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ring type hammer t crusher

ring hammer crusher -china henan zhengzhou mining machinery co.,ltd

ring hammer crusher -china henan zhengzhou mining machinery co.,ltd

PCH Series Ring Hammer Crusher is used to crush coal, especially brittle materials, like gangue, coke, slag, red sandstone, shale, loose limestone, etc. The compressive strength of the material does not surpass 100MPa; the surface waters no more than 15%.

PCH series ring hammer crusher is one of crush equipment,this impact rotor crusher with ring hammer,the feeding materials is crushed by impact effect from high speed revolution ring hammer with rotor,the crushed materials obtain kinetic energy from ring hammer at the same time,rush to the breaking plate with high speed,by the second break,then fell on the screen plate,materials is crushed further by cutting,pressure,grinding from ring hammer and interaction each other, discharged from screen.The sundries can not be crushed come into the metal collector,cleaning regularly.

PCH Ring-hammer crusher is suitable for crushing various brittle materials, such as coal, gangue, coke, slay, shale and loose lime stone etc. Whose compressive resistance no exceeds 10Mpa and the surface moisture content should not be greater than 8%.

ring hammer crusher - crushers, ball mills and flotation cells for mining and mineral beneficiation

ring hammer crusher - crushers, ball mills and flotation cells for mining and mineral beneficiation

We produce and supply PCH ring hammer crusher and PCHZ (heavy duty type) ring hammer crusher. Our ring hammer crusher has the unique advantages of energy saving, expected output size, high production efficiency, low noise, less dust, etc.

We produce and supply PCH ring hammer crusher, ring hammer coal crusher and PCHZ (heavy duty type) ring hammer crusher. Our ring hammer crusher has the unique advantages of energy saving, expected output size, high production efficiency, low noise, less dust, etc. Our ring hammer crushers are exclusively produced by our factory, and won the Golden Crane Award for excellent new products.

The structure feature of ring hammer crusher: the output product size could be adjusted. When the bigger size of the output product is not allowed than the expected output size, the ring hammer crusher shall be firstly choosen.

PCHZ ring hammer crusher is suitable for crushing kinds of ores. It could crush iron sulphide ore, phosphate ore, limonite ore, magnetic iron ore, limestone and river stone, etc. The compressive strength of the raw material can not be more tahn 60 Mpa, the surface water content can not be more than 15%. when the finished product of crushing iron sulphide ore, phosphate ore is less than 6mm, the surface water content can not be more than 12%

ZJH mainly focus on producing and supply crushers, ore grinding equipment, mineral Beneficiation equipment, laboratory and pilot scale ore dressing equipment for Mining and Mineral Processing Industry. Our aim is to work together with Mines, Mineral Beneficiation Plantsfor helping to reduce the operating cost ,to improve the operating efficiency.

hammer crusher | hammer mill crushers for sale jxsc mine

hammer crusher | hammer mill crushers for sale jxsc mine

Hammer Crusher Application Field Mining, metallurgy, building material, cement, quarrying, gravel & sand making, aggregate processing, recycling, and chemical industry, etc. Suitable Material Limestone, slag, pebble, rock gold ore, salt, concrete, coal, coke and other materials in the primary/secondary crushing and fine crushing operations.

Hammer stone crusher is a kind of equipment that crushes materials in the form of impact. Crushing the size of 600-1800 mm material to 25m or less. Hammermill machine can not only be used in stone crusher plant, sand plant, but also can replace the cone crusher in the mineral processing.

JXSC hammer mill machine that hammerhead adopts a new technology cast which wear-resistant and impact-resistant. The airframe structure of the hammer mill is seal which solves the problems of dust pollution and dust leakage in the crushing workshop. And it is easy to maintain.

1. Hammerhead uses new cast technology which with wear-resistant and impact-resistant characteristic. 2. Can adjust the granularity size. 3. The seal structure that solves the problems of dust pollution and dust leakage in the crushing workshop. 4. The overall design of hammer crushing equipment has the advantages of beautiful appearance, compact structure, few wearing parts, convenient maintenance, etc.

Hammermill crusher mainly rely on impact energy to complete the crushing of materials. When the hammer mill rock crusher works, the motor drives the rotor to rotate at high speed, and the material enters the crusher cavity evenly. The hammerhead with high speed turns impacts and tears the material lead to the materials are crushed.

At the same time, the material from the high-speed rotating hammerhead to the baffle and screen strip in the frame under the gravity effect. The material larger than the size of the screen hole remains on the screen plate and continues to be hit and ground by the Hammer. Then finally through the sieve plate discharge machine until the crusher material size discharge.

