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sag mill ball mill

whats the difference of ball mill, sag mill, ag mill?

whats the difference of ball mill, sag mill, ag mill?

Attrition mill is a type of grinding mill by kinds of media to crush lump to powder-like substances. The impact can be rock on rock such as in an Autogenous Grinding (AG) mill, rock and a small ball charge (~10%), used in Semi Autogenous Grinding (SAG) mills, balls of various sizes in Ball Mills and less commonly these days, steel rods in Rod Mills.

These machines are used to grind or mix metals or raw materials for further processing. Various materials are placed into the mill drum and rotated with the mined materials that are to be crushed. The ball mill contains materials meant for crushing and grinding, such as balls of ceramic, small rocks, or balls made from stainless steel. The internal device of the ball mill grinds material into powder-like substances, and can rotate continuously for optimal grinding and refinery production.

A Sag mill is most often used in the mining fields, particularly in the mining of precious metals such as gold, copper, silver, and nickel. The sag mill serves in the line of industrial mining equipment designed to process, crush, separate, or locate precious metals from mined coal. The Sag mill is one of the large mining equipment pieces, and often requires mining equipment repair and maintenance. This is most often due to the large amount of heavy, residue bearing material being churned through the large drums of the grind mill. The Sag mill uses lifting plates along the interior of the drum, which lift material throughout the rotations, causing them to fall onto one another to promote crushing.

A ball mill has many steel or porcelain balls put in a drum to grind the feed between balls and between the balls and drum inner wall as the drum rotates. This mill is capable of grinding lumps whose size is tens of millimeters into a product tens of microns or even several microns. The ball mill can grind various ores and other materials with dry type and wet type. There are two kinds of ball mill, grate type and overfall type due to different ways of discharging material.

sag mills - metso outotec

sag mills - metso outotec

The range of mill sizes and versatile applications allow SAG milling to be accomplished with fewer lines than conventional set-ups. This, in turn, contributes to lower capital and maintenance costs for a SAG mill circuit.

SAG milling extends itself to many applications due to the range of mill sizes available. Theycan accomplish the same size reduction work as two or three stages of crushing and screening, a rod mill and some or all of the work done by a ball mill.

The Metso Outotec Qdx4TM mill drive provides the next step in the evolution of change in mill drive architecture, while allowing the system to be built with components that are within current manufacturing capabilities. We are essentially providing up to twice the power transmission of a conventional dual pinion drive.

Metso Outotec Premier horizontal grinding mills are customized and optimized grinding solutions built on advanced simulation tools and unmatched expertise. A Metso Outotec Premier horizontal grinding mill is able to meet any projects needs, even if it means creating something novel and unseen before.

Metso Outotec Select horizontal grinding mills are a pre-engineered range of class-leading horizontal grinding mills that were selected by utilizing our industry leading experience and expertise. With developing a pre-engineered package, this eliminates a lot of the time and costs usually spent in the engineering and selection stages.

difference between sag mill vs ball mill - mech4study

difference between sag mill vs ball mill - mech4study

In ancient time, the mills were operated with muscle power (by hands), water animals and wind. They were totally based on the mechanical energy by natural resources and living beings.There are many types of mills which are used in the grinding industries. Today we will discuss about two important mill, sag mill and ball mill.Sag Mill vs Ball Mill:Semi-Autogenous Grinding Mill SAG Mill:SAG is the abbreviated form for Semi-Autogenous Grinding Mill. This type of Mill is used for grinding large fragments into small pieces. Pieces are then used for further processing. The SAG mills are generally used in pre-processing of any type of material in grinding process. SAG mills are also known as first stage grinders. These heavy output SAG mills are usually powered by electricity. As requirements and needs in grinding field are enhanced. Improved SAG mills came in trend, which gives highly rated production. These mills are one of the most used and necessary equipment in grinding.Image SourceWorking:SAG mill make use of steel balls included with some large and hard rocks for grinding. These mills utilize the balls in making the large fragments of materials broken into pieces. The ball charge of a SAG mill is about 9% to 20%.This process takes place inside the large rotating drum of SAG mill which is filled with balls partially. Interior of the drum uses the lifting plates. These plates inside the drum are responsible for picking the grinding material up to fall down again throughout the rotations. Repeated collisions between the steel balls and raw materials (ore), divides the material into finer and smaller pieces. This whole process takes place inside the large drum of SAG mill.Application:SAG mills are very important equipment of industrial mining. SAG mills are commonly used in mining fields. From mined coal, it separates out some precious metals. In the mining, some precious metals found are like gold, silver, nickel, and copper etc.Ball Mills:Ball mill is a fine grinder. A horizontal or vertical rotating cylinder which is filled partially with the balls of ceramics, small rocks and balls made from stainless steel. The ball charge of a SAG mill is about 29% to 30%. By friction and influence of tumbling balls inside rotating cylinder grinds the raw material to the required fineness. The internal machinery of ball mill grinds the raw material into the powder-like material, And if extreme fineness and refinery are required then rotation go on continue.Image SourceApplicationIn the production of Portland cement ball, mills are used. Ball mills are used where the fine grinding of raw material is required. Lite versions (small versions) of ball mills are used in laboratories for quality assurance of sample grinding material. These mills also play a significant role in the mechanism of cold welding and in the production of alloys. It is also used to create pulverized coal in thermal power plant.S.No.SAG MILLBALL MILL1.SAG mill is the primary tool for grinding. SAG mill is used before the other mills.Ball mill is a secondary, and it is used after the SAG mill.2.SAG mill breaks the raw material into pieces for the further grinding.Ball mill is used to grind the pieces of raw material intopowder-like structures.3.It does not create pulverized form of matter.It creates pulverized form of matter.4.SAG mill used for separating out the precious metals from mined coalBall mill is used to the production of Portland cement.5.It uses about 10 20 % of metal balls into the cylinder.It uses about 30-40% metal ball.This is all about difference between sag mill vs ball mill. If you have any query regarding this article, ask by commenting. If you like this article, dont forget to share it on social networks. Subscribe our website for more informative articles. Thanks for reading it.

