondary crushers. These crushers use compression, impact, or shear to break the rock into smaller pieces. The material is screened after each crushing cycle to separate properly sized particles (throughs) from those needing additional crushing (overs). Additional washing, screening, or other processing may be required to remove undesirable material. The material is then stockpiled awaiting shipment.

After mining, sand and gravel may be used as is, which is called bank-run or pit-run gravel, or it may be further processed. The procedures for processing sand and gravel are similar to those for processing crushed stone. The amount of processing depends on the characteristics of the sand and gravel deposit and the intended use. If the gravel deposits contain very large cobbles or boulders, that material may be run through a primary crusher. The material may be run through one or more secondary crushers, then washed, screened, or further processed to remove undesirable material. The material is then stockpiled awaiting shipment.

The design of belt and apron feeders is fairly standardized, and most of the producing companies use pre-defined models and calculation methods to get short delivery times with a low-cost approach. The main features of the apron and belt feeders are:

Although the conveying devices are reasonably well defined and standardized, there is still room for improvement of the overall plant layout and construction, e.g. crushing plant, silo discharge system, train unloading system, etc. One of the most obvious ways to improve the overall design of such systems is to develop a better understanding of the equipment itself. Today, most OEMs want to be involved in the process of seeking the solution rather than only the supply of the equipment. This will enable the market to make use of the expertise of the equipment supplier and, at the same time, use their knowledge base for developing a wider scope, including other aspects such as silo design, hopper design, electrical and hydraulic issues, etc.

Highland Valley copper mine experienced a decline in mill throughput after implementing larger holes for blasting, which resulted in coarser fragmentation and a coarser product from the primary crushers [24]. In the quarry at Vrsi, as drilling geometry decreased from 3.0m4.5m to 2.9m3.0m while other parameters such as borehole sizes were constant, a significant savings of 14% was achieved for the quarry [25]. Due to a mine-to-mill implementation at the Red Dog Mine, the mine achieved savings exceeding $30 million per year [26]. This indicates that, at least in some ores, improved internal fragmentation carries through the crushing and grinding circuits. The mine-to-mill project in the same mine identified further benefit, specifically the marked reduction in SAG feed size and throughput variability [5]. A second but important benefit was the reduced wear in the gyratory crusher, resulting in a significantly longer period between relines. When electronic detonators with very short delay time were applied in the Chuquicamata open pit copper mine, the fragmentation was markedly improved [27]. In the Aitik copper mine a raised specific charge from 0.9 to 1.3kg/m3 gave rise to an increase in the throughput by nearly 7% due to more fines produced and shorter grinding time achieved [28].

Jaw crushers are mainly used as primary crushers to produce material that can be transported by belt conveyors to the next crushing stages. The crushing process takes place between a fixed jaw and a moving jaw. The moving jaw dies are mounted on a pitman that has a reciprocating motion. The jaw dies must be replaced regularly due to wear. Figure 8.1 shows two basic types of jaw crushers: single toggle and double toggle. In the single toggle jaw crusher, an eccentric shaft is installed on the top of the crusher. Shaft rotation causes, along with the toggle plate, a compressive action of the moving jaw. A double toggle crusher has, basically, two shafts and two toggle plates. The first shaft is a pivoting shaft on the top of the crusher, while the other is an eccentric shaft that drives both toggle plates. The moving jaw has a pure reciprocating motion toward the fixed jaw. The crushing force is doubled compared to single toggle crushers and it can crush very hard ores. The jaw crusher is reliable and robust and therefore quite popular in primary crushing plants. The capacity of jaw crushers is limited, so they are typically used for small or medium projects up to approximately 1600t/h. Vibrating screens are often placed ahead of the jaw crushers to remove undersize material, or scalp the feed, and thereby increase the capacity of the primary crushing operation.