The advantages of the hammer: The ratio of crushing is large, generally is 10-25, high up to 50. High production capacity. uniform products. Less over-powder phenomenon. Simple structure, light equipment quality. Simple operation and maintenance, etc. The series hammer crusher products are suitable for crushing all kinds of medium hardness and brittle materials, such as limestone, coal, salt, gypsum, alum, brick, tile, coal gangue and so on. The compressive strength of the crushed material shall not exceed 150 MPA.

The series of crushers are mainly used in cement, coal preparation, power generation, building materials, and compound fertilizer industries. It can crush the raw materials of different sizes into uniform particles for the next working procedure. Reliable mechanical structure, high production efficiency, good applicability.

But the hammer crusher also has some disadvantages, such as the hammer and grate screen wear quickly. When crushing hard materials, they wear out faster. When crushing sticky wet materials, it is easy to plug the screen seam of the grate. Therefore, it is easy to cause shut down, so the moisture content of the material should not exceed 10 %. When milling hard objects, the hammer and lining plate have big wear. And the consumptive metal material is much, often needs to replace the wear-and-tear piece.

Jiangxi Shicheng stone crusher manufacturer is a new and high-tech factory specialized in R&D and manufacturing crushing lines, beneficial equipment,sand-making machinery and grinding plants. Read More

hammer mills for material reduction | williams patent crusher

hammer mills for material reduction | williams patent crusher

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Williams Patent Crusher is a leading industrial hammer mill manufacturer. Our industrial size reduction machines can handle any material size reduction job. Choose a Williams machine for high efficiency and economy. Using midair and impact crushing, grinding, and shredding, our machines can handle virtually any material.

A hammer mill is a particle size reduction machine. These machines grind and crush material using continual, high-speed hammer blows. This internal hammer shatters and disintegrates the material. Mills can be primary, secondary, or tertiary crushers, allowing for a wide variety of applications.

Williams hammer mills are a popular choice when it comes to particle size reduction. While many use these machines as rock crushers and stone crushers, they offer more versatility. Some of the industries and applications that benefit from this machine are:

Williams has been designing and manufacturing industry-leading hammer mills since 1871. We continue to innovate to exceed the evolving needs of our customers worldwide. Our vision is to recognize changes in the marketplace and provide a quality product. With Williams, you receive a quality product that always delivers the efficiency and ruggedness you expect.

Williams manufactures rugged hammer mills to handle high-tonnage size reduction jobs. This heavy-duty equipment reduces large materials, such as automobile bodies. More applications include rock and coal crushing, reducing limestone to sand and pulverizing metal turnings. They can also shred waste, wood, and paper for baling or burning.

The Williams Rocket Hammer Mill rapidly reduces non-abrasive materials to particle sized pieces. Applications include turning materials into fine granules. These materials include cereal, animal by-products, sawdust, expeller cake, rags, and wood pulp.

Meteor hammer mills use a high hammer-tip speed to produce a finer product. If your finished product needs to have specific characteristics, this is the ideal hammer mill. It is well suited for producing high-quality fluff for the absorbent and non-woven fiber markets.

The Type GP Hammer Mill is a simple, rugged machine for small and medium capacity particle size reduction jobs. It's used for a variety of applications from coal to limestone to salt cake, sawdust, and woodchips. It is a versatile machine that performs efficient particle size reduction. The Type GP also has customization options to meet your specific application needs.

Williams Ring Crushers are also known as turnings crushers. They reduce the size of metal turnings, bullshellings, or clips through impact crushing. Ring crushers produce their rated capacities with little down time and custom capabilities. This customization allows you to meet the exact specifications for your material reduction application.

This type of hammer mill is the ideal choice for applications requiring a large feed opening. It is suitable for continuous jobs with either hourly output or reduction ratio. These machines have rigid steel plate frames that resist shock and failure from fatigue. The adjustable breaker plates also compensate for wear.

The Traveling Breaker Plate Mill is a non-clog hammer mill. This engineering allows a Slugger Crusher to reduce rock, clay, shale and bauxite to or smaller. It can reduce wet, sticky materials to a size suitable for further refinement. Its self-cleaning breaker plates reduce maintenance and service costs.

These mills are overrunning machines, reducing material on breaker plates and then crushing on grates. Their design is for operations that need processed feed before reaching the discharge area. Both models have very rugged construction for considerable material reduction.

This machine's name comes from its ability to reverse the direction of the rotor. This rotor supports the hammers, bringing fresh grinding edges into action. The reversible capabilities lower the frequency of servicing. Our reversible hammer mills increase production, double the life of your hammers, and reduce maintenance costs. Learn more about Williams reversible hammer mills.

This machine's name comes from its ability to reverse the direction of the rotor. This rotor supports the hammers, bringing fresh grinding edges into action. The reversible capabilities lower the frequency of servicing. Our reversible hammer mills increase production, double the life of your hammers, and reduce maintenance costs.

