rolls crusher| eriez lab equipment
MACSALAB Rolls Crusher size '0' and '1' are designed for secondary reduction after jaw crushing.
These smooth roll crushers will rapidly reduce coal, ore and hard rock from maximum feed size of 20mm to fine sand. Rugged construction, easy to operate, each roll has its own separate drive.
rc3000 rolls crusher - prolab systems
A dependable and sturdy mid-range secondary crusher designed for rapid, controlled size reduction of various sample types. The RC3000 is the larger of the two Essa model rolls crushers and can be configured to suit a range of applications.
perfecting the performance of secondary crushers | e & mj
The role of the secondary crushing circuit, like every other stage in mineral processing flowsheets, is to prepare the feed material for the next stage of the process. The equipment selected depends on the characteristics of the ore and the desired end-product. However, in most mineral processing applications, the ore is relatively abrasive, and this lends itself to breakage via compression.
Cone crushing often provides the lowest operating cost and the most reliable method of production, although some operations with softer or less abrasive ores can use secondary sizers, horizontal shaft impactors, hammer mills, or other machines, each of which have varying benefits and drawbacks.
Cone crushers are fed with pre-screened material from the primary crusher (usually a jaw crusher or primary gyratory), and the secondary crusher should always, if possible, have a scalped feed. Ideally, the deck on the scalping screen should have a cut point equal to the closed side setting (CSS) of the crusher.
The feed size to a secondary crusher is typically in the range of 50 mm to 250 mm (up to 300 mm). If the capacity is higher, the acceptable feed size gets larger. After crushing, the product is in the range of 0-60 mm (75 mm) diameter.
For mineral processing, secondary crushing can be used to prepare feed for downstream processes or to go directly to leaching. Downstream processes typically include tertiary crushing or primary grinding, with the tertiary crushers often being cone crushers or high-pressure grinding rolls (HPGRs), and the primary grinding mills being autogenous (AG) semiautogenous (SAG), or even rod or ball mills.
In most applications, the secondary crusher has a primary target of maximizing the reduction ratio and reducing the top size and F80 for the downstream equipment. However, in some applications, the target can be also to avoid over-crushing in heap leaching applications, for example.
In primary-secondary HPGR circuits, the secondary circuit can be closed with a screen to provide a consistent top size and gradation for optimizing HPGR performance. Closed circuited secondary crushing can also bring benefits if cones are used in tertiary crushing, too. However, the cost of the additional equipment is not always welcome.
Frank Drescher, head of the crushing technologies product line at thyssenkrupp Mining Technologies, explained: A typical aim [for secondary crushing] in mining applications is to reach a grain size distribution with 100% of the material smaller than a defined maximum size. In some applications an additional requirement is to produce a minimum number of fines. A crusher is not able to directly produce a specific grain size, so the discharge always contains a wide range from fines up to a maximum size, plus oversize. The solution is a crushing circuit with an arrangement of a crusher, a subsequent screen and a conveyor to return the oversize to the crusher.
For example: If the following process requires 100% less than 80 mm without a high quantity of fines, the crusher can produce 90% less than 80 mm. After screening out the 0-80 mm fraction, the oversize that is more than 80 mm material is rejected to the crusher and crushed again. To crush the feed directly to 100% less than 80 mm would require a bigger machine, more energy and the amount of fines would significantly increase.
Tero Onnela, director for engineering and RTD in the Crusher Wears business line for Metso Outotecs Consumables business area, explained: Its common that these conditions are not realized at the start of plant operation, if ever. Since the feed and ore properties will naturally fluctuate over time, its best to analyze and optimize the crushing chamber designs, operating setpoints, and equipment configuration regularly as the feed properties change over time.
Jeremy Polcyn, product sales support manager, in Metso Outotecs Services business area, added: Careful attention should be paid to the required product size, most commonly the P80, and the incoming feed size. The online grading analysis technology available today, for example, Metso Outotecs VisioRock can monitor these conditions and make changes to crusher parameters with the assistance of artificial intelligence.