Sag Mill vs Ball Mill:Semi-Autogenous Grinding Mill SAG Mill:SAG is the abbreviated form for Semi-Autogenous Grinding Mill. This type of Mill is used for grinding large fragments into small pieces. Pieces are then used for further processing. The SAG mills are generally used in pre-processing of any type of material in grinding process. SAG mills are also known as first stage grinders. These heavy output SAG mills are usually powered by electricity. As requirements and needs in grinding field are enhanced. Improved SAG mills came in trend, which gives highly rated production. These mills are one of the most used and necessary equipment in grinding.Image SourceWorking:SAG mill make use of steel balls included with some large and hard rocks for grinding. These mills utilize the balls in making the large fragments of materials broken into pieces. The ball charge of a SAG mill is about 9% to 20%.This process takes place inside the large rotating drum of SAG mill which is filled with balls partially. Interior of the drum uses the lifting plates. These plates inside the drum are responsible for picking the grinding material up to fall down again throughout the rotations. Repeated collisions between the steel balls and raw materials (ore), divides the material into finer and smaller pieces. This whole process takes place inside the large drum of SAG mill.Application:SAG mills are very important equipment of industrial mining. SAG mills are commonly used in mining fields. From mined coal, it separates out some precious metals. In the mining, some precious metals found are like gold, silver, nickel, and copper etc.Ball Mills:Ball mill is a fine grinder. A horizontal or vertical rotating cylinder which is filled partially with the balls of ceramics, small rocks and balls made from stainless steel. The ball charge of a SAG mill is about 29% to 30%. By friction and influence of tumbling balls inside rotating cylinder grinds the raw material to the required fineness. The internal machinery of ball mill grinds the raw material into the powder-like material, And if extreme fineness and refinery are required then rotation go on continue.Image SourceApplicationIn the production of Portland cement ball, mills are used. Ball mills are used where the fine grinding of raw material is required. Lite versions (small versions) of ball mills are used in laboratories for quality assurance of sample grinding material. These mills also play a significant role in the mechanism of cold welding and in the production of alloys. It is also used to create pulverized coal in thermal power plant.S.No.SAG MILLBALL MILL1.SAG mill is the primary tool for grinding. SAG mill is used before the other mills.Ball mill is a secondary, and it is used after the SAG mill.2.SAG mill breaks the raw material into pieces for the further grinding.Ball mill is used to grind the pieces of raw material intopowder-like structures.3.It does not create pulverized form of matter.It creates pulverized form of matter.4.SAG mill used for separating out the precious metals from mined coalBall mill is used to the production of Portland cement.5.It uses about 10 20 % of metal balls into the cylinder.It uses about 30-40% metal ball.This is all about difference between sag mill vs ball mill. If you have any query regarding this article, ask by commenting. If you like this article, dont forget to share it on social networks. Subscribe our website for more informative articles. Thanks for reading it.

Image SourceWorking:SAG mill make use of steel balls included with some large and hard rocks for grinding. These mills utilize the balls in making the large fragments of materials broken into pieces. The ball charge of a SAG mill is about 9% to 20%.This process takes place inside the large rotating drum of SAG mill which is filled with balls partially. Interior of the drum uses the lifting plates. These plates inside the drum are responsible for picking the grinding material up to fall down again throughout the rotations. Repeated collisions between the steel balls and raw materials (ore), divides the material into finer and smaller pieces. This whole process takes place inside the large drum of SAG mill.Application:SAG mills are very important equipment of industrial mining. SAG mills are commonly used in mining fields. From mined coal, it separates out some precious metals. In the mining, some precious metals found are like gold, silver, nickel, and copper etc.Ball Mills:Ball mill is a fine grinder. A horizontal or vertical rotating cylinder which is filled partially with the balls of ceramics, small rocks and balls made from stainless steel. The ball charge of a SAG mill is about 29% to 30%. By friction and influence of tumbling balls inside rotating cylinder grinds the raw material to the required fineness. The internal machinery of ball mill grinds the raw material into the powder-like material, And if extreme fineness and refinery are required then rotation go on continue.Image SourceApplicationIn the production of Portland cement ball, mills are used. Ball mills are used where the fine grinding of raw material is required. Lite versions (small versions) of ball mills are used in laboratories for quality assurance of sample grinding material. These mills also play a significant role in the mechanism of cold welding and in the production of alloys. It is also used to create pulverized coal in thermal power plant.S.No.SAG MILLBALL MILL1.SAG mill is the primary tool for grinding. SAG mill is used before the other mills.Ball mill is a secondary, and it is used after the SAG mill.2.SAG mill breaks the raw material into pieces for the further grinding.Ball mill is used to grind the pieces of raw material intopowder-like structures.3.It does not create pulverized form of matter.It creates pulverized form of matter.4.SAG mill used for separating out the precious metals from mined coalBall mill is used to the production of Portland cement.5.It uses about 10 20 % of metal balls into the cylinder.It uses about 30-40% metal ball.This is all about difference between sag mill vs ball mill. If you have any query regarding this article, ask by commenting. If you like this article, dont forget to share it on social networks. Subscribe our website for more informative articles. Thanks for reading it.

SAG mill make use of steel balls included with some large and hard rocks for grinding. These mills utilize the balls in making the large fragments of materials broken into pieces. The ball charge of a SAG mill is about 9% to 20%.This process takes place inside the large rotating drum of SAG mill which is filled with balls partially. Interior of the drum uses the lifting plates. These plates inside the drum are responsible for picking the grinding material up to fall down again throughout the rotations. Repeated collisions between the steel balls and raw materials (ore), divides the material into finer and smaller pieces. This whole process takes place inside the large drum of SAG mill.Application:SAG mills are very important equipment of industrial mining. SAG mills are commonly used in mining fields. From mined coal, it separates out some precious metals. In the mining, some precious metals found are like gold, silver, nickel, and copper etc.Ball Mills:Ball mill is a fine grinder. A horizontal or vertical rotating cylinder which is filled partially with the balls of ceramics, small rocks and balls made from stainless steel. The ball charge of a SAG mill is about 29% to 30%. By friction and influence of tumbling balls inside rotating cylinder grinds the raw material to the required fineness. The internal machinery of ball mill grinds the raw material into the powder-like material, And if extreme fineness and refinery are required then rotation go on continue.Image SourceApplicationIn the production of Portland cement ball, mills are used. Ball mills are used where the fine grinding of raw material is required. Lite versions (small versions) of ball mills are used in laboratories for quality assurance of sample grinding material. These mills also play a significant role in the mechanism of cold welding and in the production of alloys. It is also used to create pulverized coal in thermal power plant.S.No.SAG MILLBALL MILL1.SAG mill is the primary tool for grinding. SAG mill is used before the other mills.Ball mill is a secondary, and it is used after the SAG mill.2.SAG mill breaks the raw material into pieces for the further grinding.Ball mill is used to grind the pieces of raw material intopowder-like structures.3.It does not create pulverized form of matter.It creates pulverized form of matter.4.SAG mill used for separating out the precious metals from mined coalBall mill is used to the production of Portland cement.5.It uses about 10 20 % of metal balls into the cylinder.It uses about 30-40% metal ball.This is all about difference between sag mill vs ball mill. If you have any query regarding this article, ask by commenting. If you like this article, dont forget to share it on social networks. Subscribe our website for more informative articles. Thanks for reading it.