This type of hammer mill has rigid hammers rather than swing mounted. This design makes the machine effective for the pulverization of soft, fibrous, or bulky materials into fine powders. It is also suitable for the reduction of friables like coal. Each ridged arm breaker has many edges that can be indexed and presented as wear occurs. Learn more about our rigid arm breaker machines.

This type of hammer mill has rigid hammers rather than swing mounted. This design makes the machine effective for the pulverization of soft, fibrous, or bulky materials into fine powders. It is also suitable for the reduction of friables like coal. Each ridged arm breaker has many edges that can be indexed and presented as wear occurs.

ring hammer crusher|used for coal, stone crushing or breaking

ring hammer crusher|used for coal, stone crushing or breaking

1) Compression Feeder helps constant feed and eliminates bulky item feed trouble. 2) Stable Horizontal Type Shedder (Heavy Duty Construction) 3) Ring-Type Hammer is available for every sort of wastes. 4) Long Hammer-Life 5) Low Horsepower 6) Easy Maintenance by opening upper frame 7) Product Size-control by grate bar clearance 8) Low Fire and Explosion by air blow system

wholesale ring hammer crusher manufacturers and factory - suppliers direct price | jinte

wholesale ring hammer crusher manufacturers and factory - suppliers direct price | jinte

Our personnel are always in the spirit of "continuous improvement and excellence", and together with the top-quality good quality solutions, favorable selling price and superior after-sales providers, we try to acquire each customer's rely on for Ring Hammer Crusher, Roller Crusher For Sale , Mini Mobile Jaw Crusher , Rotary Tromme Filter ,Rotary Tromme Filter . In addition, we would properly guide the customers about the application techniques to adopt our products and the way to select appropriate materials. The product will supply to all over the world, such as Europe, America, Australia,Swiss , Greenland ,Morocco , Oman .We have gained a lot of recognition among customers spread all across the world. They trust us and always give repetitive orders. Furthermore, mentioned below are some of the major factors that have played significant role in our tremendous growth in this domain.

crushers - an overview | sciencedirect topics

crushers - an overview | sciencedirect topics

This crusher developed by Jaques (now Terex Mineral Processing Solutions) has several internal chamber configurations available depending on the abrasiveness of the ore. Examples include the Rock on Rock, Rock on Anvil and Shoe and Anvil configurations (Figure 6.26). These units typically operate with 5 to 6 steel impellers or hammers, with a ring of thin anvils. Rock is hit or accelerated to impact on the anvils, after which the broken fragments freefall into the discharge chute and onto a product conveyor belt. This impact size reduction process was modeled by Kojovic (1996) and Djordjevic et al. (2003) using rotor dimensions and speed, and rock breakage characteristics measured in the laboratory. The model was also extended to the Barmac crushers (Napier-Munn et al., 1996).

Crushers are widely used as a primary stage to produce the particulate product finer than about 50100 mm in size. They are classified as jaw, gyratory and cone crushers based on compression, cutter mill based on shear and hammer crusher based on impact.

A jaw crusher consists essentially of two crushing plates, inclined to each other forming a horizontal opening by their lower borders. Material is crushed between a fixed and a movable plate by reciprocating pressure until the crushed product becomes small enough to pass through the gap between the crushing plates. Jaw crushers find a wide application for brittle materials. For example, they are used for comminution of porous copper cake.

A gyratory crusher includes a solid cone set on a revolving shaft and placed within a hollow body, which has conical or vertical sloping sides. Material is crushed when the crushing surfaces approach each other and the crushed products fall through the discharging opening.

Hammer crushers are used either as a one-step primary crusher or as a secondary crusher for products from a primary crusher. They are widely used for crushing of hard metal scrap for different hard metal recycling processes.

Pivoted hammers are pendulous, mounted on the horizontal axes symmetrically located along the perimeter of a rotor and crushing takes place by the impact of material pieces with the high speed moving hammers and by contact with breaker plates. A cylindrical grating or screen is placed beneath the rotor. Materials are reduced to a size small enough pass through the openings of the grating or screen. The size of product can be regulated by changing the spacing of the grate bars or the opening of the screen.

The feature of the hammer crushers is the appearance of elevated pressure of air in the discharging unit of the crusher and underpressure in the zone around of the shaft close to the inside surface of the body side walls. Thus, the hammer crushers also act as high-pressure forced-draught fans. This may lead to environmental pollution and product losses in fine powder fractions.