When it comes to throughput, crushing circuits should always be assessed holistically, as changes to the operating parameters and throughput in one area will naturally affect the next. Trying to operate in a consistent manner can help to pinpoint where tweaks can be made most effectively and can indicate where higher profile liner upgrades may be utilized.
Drescher said: On the one hand, you have to consider which machine represents a bottleneck and thus limits
the flow of the production line. But it also makes sense to look at a line as a whole. If the entire crushing process is distributed over several machines arranged in sequence, then its possible
to change the influence of individual crushers on the entire process by altering their settings. This then has an influence on the wear of the individual crushers and the particle size distribution in the final product.
For example, in a simple arrangement, if the primary crusher produces a high quantity of fines, then more material is screened out and less material is fed to the secondary crusher, thus reducing wear. Various factors can influence the process, for example, the feed material might change due to natural fluctuations in crushability, hardness or moisture content. The product of individual crushing stages can also change due to wear of the crushing tools. In order to react to this, its important to regularly check the wear level of individual crushing stages as well as throughout the entire process.
Ekkhart Matthies, global applications director at Weir Minerals, said: The most important thing to remember when assessing a crusher is think about the bigger picture. No crusher works in a vacuum. Changes to one crusher often impact the equipment working alongside it and the stages that follow it.
While its important to routinely check on and evaluate critical pieces of machinery, refinements should be made with an application-wide view of the process or in partnership with application specialists.
Due to the arrival of Industrial Internet of Things (IIOT) and remote monitoring, it has never been easier to regularly check a crushers performance, Matthies added. Today, operators can monitor and analyze multiple pieces of equipment in real-time from the comfort of their desk. This may tempt users to become focused on machine-by-machine improvements. However, emphasis should always be placed upon holistic, site-wide optimization. Our Synertrex IIOT platform offers users the ability to monitor the performance and health of Weir process equipment across their flowsheet providing valuable insight to inform their wider optimization initiatives.
Bill Malone, global product director for crushers at FLSmidth, agreed: Its very important to monitor the settings and output from each crusher. And with modern control systems, this is possible. This ensures that a constant, or at least more normal product, is presented to the screens, which ensures stability in the system and therefore more consistent process results.
Normally, the frequency of monitoring will depend on the wear characteristics of the material and how often corrections have to be made to compensate for this. So, for a high-wear material, possibly once or twice per shift and, for a low-wear material, perhaps once or twice per week. If you have modern control systems installed, they will take care of this function automatically.
When a complete circuit is running in a consistent manner, varying output results are the most obvious indicator for when change is necessary. Secondary applications are dependent on the primary crusher to provide a targeted feed size, so fluctuations in the run-of-mine (ROM) ore can contribute considerably.
Changes in gradation (i.e., feed getting coarser or finer), hardness, moisture or, if the work index increases or decreases, can trigger adjustments in screen panels as well as potentially crusher mantles, bowls and concaves to compensate.
Mine planning and preparation can be a good indicator to prepare for change, explained Lucas Steiner, vice president for Metso Outotecs Mining Crusher Products business line. If its known that ore hardness or abrasiveness is going to change, preparations can be made and watched for in an effort to combat and maintain circuit performance.
There are also key indicators that change may be necessary in both the secondary crusher and in downstream tertiary crushers. These include symptoms such as sporadic or continuous force or power overloads, poor efficiency or utilization of available crushing work, short crushing chamber life, or performance inconsistency during the life of the crushing chamber.
Changes to major operational figures such as tonnage, power usage and the life of wear parts are indications that there may have been a change to the crushers operating conditions, Matthies said. Monitoring a crushers tonnages is the quickest and most noticeable sign your crusher is not performing optimally. Is your crusher discharge in line with your expectations?
By power usage we refer to how much electrical energy is being drawn from the motor, which is a subtler indication than tonnages. The motors amp reading can indicate if your crusher is suffering from lack of power, or if other factors are forcing your crusher to work harder to achieve its expected results.