Application:SAG mills are very important equipment of industrial mining. SAG mills are commonly used in mining fields. From mined coal, it separates out some precious metals. In the mining, some precious metals found are like gold, silver, nickel, and copper etc.Ball Mills:Ball mill is a fine grinder. A horizontal or vertical rotating cylinder which is filled partially with the balls of ceramics, small rocks and balls made from stainless steel. The ball charge of a SAG mill is about 29% to 30%. By friction and influence of tumbling balls inside rotating cylinder grinds the raw material to the required fineness. The internal machinery of ball mill grinds the raw material into the powder-like material, And if extreme fineness and refinery are required then rotation go on continue.Image SourceApplicationIn the production of Portland cement ball, mills are used. Ball mills are used where the fine grinding of raw material is required. Lite versions (small versions) of ball mills are used in laboratories for quality assurance of sample grinding material. These mills also play a significant role in the mechanism of cold welding and in the production of alloys. It is also used to create pulverized coal in thermal power plant.S.No.SAG MILLBALL MILL1.SAG mill is the primary tool for grinding. SAG mill is used before the other mills.Ball mill is a secondary, and it is used after the SAG mill.2.SAG mill breaks the raw material into pieces for the further grinding.Ball mill is used to grind the pieces of raw material intopowder-like structures.3.It does not create pulverized form of matter.It creates pulverized form of matter.4.SAG mill used for separating out the precious metals from mined coalBall mill is used to the production of Portland cement.5.It uses about 10 20 % of metal balls into the cylinder.It uses about 30-40% metal ball.This is all about difference between sag mill vs ball mill. If you have any query regarding this article, ask by commenting. If you like this article, dont forget to share it on social networks. Subscribe our website for more informative articles. Thanks for reading it.

SAG mills are very important equipment of industrial mining. SAG mills are commonly used in mining fields. From mined coal, it separates out some precious metals. In the mining, some precious metals found are like gold, silver, nickel, and copper etc.Ball Mills:Ball mill is a fine grinder. A horizontal or vertical rotating cylinder which is filled partially with the balls of ceramics, small rocks and balls made from stainless steel. The ball charge of a SAG mill is about 29% to 30%. By friction and influence of tumbling balls inside rotating cylinder grinds the raw material to the required fineness. The internal machinery of ball mill grinds the raw material into the powder-like material, And if extreme fineness and refinery are required then rotation go on continue.Image SourceApplicationIn the production of Portland cement ball, mills are used. Ball mills are used where the fine grinding of raw material is required. Lite versions (small versions) of ball mills are used in laboratories for quality assurance of sample grinding material. These mills also play a significant role in the mechanism of cold welding and in the production of alloys. It is also used to create pulverized coal in thermal power plant.S.No.SAG MILLBALL MILL1.SAG mill is the primary tool for grinding. SAG mill is used before the other mills.Ball mill is a secondary, and it is used after the SAG mill.2.SAG mill breaks the raw material into pieces for the further grinding.Ball mill is used to grind the pieces of raw material intopowder-like structures.3.It does not create pulverized form of matter.It creates pulverized form of matter.4.SAG mill used for separating out the precious metals from mined coalBall mill is used to the production of Portland cement.5.It uses about 10 20 % of metal balls into the cylinder.It uses about 30-40% metal ball.This is all about difference between sag mill vs ball mill. If you have any query regarding this article, ask by commenting. If you like this article, dont forget to share it on social networks. Subscribe our website for more informative articles. Thanks for reading it.

Ball Mills:Ball mill is a fine grinder. A horizontal or vertical rotating cylinder which is filled partially with the balls of ceramics, small rocks and balls made from stainless steel. The ball charge of a SAG mill is about 29% to 30%. By friction and influence of tumbling balls inside rotating cylinder grinds the raw material to the required fineness. The internal machinery of ball mill grinds the raw material into the powder-like material, And if extreme fineness and refinery are required then rotation go on continue.Image SourceApplicationIn the production of Portland cement ball, mills are used. Ball mills are used where the fine grinding of raw material is required. Lite versions (small versions) of ball mills are used in laboratories for quality assurance of sample grinding material. These mills also play a significant role in the mechanism of cold welding and in the production of alloys. It is also used to create pulverized coal in thermal power plant.S.No.SAG MILLBALL MILL1.SAG mill is the primary tool for grinding. SAG mill is used before the other mills.Ball mill is a secondary, and it is used after the SAG mill.2.SAG mill breaks the raw material into pieces for the further grinding.Ball mill is used to grind the pieces of raw material intopowder-like structures.3.It does not create pulverized form of matter.It creates pulverized form of matter.4.SAG mill used for separating out the precious metals from mined coalBall mill is used to the production of Portland cement.5.It uses about 10 20 % of metal balls into the cylinder.It uses about 30-40% metal ball.This is all about difference between sag mill vs ball mill. If you have any query regarding this article, ask by commenting. If you like this article, dont forget to share it on social networks. Subscribe our website for more informative articles. Thanks for reading it.

Image SourceApplicationIn the production of Portland cement ball, mills are used. Ball mills are used where the fine grinding of raw material is required. Lite versions (small versions) of ball mills are used in laboratories for quality assurance of sample grinding material. These mills also play a significant role in the mechanism of cold welding and in the production of alloys. It is also used to create pulverized coal in thermal power plant.S.No.SAG MILLBALL MILL1.SAG mill is the primary tool for grinding. SAG mill is used before the other mills.Ball mill is a secondary, and it is used after the SAG mill.2.SAG mill breaks the raw material into pieces for the further grinding.Ball mill is used to grind the pieces of raw material intopowder-like structures.3.It does not create pulverized form of matter.It creates pulverized form of matter.4.SAG mill used for separating out the precious metals from mined coalBall mill is used to the production of Portland cement.5.It uses about 10 20 % of metal balls into the cylinder.It uses about 30-40% metal ball.This is all about difference between sag mill vs ball mill. If you have any query regarding this article, ask by commenting. If you like this article, dont forget to share it on social networks. Subscribe our website for more informative articles. Thanks for reading it.