A design for a hammer crusher (Figure 2.6) allows essentially a decrease of the elevated pressure of air in the crusher discharging unit [5]. The A-zone beneath the screen is communicated through the hollow ribs and openings in the body side walls with the B-zone around the shaft close to the inside surface of body side walls. As a result, circulation of suspended matter in the gas between A- and B-zones is established and high pressure of air in the discharging unit of crusher is reduced.

Crushers are widely used as a primary stage to produce the particulate product finer than about 50100mm. They are classified as jaw, gyratory, and cone crushers based on compression, cutter mill based on shear, and hammer crusher based on impact.

A jaw crusher consists essentially of two crushing plates, inclined to each other forming a horizontal opening by their lower borders. Material is crushed between a fixed and a movable plate by reciprocating pressure until the crushed product becomes small enough to pass through the gap between the crushing plates. Jaw crushers find a wide application for brittle materials. For example, they are used for comminution of porous copper cake. A Fritsch jaw crusher with maximal feed size 95mm, final fineness (depends on gap setting) 0.315mm, and maximal continuous throughput 250Kg/h is shown in Fig. 2.8.

A gyratory crusher includes a solid cone set on a revolving shaft and placed within a hollow body, which has conical or vertical sloping sides. Material is crushed when the crushing surfaces approach each other and the crushed products fall through the discharging opening.

Hammer crushers are used either as a one-step primary crusher or as a secondary crusher for products from a primary crusher. They are widely used for crushing hard metal scrap for different hard metal recycling processes. Pivoted hammers are pendulous, mounted on the horizontal axes symmetrically located along the perimeter of a rotor. Crushing takes place by the impact of material pieces with the high speed moving hammers and by contact with breaker plates. A cylindrical grating or screen is placed beneath the rotor. Materials are reduced to a size small enough to pass through the openings of the grating or screen. The size of the product can be regulated by changing the spacing of the grate bars or the opening of the screen.

The feature of the hammer crushers is the appearance of elevated pressure of air in the discharging unit of the crusher and underpressure in the zone around the shaft close to the inside surface of the body side walls. Thus, the hammer crushers also act as high-pressure, forced-draught fans. This may lead to environmental pollution and product losses in fine powder fractions. A design for a hammer crusher (Fig. 2.9) essentially allows a decrease of the elevated pressure of air in the crusher discharging unit [5]. The A-zone beneath the screen is communicated through the hollow ribs and openings in the body side walls with the B-zone around the shaft close to the inside surface of body side walls. As a result, the circulation of suspended matter in the gas between A and B zones is established and the high pressure of air in the discharging unit of crusher is reduced.

Secondary coal crusher: Used when the coal coming from the supplier is large enough to be handled by a single crusher. The primary crusher converts the feed size to one that is acceptable to the secondary crusher.

The main sources of RA are either from construction and ready mixed concrete sites, demolition sites or from roads. The demolition sites produce a heterogeneous material, whereas ready mixed concrete or prefabricated concrete plants produce a more homogeneous material. RAs are mainly produced in fixed crushing plant around big cities where CDWs are available. However, for roads and to reduce transportation cost, mobile crushing installations are used.

The materiel for RA manufacturing does not differ from that of producing NA in quarries. However, it should be more robust to resist wear, and it handles large blocks of up to 1m. The main difference is that RAs need the elimination of contaminants such as wood, joint sealants, plastics, and steel which should be removed with blast of air for light materials and electro-magnets for steel. The materials are first separated from other undesired materials then treated by washing and air to take out contamination. The quality and grading of aggregates depend on the choice of the crusher type.

Jaw crusher: The material is crushed between a fixed jaw and a mobile jaw. The feed is subjected to repeated pressure as it passes downwards and is progressively reduced in size until it is small enough to pass out of the crushing chamber. This crusher produces less fines but the aggregates have a more elongated form.

Hammer (impact) crusher: The feed is fragmented by kinetic energy introduced by a rotating mass (the rotor) which projects the material against a fixed surface causing it to shatter causing further particle size reduction. This crusher produces more rounded shape.

Jaw crushers are mainly used as primary crushers to produce material that can be transported by belt conveyors to the next crushing stages. The crushing process takes place between a fixed jaw and a moving jaw. The moving jaw dies are mounted on a pitman that has a reciprocating motion. The jaw dies must be replaced regularly due to wear. Figure 8.1 shows two basic types of jaw crushers: single toggle and double toggle. In the single toggle jaw crusher, an eccentric shaft is installed on the top of the crusher. Shaft rotation causes, along with the toggle plate, a compressive action of the moving jaw. A double toggle crusher has, basically, two shafts and two toggle plates. The first shaft is a pivoting shaft on the top of the crusher, while the other is an eccentric shaft that drives both toggle plates. The moving jaw has a pure reciprocating motion toward the fixed jaw. The crushing force is doubled compared to single toggle crushers and it can crush very hard ores. The jaw crusher is reliable and robust and therefore quite popular in primary crushing plants. The capacity of jaw crushers is limited, so they are typically used for small or medium projects up to approximately 1600t/h. Vibrating screens are often placed ahead of the jaw crushers to remove undersize material, or scalp the feed, and thereby increase the capacity of the primary crushing operation.