Both cone and gyratory crushers, as shown in Figure 8.2, have an oscillating shaft. The material is crushed in a crushing cavity, between an external fixed element (bowl liner) and an internal moving element (mantle) mounted on the oscillating shaft assembly. An eccentric shaft rotated by a gear and pinion produces the oscillating movement of the main shaft. The eccentricity causes the cone head to oscillate between the open side setting (o.s.s.) and closed side setting (c.s.s.). In addition to c.s.s., eccentricity is one of the major factors that determine the capacity of gyratory and cone crushers. The fragmentation of the material results from the continuous compression that takes place between the mantle and bowl liners. An additional crushing effect occurs between the compressed particles, resulting in less wear of the liners. This is also called interparticle crushing. The gyratory crushers are equipped with a hydraulic setting adjustment system, which adjusts c.s.s. and thus affects product size distribution. Depending on cone type, the c.s.s. setting can be adjusted in two ways. The first way is by rotating the bowl against the threads so that the vertical position of the outer wear part (concave) is changed. One advantage of this adjustment type is that the liners wear more evenly. Another principle of setting adjustment is by lifting/lowering the main shaft. An advantage of this is that adjustment can be done continuously under load. To optimize operating costs and improve the product shape, as a rule of thumb, it is recommended that cones always be choke-fed, meaning that the cavity should be as full of rock material as possible. This can be easily achieved by using a stockpile or a silo to regulate the inevitable fluctuation of feed material flow. Level monitoring devices that detect the maximum and minimum levels of the material are used to start and stop the feed of material to the crusher as needed.

Primary gyratory crushers are used in the primary crushing stage. Compared to the cone type crusher, a gyratory crusher has a crushing chamber designed to accept feed material of a relatively large size in relation to the mantle diameter. The primary gyratory crusher offers high capacity thanks to its generously dimensioned circular discharge opening (which provides a much larger area than that of the jaw crusher) and the continuous operation principle (while the reciprocating motion of the jaw crusher produces a batch crushing action). The gyratory crusher has capacities starting from 1200 to above 5000t/h. To have a feed opening corresponding to that of a jaw crusher, the primary gyratory crusher must be much taller and heavier. Therefore, primary gyratories require quite a massive foundation.

The cone crusher is a modified gyratory crusher. The essential difference is that the shorter spindle of the cone crusher is not suspended, as in the gyratory, but is supported in a curved, universal bearing below the gyratory head or cone (Figure 8.2). Power is transmitted from the source to the countershaft to a V-belt or direct drive. The countershaft has a bevel pinion pressed and keyed to it and drives the gear on the eccentric assembly. The eccentric assembly has a tapered, offset bore and provides the means whereby the head and main shaft follow an eccentric path during each cycle of rotation. Cone crushers are used for intermediate and fine crushing after primary crushing. The key factor for the performance of a cone type secondary crusher is the profile of the crushing chamber or cavity. Therefore, there is normally a range of standard cavities available for each crusher, to allow selection of the appropriate cavity for the feed material in question.

Crushers are widely used as a primary stage to produce the particulate product finer than about 50100 mm in size. They are classified as jaw, gyratory and cone crushers based on compression, cutter mill based on shear and hammer crusher based on impact.

A jaw crusher consists essentially of two crushing plates, inclined to each other forming a horizontal opening by their lower borders. Material is crushed between a fixed and a movable plate by reciprocating pressure until the crushed product becomes small enough to pass through the gap between the crushing plates. Jaw crushers find a wide application for brittle materials. For example, they are used for comminution of porous copper cake.

A gyratory crusher includes a solid cone set on a revolving shaft and placed within a hollow body, which has conical or vertical sloping sides. Material is crushed when the crushing surfaces approach each other and the crushed products fall through the discharging opening.

Hammer crushers are used either as a one-step primary crusher or as a secondary crusher for products from a primary crusher. They are widely used for crushing of hard metal scrap for different hard metal recycling processes.

Pivoted hammers are pendulous, mounted on the horizontal axes symmetrically located along the perimeter of a rotor and crushing takes place by the impact of material pieces with the high speed moving hammers and by contact with breaker plates. A cylindrical grating or screen is placed beneath the rotor. Materials are reduced to a size small enough pass through the openings of the grating or screen. The size of product can be regulated by changing the spacing of the grate bars or the opening of the screen.

The feature of the hammer crushers is the appearance of elevated pressure of air in the discharging unit of the crusher and underpressure in the zone around of the shaft close to the inside surface of the body side walls. Thus, the hammer crushers also act as high-pressure forced-draught fans. This may lead to environmental pollution and product losses in fine powder fractions.

A design for a hammer crusher (Figure 2.6) allows essentially a decrease of the elevated pressure of air in the crusher discharging unit [5]. The A-zone beneath the screen is communicated through the hollow ribs and openings in the body side walls with the B-zone around the shaft close to the inside surface of body side walls. As a result, circulation of suspended matter in the gas between A- and B-zones is established and high pressure of air in the discharging unit of crusher is reduced.

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