In the production of Portland cement ball, mills are used. Ball mills are used where the fine grinding of raw material is required. Lite versions (small versions) of ball mills are used in laboratories for quality assurance of sample grinding material. These mills also play a significant role in the mechanism of cold welding and in the production of alloys. It is also used to create pulverized coal in thermal power plant.S.No.SAG MILLBALL MILL1.SAG mill is the primary tool for grinding. SAG mill is used before the other mills.Ball mill is a secondary, and it is used after the SAG mill.2.SAG mill breaks the raw material into pieces for the further grinding.Ball mill is used to grind the pieces of raw material intopowder-like structures.3.It does not create pulverized form of matter.It creates pulverized form of matter.4.SAG mill used for separating out the precious metals from mined coalBall mill is used to the production of Portland cement.5.It uses about 10 20 % of metal balls into the cylinder.It uses about 30-40% metal ball.This is all about difference between sag mill vs ball mill. If you have any query regarding this article, ask by commenting. If you like this article, dont forget to share it on social networks. Subscribe our website for more informative articles. Thanks for reading it.

S.No.SAG MILLBALL MILL1.SAG mill is the primary tool for grinding. SAG mill is used before the other mills.Ball mill is a secondary, and it is used after the SAG mill.2.SAG mill breaks the raw material into pieces for the further grinding.Ball mill is used to grind the pieces of raw material intopowder-like structures.3.It does not create pulverized form of matter.It creates pulverized form of matter.4.SAG mill used for separating out the precious metals from mined coalBall mill is used to the production of Portland cement.5.It uses about 10 20 % of metal balls into the cylinder.It uses about 30-40% metal ball.This is all about difference between sag mill vs ball mill. If you have any query regarding this article, ask by commenting. If you like this article, dont forget to share it on social networks. Subscribe our website for more informative articles. Thanks for reading it.

autogenous and semi-autogenous mills | flsmidth

autogenous and semi-autogenous mills | flsmidth

Since the early 1980s, we have been designing and manufacturing Semi-Autogenous (SAG) and Autogenous (AG) Grinding Mills under the Fuller-Traylor brand. Semi-autogenous grinding uses a minimal ball charge in the range of 6-15% while autogenous grinding uses ore only.

SAG and AG Mills operate by lifting ore/grinding media and dropping it on the operating bed of the mill charge. High impacts from lifting ore and media promote impact breakage which is the primary mechanism for size reduction in the mill. Via the use of sophisticated instruments and software, we closely monitor the mill impact location to boost the grinding efficiency of your operation.

The mills can be operated in open circuit, feeding downstream secondary grinding, or operated in closed circuit as single stage mills generating a finer product size. Single stage SAG Mills are very beneficial in reducing CAPEX for plants with a staged throughput approach. When future tonnage is to be increased, the SAG Mill can feed downstream ball milling to boost capacity.

Fuller-Traylor SAG/AG Mills range in size from 4.3m through 12.2m in diameter with powers as high as 28,000 kW. Our team of product engineers continually improves SAG/AG Mill designs in order to provide the most robust, safe, and efficient grinding mills available.

Your operation requires a SAG or AG Mill that is flexible, durable, cost-efficient and tailored to your specific needs and use cases. That's why we offer a full product range from 4.3m to 12.2m in diameter with multiple options for configuration of designs to suit your operation:

FLSmidth provides sustainable productivity to the global mining and cement industries. We deliver market-leading engineering, equipment and service solutions that enable our customers to improve performance, drive down costs and reduce environmental impact. Our operations span the globe and we are close to 10,200 employees, present in more than 60 countries. In 2020, FLSmidth generated revenue of DKK 16.4 billion. MissionZero is our sustainability ambition towards zero emissions in mining and cement by 2030.

ag & sag mill for mineral processing wet & aerofall sag mill for sale

ag & sag mill for mineral processing wet & aerofall sag mill for sale

Applications: It is commonly used in the mineral processing industry and ferrous and non-ferrous metal ore and nonmetal ore processing plants. It can also be used in cement plant, refractory plant, fertilizer plant and smelting plant.

AG mill (autogenous mill) is a medium-free mineral grinding equipment. The raw ore and the coarsely crushed ore are directly fed into the AG mill. No other medium is involved in grinding. Only the impact between the ore is used for self-grinding. The ore larger than 100mm in the AG mill plays the role of grinding medium. When the AG mill operation is started, the ore is directly self grinding.

What is a SAG mill?The structure of the SAG mill (semi-automatic grinding mill) and the AG mill (autogenous grinding mill)are exactly the same, except that a certain proportion of auxiliary grinding media such as steel balls or steel rods are added as needed. During the process of the AG mill operation, some ores with diameters greater than 20mm but less than 80mm are not easily ground. In this case, the SAG mill design can do that. In general, the SAG mill manufacturers will control the addition amount of medium such as steel ball at 2-8%, so that the capacity of semi SAG mill to process materials can be increased by 10-30%. The SAG mill liners wear will increase by 15% due to the impact of medium such as steel ball during the SAG mill operation.

How does a SAG mill or AG mill work? The working principle of the SAG mill and AG mill is basically the same as theball mill machine, but the barrel diameter of the SAG mill and AG mill is larger. The raw ore enters the AG mill through the feedinginlet, and the material is brought to a high place under the rotation of the barrel and then falls. During this process, materials collide and rub against each other. The thrown material falls on the AG mill liners, and is rebounded to the other side of the barrel wall due to impact, and then collides with the falling material again. The impact from different directions makes the materials of different sizes evenly distributed in the barrel. Due to the action of inertia, centrifugal force and frictional force, the material makes reciprocating grinding movement in the AG mill. In the SAG mill, the materials themselves collide with each other and at the same time, they also collide with the grinding media such as steel balls for grinding.

During the dry type SAG mill operation, the materials that have been ground to meet the requirements are discharged from the SAG mill with the airflow of the fan, and then enter the corresponding classification equipment for classification. In the process of discharging, the coarse-grained materials return to the SAG mill with the help of self weight for regrinding.

In the design of wet type SAG mill, the materials that meet the grinding requirements will be sent out of the barrel by the force of water, and the unqualified large-particle materials are left in the SAG mill due to gravity.

Conventional grinding mill machine(ball mill, rod mill, etc.) and SAG mill (AG mill) have different requirements for the properties of the materials to be ground. Therefore, when selecting the grinding mill machine in the mineral processing process, it is necessary to select the appropriate equipment after material test and analysis and careful comparison. The following are several principles that should be followed when selecting mining equipment.