Both cone and gyratory crushers, as shown in Figure 8.2, have an oscillating shaft. The material is crushed in a crushing cavity, between an external fixed element (bowl liner) and an internal moving element (mantle) mounted on the oscillating shaft assembly. An eccentric shaft rotated by a gear and pinion produces the oscillating movement of the main shaft. The eccentricity causes the cone head to oscillate between the open side setting (o.s.s.) and closed side setting (c.s.s.). In addition to c.s.s., eccentricity is one of the major factors that determine the capacity of gyratory and cone crushers. The fragmentation of the material results from the continuous compression that takes place between the mantle and bowl liners. An additional crushing effect occurs between the compressed particles, resulting in less wear of the liners. This is also called interparticle crushing. The gyratory crushers are equipped with a hydraulic setting adjustment system, which adjusts c.s.s. and thus affects product size distribution. Depending on cone type, the c.s.s. setting can be adjusted in two ways. The first way is by rotating the bowl against the threads so that the vertical position of the outer wear part (concave) is changed. One advantage of this adjustment type is that the liners wear more evenly. Another principle of setting adjustment is by lifting/lowering the main shaft. An advantage of this is that adjustment can be done continuously under load. To optimize operating costs and improve the product shape, as a rule of thumb, it is recommended that cones always be choke-fed, meaning that the cavity should be as full of rock material as possible. This can be easily achieved by using a stockpile or a silo to regulate the inevitable fluctuation of feed material flow. Level monitoring devices that detect the maximum and minimum levels of the material are used to start and stop the feed of material to the crusher as needed.

Primary gyratory crushers are used in the primary crushing stage. Compared to the cone type crusher, a gyratory crusher has a crushing chamber designed to accept feed material of a relatively large size in relation to the mantle diameter. The primary gyratory crusher offers high capacity thanks to its generously dimensioned circular discharge opening (which provides a much larger area than that of the jaw crusher) and the continuous operation principle (while the reciprocating motion of the jaw crusher produces a batch crushing action). The gyratory crusher has capacities starting from 1200 to above 5000t/h. To have a feed opening corresponding to that of a jaw crusher, the primary gyratory crusher must be much taller and heavier. Therefore, primary gyratories require quite a massive foundation.

The cone crusher is a modified gyratory crusher. The essential difference is that the shorter spindle of the cone crusher is not suspended, as in the gyratory, but is supported in a curved, universal bearing below the gyratory head or cone (Figure 8.2). Power is transmitted from the source to the countershaft to a V-belt or direct drive. The countershaft has a bevel pinion pressed and keyed to it and drives the gear on the eccentric assembly. The eccentric assembly has a tapered, offset bore and provides the means whereby the head and main shaft follow an eccentric path during each cycle of rotation. Cone crushers are used for intermediate and fine crushing after primary crushing. The key factor for the performance of a cone type secondary crusher is the profile of the crushing chamber or cavity. Therefore, there is normally a range of standard cavities available for each crusher, to allow selection of the appropriate cavity for the feed material in question.

Roll crushers are arbitrarily divided into light and heavy duty crushers. The diameters of the light duty crushers vary between 228 and 760mm with face lengths between 250 and 460mm. The spring pressure for light duty rolls varies between 1.1 and 5.6kg/m. The heavy duty crusher diameters range between 900 and 1000mm with face length between 300 and 610mm. In general, the spring pressures of the heavy duty rolls range between 7 and 60kg/m. The light duty rolls are designed to operate at faster speeds compared to heavy duty rolls that are designed to operate at lower speeds.

It has been stressed that the coal supplier should initially crush the materials to a maximum size such as 300 mm, but they may be something else depending on the agreement or coal tie up. To circumvent the situation, the CHP keeps a crushing provision so that coal bunkers receive the materials at a maximum size of about 2025 mm.

The unloaded coal in the hoppers is transferred to the crusher house through belt conveyors with different stopovers in between such as the penthouse, transfer points, etc., depending on the CHP layout.

Suspended magnets for the removal of tramp iron pieces and metal detectors for identifying nonferrous materials are provided at strategic points to intercept unacceptable materials before they reach the crushers. There may be arrangements for manual stone picking from the conveyors, as suitable. Crushed coal is then sent directly to the stockyard.