As a ball mills supplier with 22 years of experience in the grinding industry, we can provide customers with types of ball mill, vertical mill, rod mill and AG/SAG mill for grinding in a variety of industries and materials.

what's the difference between sag mill and ball mill - jxsc machine

what's the difference between sag mill and ball mill - jxsc machine

A mill is a grinder used to grind and blend solid or hard materials into smaller pieces by means of shear, impact and compression methods. Grinding mill machine is an essential part of many industrial processes, there are mainly five types of mills to cover more than 90% materials size-reduction applications.

Do you the difference between the ball mill, rod mills, SAG mill, tube mill, pebble mill? In the previous article, I made a comparison of ball mill and rod mill. Today, we will learn about the difference between SAG mill vs ball mill.

AG/SAG is short for autogenous mill and semi-autogenous mill, it combines with two functions of crushing and grinding, uses the ground material itself as the grinding media, through the mutual impact and grinding action to gradually reduce the material size. SAG mill is usually used to grind large pieces into small pieces, especially for the pre-processing of grinding circuits, thus also known as primary stage grinding machine. Based on the high throughput and coarse grind, AG mills produce coarse grinds often classify mill discharge with screens and trommel. SAG mills grinding media includes some large and hard rocks, filled rate of 9% 20%. SAG mill grind ores through impact, attrition, abrasion forces. In practice, for a given ore and equal processing conditions, the AG milling has a finer grind than SAG mills.

The working principle of the self-grinding machine is basically the same as the ball mill, the biggest difference is that the sag grinding machine uses the crushed material inside the cylinder as the grinding medium, the material constantly impacts and grinding to gradually pulverize. Sometimes, in order to improve the processing capacity of the mill, a small amount of steel balls be added appropriately, usually occupying 2-3% of the volume of the mill (that is semi-autogenous grinding).

High capacity Ability to grind multiple types of ore in various circuit configurations, reduces the complexity of maintenance and coordination. Compared with the traditional tumbling mill, the autogenous mill reduces the consumption of lining plates and grinding media, thus have a lower operation cost. The self-grinding machine can grind the material to 0.074mm in one time, and its content accounts for 20% ~ 50% of the total amount of the product. Grinding ratio can reach 4000 ~ 5000, more than ten times higher than ball, rod mill.

Ball mills are fine grinders, have horizontal ball mill and vertical ball mill, their cylinders are partially filled with steel balls, manganese balls, or ceramic balls. The material is ground to the required fineness by rotating the cylinder causing friction and impact. The internal machinery of the ball mill grinds the material into powder and continues to rotate if extremely high precision and precision is required.

The ball mill can be applied in the cement production plants, mineral processing plants and where the fine grinding of raw material is required. From the volume, the ball mill divide into industrial ball mill and laboratory use the small ball mill, sample grinding test. In addition, these mills also play an important role in cold welding, alloy production, and thermal power plant power production.

The biggest characteristic of the sag mill is that the crushing ratio is large. The particle size of the materials to be ground is 300 ~ 400mm, sometimes even larger, and the minimum particle size of the materials to be discharged can reach 0.1 mm. The calculation shows that the crushing ratio can reach 3000 ~ 4000, while the ball mills crushing ratio is smaller. The feed size is usually between 20-30mm and the product size is 0-3mm.

Both the autogenous grinding mill and the ball mill feed parts are welded with groove and embedded inner wear-resistant lining plate. As the sag mill does not contain grinding medium, the abrasion and impact on the equipment are relatively small.

The feed of the ball mill contains grinding balls. In order to effectively reduce the direct impact of materials on the ball mill feed bushing and improve the service life of the ball mill feed bushing, the feeding point of the groove in the feeding part of the ball mill must be as close to the side of the mill barrel as possible. And because the ball mill feed grain size is larger, ball mill feeding groove must have a larger slope and height, so that feed smooth.

Since the power of the autogenous tumbling mill is relatively small, it is appropriate to choose dynamic and static pressure bearing. The ball bearing liner is made of lead-based bearing alloy, and the back of the bearing is formed with a waist drum to form a contact centering structure, with the advantages of flexible movement. The bearing housing is lubricated by high pressure during start-up and stop-up, and the oil film is formed by static pressure. The journal is lifted up to prevent dry friction on the sliding surface, and the starting energy moment is reduced. The bearing lining is provided with a snake-shaped cooling water pipe, which can supply cooling water when necessary to reduce the temperature of the bearing bush. The cooling water pipe is made of red copper which has certain corrosion resistance.

Ball mill power is relatively large, the appropriate choice of hydrostatic sliding bearing. The main bearing bush is lined with babbitt alloy bush, each bush has two high-pressure oil chambers, high-pressure oil has been supplied to the oil chamber before and during the operation of the mill, the high-pressure oil enters the oil chamber through the shunting motor, and the static pressure oil film is compensated automatically to ensure the same oil film thickness To provide a continuous static pressure oil film for mill operation, to ensure that the journal and the bearing Bush are completely out of contact, thus greatly reducing the mill start-up load, and can reduce the impact on the mill transmission part, but also can avoid the abrasion of the bearing Bush, the service life of the bearing Bush is prolonged. The pressure indication of the high pressure oil circuit can be used to reflect the load of the mill indirectly. When the mill stops running, the high pressure oil will float the Journal, and the Journal will stop gradually in the bush, so that the Bush will not be abraded. Each main bearing is equipped with two temperature probe, dynamic monitoring of the bearing Bush temperature, when the temperature is greater than the specified temperature value, it can automatically alarm and stop grinding. In order to compensate for the change of the mill length due to temperature, there is a gap between the hollow journal at the feeding end and the bearing Bush width, which allows the journal to move axially on the bearing Bush. The two ends of the main bearing are sealed in an annular way and filled with grease through the lubricating oil pipe to prevent the leakage of the lubricating oil and the entry of dust.

The end cover of the autogenous mill is made of steel plate and welded into one body; the structure is simple, but the rigidity and strength are low; the liner of the autogenous mill is made of high manganese steel.

The end cover and the hollow shaft can be made into an integral or split type according to the actual situation of the project. No matter the integral or split type structure, the end cover and the hollow shaft are all made of Casting After rough machining, the key parts are detected by ultrasonic, and after finishing, the surface is detected by magnetic particle. The surface of the hollow shaft journal is Polished after machining. The end cover and the cylinder body are all connected by high-strength bolts. Strict process measures to control the machining accuracy of the joint surface stop, to ensure reliable connection and the concentricity of the two end journal after final assembly. According to the actual situation of the project, the cylinder can be made as a whole or divided, with a flanged connection and stop positioning. All welds are penetration welds, and all welds are inspected by ultrasonic nondestructive testing After welding, the whole Shell is returned to the furnace for tempering stress relief treatment, and after heat treatment, the shell surface is shot-peened. The lining plate of the ball mill is usually made of alloy material.

The transmission part comprises a gear and a gear, a gear housing, a gear housing and an accessory thereof. The big gear of the transmission part of the self-grinding machine fits on the hollow shaft of the discharge material, which is smaller in size, but the seal of the gear cover is not good, and the ore slurry easily enters the hollow shaft of the discharge material, causing the hollow shaft to wear.

The big gear of the ball mill fits on the mill shell, the size is bigger, the big gear is divided into half structure, the radial and axial run-out of the big gear are controlled within the national standard, the aging treatment is up to the standard, and the stress and deformation after processing are prevented. The big gear seal adopts the radial seal and the reinforced big gear shield. It is welded and manufactured in the workshop. The geometric size is controlled, the deformation is prevented and the sealing effect is ensured. The small gear transmission device adopts the cast iron base, the bearing base and the bearing cap are processed at the same time to reduce the vibration in operation. Large and small gear lubrication: The use of spray lubrication device timing quantitative forced spray lubrication, automatic control, no manual operation. The gear cover is welded by profile steel and high-quality steel plate. In order to enhance the stiffness of the gear cover, the finite element analysis is carried out, and the supporting structure is added in the weak part according to the analysis results.

The self-mill adopts the self-return device to realize the discharge of the mill. The self-returning device is located in the revolving part of the mill, and the material forms a self-circulation in the revolving part of the mill through the self-returning device, discharging the qualified material from the mill, leading the unqualified material back into the revolving part to participate in the grinding operation.

The ball mill adopts a discharge screen similar to the ball mill, and the function of blocking the internal medium of the overflow ball mill is accomplished inside the rotary part of the ball mill. The discharge screen is only responsible for forcing out a small amount of the medium that overflows into the discharge screen through the internal welding reverse spiral, to achieve forced discharge mill.

The slow drive consists of a brake motor, a coupling, a planetary reducer and a claw-type clutch. The device is connected to a pinion shaft and is used for mill maintenance and replacement of liners. In addition, after the mill is shut down for a long time, the slow-speed transmission device before starting the main motor can eliminate the eccentric load of the steel ball, loosen the consolidation of the steel ball and materials, ensure safe start, avoid overloading of the air clutch, and play a protective role. The slow-speed transmission device can realize the point-to-point reverse in the electronic control design. When connecting the main motor drive, the claw-type Clutch automatically disengages, the maintenance personnel should pay attention to the safety.

The slow drive device of the ball mill is provided with a rack and pinion structure, and the operating handle is moved to the side away from the cylinder body The utility model not only reduces the labor intensity but also ensures the safety of the operators.

whats the difference between ball mill, rod mill and sag mill? - ftm machinery

whats the difference between ball mill, rod mill and sag mill? - ftm machinery

There are several classification methods for grinding machines. Among them, the more commonly used one is to divide them according to different grinding media: whose media is metal balls is called the ball mill, steel rods the rod mill and the ore itself the autogenous mill (AG mill). In order to improve the processing capacity of the AG mill and reduce power consumption, a small number of steel balls can be added to form a semi-autogenous mill (SAG mill). This article introduces the differences between ball mills, rod mills and SAG mills.

The biggest feature of SAG mills is the large crushing ratio, which can crush and grind the materials to 0.074mm at one time, accounting for more than 20% to 40% of the total product. The crushing ratio can reach 4000 ~ 5000, which is more than ten times higher than that of the ball mill machine and rod grinding machine.

The discharging shapes of different mills will be different. As shown in the following figure, the length and flatness value of rod mill discharge are higher, while that of the ball mill is the opposite. The roundness and width value of ball mill discharge is higher, and rod mill is in contrast. That is, the discharge of the ball mill is more round and the rod mill longer.

Besides, the diameter of the hollow shaft at both ends of the barrel of the SAG mill is large and the length is short. The diameter is large for its large feeding size. Generally, the inner diameter of the hollow shaft is about 2 times of the larger ore feeding size, which is about 0.2-0.3 times of the inner diameter of the ball mill. The short length is for the higher speed of the flow of ore.

The internal structures of the ball mill, rod mill and SAG are different. The following table analyzes the feeding part, bearing part, rotary part, liner shape, transmission part and slow transmission device:

Rod mill: The rod mill does not use grid plates to discharge ore. There are only two types: overflow type and open-mouth type. The diameter of the hollow shaft at the discharge end is generally larger than that of a ball mill of the same specification.

sag mill ball sizing - grinding & classification circuits - metallurgist & mineral processing engineer

sag mill ball sizing - grinding & classification circuits - metallurgist & mineral processing engineer

Are you designing the circuit OR optimizing an existing circuit? This will impact maximum ball and total (rock + ball) charge and available power. As well, it impacts feed size and in turn new ball size.Changes in ore characteristics may change the optimum. Geomet knowledge of orebody will be useful in working to an optimum as ore changes.Is the mill objective well defined - i.e., maximize metal production, maximize recovery, etc.? This I the key to establishing the 'ideal'.

We are optimizing an existing circuit. It is for "Great Dyke" ROM ore. BWI is 16.5kWh/t. The F100 is 250mm with a F80 of 175mm. P80 is 250 micron. The objective of the mill is max throughput, maximum liner life and of course max recovery. They have a total charge of 25% (Ore and balls). Installed power is 5,2MW.

In general, the higher the ball charge the higher the throughput (and fine feed helps as well). Of course, you need a bigger ball mill.But, high ball loads mean higher ball consumption in the circuit.Many ores can be amenable to autogenous milling, but getting it right without piloting can be tricky.

Similar story to the above but as the mill is closed with a classifier and targets a fine final product, the key is getting the mill load size distribution correct. Too many big balls will lead to high circulating loads.

As you are speaking about Formula and calculation, we have to refer to Modeling and identification of parameters used in the model.I think it is better also taking a look at selection function (depending to mill characteristics) and breakage function (depending to ore characteristics) to forecast a model being able to evaluate mill performance/throughput.Basically, Ball Size and Ball Charge are special parameters because those depend to both Breakage Function and Selection Function.

I think the philosophy of changing AG to SAG was possibility to decrease the feed size by using steel balls (higher density/lower filling volume) instead. So, the main role of Ball inside SAG is providing enough breaking mass to support Impact, Pressure, Nipping and Abrasion phenomenon which all are effective in rock breakage.If we need for example more impact to break the particles, it is better to optimize liner/shell plates instead of increasing ball charge.