A coal-sampling unit is provided for uncrushed coal. Online coal analyzers are also available, but they are a costly item. Screens (vibrating grizzly or rollers) are provided at the upstream of the crushers to sort out the smaller sizes as stipulated, and larger pieces are guided to the crushers.

Appropriate types of isolation gates, for example, rod or rack and pinion gates, are provided before screens to isolate one set of crushers/screens to carry on maintenance work without affecting the operation of other streams.

Vibrating grizzly or roller screens are provided upstream of the crushers for less than 25 (typical) mm coal particles bypass the crusher and coal size more than 25 mm then fed to the crushers. The crushed coal is either fed to the coal bunkers of the boilers or discharged to the coal stockyard through conveyors and transfer points, if any.

This is used for crushing and breaking large coal in the first step of coal crushing plant applied most widely in coal crushing industry. Jaw crushers are designed for primary crushing of hard rocks without rubbing and with minimum dust. Jaw crushers may be utilized for materials such as coal, granite, basalt, river gravel, bauxite, marble, slag, hard rock, limestone, iron ore, magazine ore, etc., within a pressure resistance strength of 200 MPa. Jaw crushers are characterized for different features such as a simple structure, easy maintenance, low cost, high crushing ratio, and high resistance to friction/abrasion/compression with a longer operating lifespan.

Fixed and movable jaw plates are the two main components. A motor-driven eccentric shaft through suitable hardware makes the movable jaw plate travel in a regulated track and hit the materials in the crushing chamber comprising a fixed-jaw plate to assert compression force for crushing.

A coal hammer crusher is developed for materials having pressure-resistance strength over 100 Mpa and humidity not more than 15%. A hammer crusher is suitable for mid-hard and light erosive materials such as coal, salt, chalk, gypsum, limestone, etc.

Hammer mills are primarily steel drums that contain a vertical or horizontal cross-shaped rotor mounted with pivoting hammers that can freely swing on either end of the cross. While the material is fed into the feed hopper, the rotor placed inside the drum is spun at a high speed. Thereafter, the hammers on the ends of the rotating cross thrust the material, thereby shredding and expelling it through the screens fitted in the drum.

Ring granulators are used for crushing coal to a size acceptable to the mills for conversion to powdered coal. A ring granulator prevents both the oversizing and undersizing of coal, helping the quality of the finished product and improving the workability. Due to its strong construction, a ring granulator is capable of crushing coal, limestone, lignite, or gypsum as well as other medium-to-hard friable items. Ring granulators are rugged, dependable, and specially designed for continuous high capacity crushing of materials. Ring granulators are available with operating capacities from 40 to 1800 tons/h or even more with a feed size up to 500 mm. Adjustment of clearance between the cage and the path of the rings takes care of the product gradation as well as compensates for wear and tear of the machine parts for maintaining product size. The unique combination of impact and rolling compression makes the crushing action yield a higher output with a lower noise level and power consumption. Here, the product is almost of uniform granular size with n adjustable range of less than 2025 mm. As the crushing action involves minimum attrition, thereby minimum fines are produced with improving efficiency.

A ring granulator works on n operating principle similar to a hammer mill, but the hammers are replaced with rolling rings. The ring granulator compresses material by impact in association with shear and compression force. It comprises a screen plate/cage bar steel box with an opening in the top cover for feeding. The power-driven horizontal main shaft passes from frame side to frame side, supporting a number of circular discs fixed at regular intervals across its length within the frame. There are quite a few bars running parallel to the main shaft and around the periphery that pass through these discs near their outer edges. The bars are uniformly located about the center of the main rotating shaft. There are a series of rings in between the two consecutive disc spaces, mounted on each bar. They are free to rotate on the bars irrespective of the main shaft rotation. The entire cage assembly, located below the rotor assembly, can be set at a desired close proximity to the rings by screw jack mechanism adjustable from outside the crusher frame. The rotor assembly consisting of the shaft, discs, rings, etc., is fixed as far as the main shaft center line is concerned. This main shaft carries in roller bearings from the box sides. The movable cage frame arrangement is provided so as to set its inner radius marginally larger than that of the ring running periphery. When coal is fed from the top, the rings also rotate along with the shaft and around their own center line along the bars, which drags coal lumps and crushes them to the desired size. After the coal has been crushed by the coal crusher, a vibrating screen grades the coal by size and the coal is then transported via belt conveyor. In this process, a dewatering screen is optional to remove water from the product.

Crusher machines are used for crushing of a wide variety of materials in the mining, iron and steel, and quarry industries. In quarry industry, they are used for crushing of rocks into granites for road-building and civil works. Crusher machines are equipped with a pair of crusher jaws namely; fixed jaws and swing jaws. Both jaws are fixed in a vertical position at the front end of a hollow rectangular frame of crushing machine as shown in Fig.10.1. The swing jaw is moved against the fixed jaws through knuckle action by the rising and falling of a second lever (pitman) carried by eccentric shaft. The vertical movement is then horizontally fixed to the jaw by double toggle plates. Because the jaw is pivoted at the top, the throw is greatest at the discharge, preventing chocking.

The crushing force is produced by an eccentric shaft. Then it is transferred to the crushing zone via a toggle plate system and supported by the back wall of the housing of the machine. Spring-pulling rods keep the whole system in a condition of no positive connection. Centrifugal masses on the eccentric shaft serve as compensation for heavy loads. A flywheel is provided in the form of a pulley. Due to the favorable angle of dip between the crushing jaws, the feeding material can be reduced directly after entering the machine. The final grain size distribution is influenced by both the adjustable crusher setting and the suitability of the tooth form selected for the crushing plates.

Thus, the crusher jaws must be hard and tough enough to crush rock and meet the impact action generated by the action of swing jaws respectively. If the jaws are hard, it will be efficient in crushing rock but it will be susceptible to fracture failure. On the other hand, if the jaws are tough, the teeth will worn out very fast, but it will be able to withstand fracture failure. Thus, crusher jaws are made of highly wear-resistant austenitic manganese steel casting, which combines both high toughness and good resistance to wear.

Austenitic manganese steel was invented by Sir Robert Hadfield in 1882 and was first granted patented in Britain in 1883 with patent number 200. The first United States patents, numbers 303150 and 303151, were granted in 1884. In accordance with ASTM A128 specification, the basic chemical composition of Hadfield steel is 1%1.4% carbon and 11%14% manganese. However, the manganese to carbon ratio is optimum at 10:1 to ensure an austenitic microstructure after quenching [2]. Austenitic manganese steels possess unique resistance to impact and abrasion wears. They exhibit high levels of ductility and toughness, slow crack propagation rates, and a high rate of work-hardening resulting in superior wear resistance in comparison with other potentially competitive materials [310]. These unique properties have made Hadfield's austenitic manganese steel an engineering material of choice for use in heavy industries, such as earth moving, mining, quarrying, oil and gas drilling, and in processing of various materials for components of crushers, mills, and construction machinery (lining plates, hammers, jaws, cones).

Austenitic manganese steel has a yield strength between 50,000psi (345MPa) and 60,000psi (414MPa) [3]. Although stronger than low carbon steel, it is not as strong as medium carbon steel. It is, however, much tougher than medium carbon steel. Yielding in austenitic manganese steel signifies the onset of work-hardening and accompanying plastic deformation. The modulus of elasticity for austenitic manganese steel is 27106psi (186103MPa) and is somewhat below that of carbon steel, which is generally taken as 29106psi (200103MPa). The ultimate tensile strength of austenitic manganese steel varies but is generally taken as 140,000psi (965MPa). At this tensile strength, austenitic manganese steel displays elongation in the 35%40% range. The fatigue limit for manganese steel is about 39,000psi (269MPa). The ability of austenitic manganese to work-harden up to its ultimate tensile strength is its main feature. In this regard austenitic manganese has no equal. The range of work-hardening of austenitic manganese from yield to ultimate tensile is approximately 200%.

When subjected to impact loads Hadfield steel work-hardens considerably while exhibiting superior toughness. However, due to its low yield strength, large deformation may occur and lead to failure before the work-hardening sets in [11]. This phenomenon is detrimental when it comes to some applications, such as rock crushing [12]. Work-hardening behavior of Hadfield steel has been attributed to dynamic strain aging [13]. The hardening or strengthening mechanism has its origin in the interactions between dislocations and the high concentration of interstitial atoms also known as the CottrellBilby interaction. Thus, the wear properties of Hadfield steel are related to its microstructure, which in turn is dependent on the heat-treatment process and chemical composition of the alloy. According to Haakonsen [14], work-hardening is influenced by such parameters as alloy chemistry, temperature, and strain rate.

Carbon content affects the yield strength of AMS. Carbon levels below 1% cause yield strengths to decrease. The optimum carbon content has been found to be between 1% and 1.2%. Above 1.2% carbides precipitate and segregate to grain boundaries, resulting in compromised strength and ductility particularly in heavy sections [15]. Other alloying elements, such as chromium, will increase the yield strength, but decrease ductility. Silicon is generally added as a deoxidizer. Carbon contents above 1.4% are not generally used as the carbon segregates to the grain boundaries as carbides and is detrimental to both strength and ductility [15].