An important question one must ask is assuming the ideal ball charge is known "How do you measure the actual ball charge accurately enough?" Remember if you cannot measure you cannot control. The same principle applies here, too. You must also be able to measure accurately the total mill charge (rock + ore). Once these are measured you can control them within their upper and lower control limits. If you have a good quality load cell installed on your mill and it is well calibrated then you have a good idea of what the total charge is. This is the parameter that changes constantly during operation of the mill. And it is mainly due to the change in ore charge. In the short term (day or two) ball charge should not change too much. As for the ball charge once measured accurately, you need to establish a ball accounting / balance system to account for the balls worn / broken and new balls added to the mill. The idea is to keep the ball charge to a set point and add correct amount of balls into your mill. The best and I believe the ideal method, of finding out what your ball charge is to carry out a grind out of the mill charge and get inside the mill afterwards and measure the ball charge. Make sure this is backed up by the mill power measurements. Grind out is easy if you have a VSD on your mill. However even with a fixed speed mill it is very possible. Considering the size of your mill this should be a very easy task to do. You must be careful to do grind out, if you have not done before, not to damage mill liners. To minimize your the risk of liner breakage choose to do it when you are going to do a full mill liner change out. Once you measure the ball charge and measure the total charges then you need to target an appropriate ball to rock ratio for a chosen mill throughput rate. With high aspect ratio SAG mills total charge to ball charge ratio should be greater than 2 (up to 2.5) for a coarse mill feed (say F80 > 110 mm). If the mill feed size is fine, say 50 mm or 30 mm, then you are looking at a total charge to ball charge ratio of about 1.5-1.6. These are guidelines and may fluctuate a bit depending on the specifics of your system. I am also assuming your top up ball size is optimized and you are using balls with correct hardness. Once you know what your parameters are you need to be able to adjust them withchanging conditions, such as ore hardness, and feed size. Assumption here again, is the change in feed size is due to wear in crusher liners, OSS, and what feeders under your stockpile (outside or middle ones) you are using to feed your mill. Finally, you should be able to check the ball charge using any mill shutdown as an opportunity. This time you do not need to do full mill grind out. You can do partial grind out and use an appropriate power model to help you estimate the ball charge. There are very good power models being used by the practitioners in the field.

If you go to the mill design specification, you should have the maximum design volumetric loading or the mill supplier can supply you with that information. Typical SAG mill charge contains between 8% and 12% ball charge.Just looking at your F80, the feed is very coarse and I would think of reducing the F80 to increase the amount of material that is easy to grind - i.e. increase material below 50mm.

I have come across optimum conditions for SAG Mill charge. 10% steel, 26% load and 75% critical speed. Corresponding B factor is approx 3.48 for siliceous ore. The technical paper "Choosing a SAG Mill to Achieve Design Performance" by John Starkey.

Something that you might be interested in is the "Mineral Slicer" system. This system was specifically designed to give you an accurate and responsive mill fill level indication. It also shows you where your charge is impacting on the mill shell very accurately. The problem with the conventional loadcell systems is changes in load density.

I commissioned and operated a mill with a 36' SAG. Your ore specs are a little hard, coarse feed and fine discharge which looks like a cyclone overflow discharge size from a ball mill. Do you have a ball mill(s) in line with the SAG?

With what I've seen, ball size is as important as, maybe even more important than charge percent in a case where you are looking for increases in all areas. Mill density, speed and sound can all help you affect wear and throughput properties too.

Very good comment pointing out that "you can't control what you don't measure". This applies particularly to charge volume where very low percentage changes can have a big impact on overall mill performance.

The manual way of measuring charge volume used by practitioners is to go inside the mill and count the number of lifter bars exposed above the charge so as to estimate volume when comparing it to liner assembly plans etc. Other people use a tape measure or disto to measure a few distances to make that same calculation. This can easily introduce an error of several % when compared to the actual charge volume in the mill. There is an alternative to this manual estimation by using the charge volume output of MillMapper (http://is.gd/Az4Z6h) which is derived from high resolution 3D liner surface data collected in 5 minutes by a remotely inserted instrument (no confined space entry).

Measurement of net ball volume in a SAG or ball mill can also be done by completing a grind out and re-measuring the volume with MillMapper. These volumes are accurate to the nearest 1% and account for change in internal mill volume due to liner wear and also account for the volume taken up by the feed and discharge cone which are not accounted for by the manual estimates I mentioned before.

If the 2 charge volume measurements are done (crash stop and grind out), the ore to ball ratio is available. Other related MillMapper output is ball size distribution measurements to identify what the ball wear rates are and control what the ball addition rates should be.

Characterisation of the ore type behaviour in SAG mill is a key to proper design and optimisation of your SAG circuit. If you have done proper test work and assumed your Work index is as you provided above quickly I can estimate that your SAG throughput is around 517 t/h and if the total % of mill charge is 25 % of the total mill volume, then you can assume the following assumption .i.e. mass proportion of grinding body to ore be 15% steel balls and 10 % ore (1.5:1) this means 1ton/h of ore requires 1.5 tons/h steel ball, therefore you need about 1.5*517 ( 776 tons/h of steel balls) with mass flow 517 tons/h of ore in the mill to achieve what you stated from your test work.Otherwise you can use some simulator from different provider like JKSimet.

Note: When conducting any comminution test work select the appropriate test work method (grind ability test or breakage test) in order to get correct information for optimisation or simulate your mill or circuit, otherwise you wont get correct operating conditions for your circuit. For example for SAG mill you can use SMC,SAG mill test, JK Drop weight test or SAG power index.

I was curious about your calculations therefore decided to follow up with some questions: to reiterate what you are proposing we need to put 1.5 t/h of steel balls for every 1 t/h of ore into the SAG mill. Is this correct? If what you are saying is correct then you have 517 t/h or ore and 776 t/h of steel media on the SAG mill new feed conveyor (for a total of 1,293 t/h, steel media + ore combined). I would love to sell grinding media to this operation, wherever it is. Were these figures meant to be components of mill charge weight for rock and steel media, in which case we should not be using the units of t/h, rather just the unit of tonnes? Another question I have is how did you arrive at component masses from % volumetric filling ratios, unless you can measure the mill charge weight? All contributors so far are referring to % filling by volume not mass. If you have a good quality and well calibrated load cell (or another instrument, which can do the same job) you can measure mill charge mass. But the main question still remains. How do you know what % of charge is rock, what % is steel media even if you are able to measure the total charge. There is more than one possibility. There are ways to measure mill weight on-line & real time, backed-up by off line calibration measurements.