Manganese has very little effect on the yield strength of austenitic manganese steel, but does affect both the ultimate tensile strength and ductility. Maximum tensile strengths are attained with 12%13% manganese contents [16]. Although acceptable mechanical properties can be achieved up to 20% manganese content, there is no economic advantage in using manganese contents greater than 13%. Manganese acts as an austenitic stabilizer and delays isothermal transformation. For example, carbon steel containing 1% manganese begins isothermal transformation about 15s after quenching to 371C, whereas steel containing 12% manganese begins isothermal transformation about 48h after quenching to 371C [15].

Austenitic manganese steel in as-cast condition is characterized by an austenitic microstructure with precipitates of alloyed cementite and the triple phosphorus eutectic of an Fe-(Fe,Mn)3C-(Fe,Mn)3P type [17], which appears when the phosphorus content exceeds 0.04% [18]. It also contains nonmetallic inclusions, such as oxides, sulfides, and nitrides. This type of microstructure is unfavorable due to the presence of the (Fe, Mn)xCy carbides spread along the grain boundaries [19]. However, in solution-treated conditions austenitic manganese steel structure is essentially austenitic because carbon is in austenite solution [19]. The practical limit of carbon in solution is about 1.2%. Thereafter, excess carbon precipitation to the grain boundaries results, especially in heavier sections [20].

Austenitic manganese steel in the as-cast condition is too brittle for normal use. As section thickness increases, the cooling rate within the molds decreases. This decreased cooling rate results in increased embrittlement due to carbon precipitation. In as-cast castings, the tensile strength ranges from approximately 50,000psi. (345MPa) to 70,000psi (483MPa) and displays elongation values below 1%. Heat treatment is used to strengthen and increase the mechanical properties of austenitic manganese steel. The normal heat-treatment method consists of solution annealing and rapid quenching in a water bath.

Considering the mechanical properties, it is difficult to imagine that a casting made from Hadfield steel could suffer failure in service. However, cases like this do happen, especially in heavy-section elements and result in enormous losses of material and long downtimes. The reason for such failures is usually attributed to insufficient ductility, resulting from sensitivity of austenitic manganese steel to section size, heat treatment, and the rapidity and effectiveness of quenching [21]. Poor quench compounded by large section size results in an unstable, in-homogenous structure, subject to transformation to martensite under increased loading and strain rate. This article investigates the cause of incessant failure of locally produced crusher jaws from Hadfield steel.

According to the recent marketing research data conducted by the foundry an estimate of 15,000metrictons of this component is being consumed annually in the local market. This is valued at about $30million. From this market demand, the foundry plant can only supply about 5% valued at $1.5million. This is because the crusher jaws produced locally failed prematurely. Hence, this study aimed at investigating the causes of failure.

Annual wine exports in the European Union is around 21.9 billion (Eurostat) with France being the main wine exporting country followed by Italy and Spain. The wine production process (Fig. 9.1) can be divided into the following stages (Sections 9.2.1.19.2.1.4).

Grape crushers or crusher destemmers are initially used via light processing to avoid seed fracture. Sulfur dioxide is added to the mass to prevent oxidation. At this stage, grape stems are produced as one of the waste streams of the winery process. The mash is pressed in continuous, pneumatic, or vertical basket presses leading to the separation of the pomace (marc) from the must. Microbial growth is suppressed via sulfur dioxide addition.

The solids present in the must are removed before or after fermentation for white wine production. Fining is achieved by combined processes including filtration, centrifugation, flocculation, physicochemical treatment (e.g., activated carbon, gelatin, etc.,), and stabilization to prevent turbidity formation (e.g., the use of bentonite, cold stabilization techniques, etc.). Clarification leads to the separation of sediments via racking.

Wine production is carried out at temperatures lower than 20C for 610 weeks in stainless steel bioreactors or vats with or without yeast inoculation (most frequently Saccharomyces cerevisiae). At the end of fermentation, the wine is cooled (4C5C) and subsequently aged in barrels or wooden vats. The sediment that is produced during fermentation and aging is called wine lees and constitutes one of the waste streams produced by wineries. Current uses of wine lees include tartrate production and ethanol distillation. Lees could also be processed via rotary vacuum filtration for recycling of the liquid fraction and composting of the solid fraction.

Wine is cooled rapidly to facilitate the precipitation of tartrate crystals. Fining is applied for the separation of suspended particles using bentonite and gelatin. Filtration is subsequently applied to remove any insoluble compounds. The wine is finally transferred into bottles.

The main differences in the red wine production process are skin maceration duration, fermentation temperature, and unit operation sequence. Whole crushed grapes are most frequently used in red wine fermentation, which is carried out at 22C28C to facilitate the extraction of color and flavors. The remaining skins, seeds, and grape solids after fermentation are pressed to recover wine with the correct proportions of tannins and other compounds necessary for the final wine product.

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