I share the comments of Paul Staples about this case. In case of fine/non-competent ore operations it is difficult to maintain a stable load inside the mill due to high breakage rate of coarse particles. As the larger feed rocks disappear quickly, the apparent charge density approaches values close to just balls plus slurry (-5 ton/m3); that is, conventional grinding. In this case is common to use high ball charges to allow to draw the installed power, instead of increasing the mill speed (if you have a VSD) to avoid damaging the liners. In the other hand a BWi of 16,5 not necessarily implies that your ore is hard. DWT Axb parameters or SPI provide more information about ore competency to SAG grinding than BWi.

In your case, given the information provided, I recommend to start with a "benchmark" ball charge level (10-12%) and check for the mill response in terms of load and power drawn. If you want to optimize, then a different package of test work and simulation should be deployed to understand how the ore-mill system will respond.

I meant tonnes and not tonnes/hour otherwise it does not make sense to put every hour 776t of steel ball.The weight of the steel balls used in the calculation is not correct; however the calculation of the % mill filling depends on many factors such as the number of lifters in the mill which is not a case in this discussion. The concept used in the calculation is correct but should be related with the volume of mill charge.

According to you, the % of the mill charge is already exist (25 %). My assumption is , about 60 % of the steel(grinding bodies) and 40 % ore rock are distributed within 25 % of the mil charge (total charge) , which means if you have 1cubic meter ore you need to put 1.5 cubic meter of the steel(grinding bodies) to achieve the specified product size with a given specific comminution energy.

The question how the space between steel ball and ore/rock particle is filled in the mill depends on the size distribution of the feed material and steel ball .For the optimal performance a factor of 10 - 25 times the size of ore can be used to establish the size distribution of the steel ball.

To answer the question directly, there is no such thing as an ideal ball charge as it is ore dependent. For example, in North America iron ore is typically ground in AG mills (ball charge of 0%), some base metals such as lead-zinc have low ball charges (just a few %) and some like copper and gold need a much higher ball charge (up to 20%). However, it is not necessarily mineral dependent. For example, Aitik is a copper mine that uses AG mills. It all depends on the ore characteristics (competency, hardness), feed size distribution (blasting practice, pre-crushing) and the economics.

I agree with you but can we discuss how do we define the hardness of materials? I am aware that work index is one of indices used to define the hardness of material, A and b breakage parameters are also used to define the hardness of the materials.

To me it seems that it is still very difficult to exactly define the hardness materials instead what we normally used to say it is hard is just comparative indices. I give one example suppose you have pumice rock which is very light material but if subjected to breakage process it can be hard to break. How do we define such a phenomenon?

I am also aware that with physics of particle we can measure the strength of materials by measuring the energy absorbed by particle when impacted or compressed by measuring the strain rate and applied forces. The difficult with this is how do we measure the internal energy of the particle precisely?

The way I would describe it is that there are two components to a particle: the matrix and the "grains". The matrix can be softer than the grains, the usual case, so it is easier to crush than it is to grind (as we get closer to grain size the particles are harder). If the matrix is very soft then we say the ore is not competent (crumbles easily down to grain size). The opposite where the matrix is harder than the grains does occur but is less common. In this case crushing is harder than grinding. So, when we characterize the ore we need to measure both the matrix and grain strength. This is what we do when we use the drop test and ball mill work index (some also use the crushing work index, rod mill work index and ball mill work index). There is no single index that can give the entire picture.

The selection of equipment and operation e.g. ball load depends on those indices and economics. For example, an ore can be amenable to both AG and SAG milling but the equipment dimensions for the same throughput would be different. The choice should then be based on the total cost of ownership (capital plus operating costs).

I agree with the breakage theory. However, I think only breakage kinetics are necessary for determining the liberation of material. As initial data, capacity, BWI and PSD (F80, feed top size, and P80-desired size) of material are enough for successfully determining.

In addition, very important question, whether is about of crushing or grinding. If it is about grinding, more characteristics of material are important. I will further determine the grinding charge/media, ball top size (if we speaking about ball mill) etc.On my opinion, any measurement of internal energy isn't important in practice.

The word 'hardness' is a source of confusion, and needs to be avoided.I prefer propensity to break, breakage resistance etc.A PhD student, George Leigh, I advised wrote a number of pages (about 20) on clear definitions and discussion of terms. I regard this is the best description I am aware of.

Failure to understand the difference between hardness and breakage resistance is why some incorrectly use hardness tests (indent tests) to assess propensity to break.The unimaginative descriptors: A and B, are parameters used for breakage tests and are fundamentally empirical measures determined from actually breaking particles (now primarily using a drop weight test). This is reasonable.

The validity of this approach to fines is questionable. Therefore more detailed analysis requires further experimentation for fines particles.As explained there are other breakage tests available, and many are based on actual breakage.I do not think there has been any serious review of all the current methods with a view to strength/weaknesses.

This involves crushing and grinding kinetics where we can perceive how much energy is needed for size reduction of particles to the final coarseness (the final coarseness is determined according to process treatment such as: flotation, hydrometallurgy, physical treatment etc.)

So I tried to explain that everything is about power consumption, because the comminution process that is alpha and omega of each process requires the maximum power consumption beside other consumption of spare parts.According to above stated, I think any measurement of internal energy of particles is not necessary.

All the recent discussions are fine in the context of ore hardness, breakage & grinding kinetics, etc. But the key question we are discussing in this discussion is that a system has been given to us. Which means that a plant has been built, the mill is operating, and operators come to work daily, busy with their best efforts to meet their production targets? They need to be given best targets to run a specific mill(s) to achieve optimum production targets. These targets may be grind size, throughput rate, recovery, etcOne of the target parameter(s) to run a mill is the ball charge. How and at what level(s) do you set it? Do you need to change it as the feed ore parameters change? If so how? I do not believe we have answered this key question.

There is no doubting that there is no ideal ball charge for all systems. However there has got to be one for a given system (even) for a given time period. The plant has been built, equipment is installed and even the type and size of grinding media is fixed (even for a short period). On the other hand feed ore parameters (size, texture, hardness, etc) may change more frequently as compared to equipment parameters. A plant metallurgists job is to match these on a daily/weekly/ monthly basis (among other issues to attend). How can we assist the plant met in this respect?

One important issue: "Work Index is not Hardness", but is the energy we need to reduce from F80 to P80. Also I was reading about the ball recharge policy...for this is very important to know the Abrasion Index of the material, the F80,pH and Diam of the mill so at this way we can determine how much steel we have to add to maintain the same level of steel into the mill.SAG is a very complex system and more difficult is to determine the real level of charge and rocks, usually we perform crush stop to measure total level and grind-out to try to measure the grinding media level.

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