Wear parts can also reveal a lot about a crushers condition. If wear patterns appear to have worn unusually or the life of the part has shortened, these suggest there are opportunities to alter the crushers settings and further improve its performance.
To optimize the performance of individual machines, the best course of action is to maintain operation of the crusher within three critical controlled variables: volumetric capacity, power draw and crushing force.
One of the best places to start on the optimization of individual machines is with manipulated variables like the CSS or speed. Sometimes controlled variables such as power draw can be used to manipulate crusher CSS and, lately online product gradation analyzers have been used to control crushers, aiming to stabilize their performance. There are also additional disturbance variables like crushing chamber wear and feed size.
To a certain extent, these disturbances can be compensated by manipulated variables when a sophisticated feedback control system is used, Onnela said. It can find the best operating parameters for the crusher and crushing chamber. Further step changes can be achieved by designing an application-specific crushing chamber with the aim of giving the best performance throughout its life within the limits the crusher sets.
A basic prerequisite for an analysis is to know the particle size distribution and the mass flow rates of the crusher feed and discharge. By monitoring these parameters, the crushing process can be influenced by adjusting crushing gaps, speed, etc.
Timely replacement of crushing tools is also an important point to ensure the efficiency of the crushing process as it reduces downtime and assembly costs, Richter said. The shape of the crushing tools has an influence on the product, crushing forces, energy consumption and wear, as well as utilization rate and service life. They can therefore contribute significantly to the optimization of the crushing process.
Wear parts and crusher upgrades play a highly critical role in crusher optimization, and the materials used have the potential to increase the service life and thus the time during which a machine operates optimally.
Steiner explained: Optimization of both crushing chamber profiles and wear-part materials can have a tremendous impact on machine performance, including the throughput capacity, reduction ratio, performance consistency and availability by improving the liner life. Also, crusher energy efficiency can be maximized by designing an application-specific crushing chamber. In some cases, reducing energy requirements by tens of percent.
Matthies agreed: Wear parts are, in my opinion, one of the most important factors when optimizing a crusher. Using the correct liner configuration, operators can increase the tonnage and quality of end-product delivered by their equipment. Every feed curve has an optimum liner configuration. The design of a crushers wear liners hugely impacts the performance of the crusher and its uptime.
Operators should also regularly check the crushers feed curve and the correlation between the motor power, chamber pressure and the tonnage. If the tonnage, motor power or crushing pressure is not what you would expect, there is room to optimize your crusher performance and the lifetime of its wear parts.
Manganese has been used in crushers for decades because of its work-hardening properties. As rocks meet the outer layer of the manganese particles, their exterior layer toughens. This results in a material that is harder to wear down during operation and can handle higher impact blows compared to other alloys.
Its a common misconception that more manganese increases the robustness of the wear part, Matthies explained. A manganese alloy will typically contain carbon, chrome and manganese elements. An increase in any of these ingredients will require adjustments to the wider recipe. Without considering the application and the wider formula, increases in manganese can result in weaker or less reliable parts.
Matthies said his team worked with an iron-ore mine in Russia supplying custom-engineered ESCO crusher liners, manufactured using premium alloys and an improved wear profile designed for that specific application. After the first set of ESCO liners were installed in the Trio TP600 crusher, the customer benefitted from four more days of wear life, a 16% increase in the bowl liner and a 20% increase in mantle utilization.
Sven Hoerschkes, head of GPLM, construction and feeders at FLSmidth, reported similar with his own customers: In some cases, weve delivered 10% extra capacity and 30%-40% longer liner lifetimes by optimizing their profiles and the material composition, he said. Its important to also check the screen performance too as this will affect the crusher significantly.
Steiner explained: There are numerous cases across different crusher models where we have optimized equipment and/or provided upgrades to get the most out of the machine and in cases secondary crushers. From MP1000 to MP1250 upgrades that have seen a 25% increase in throughput, to upgrades of Symons crushers that can decrease downtime and increase availability by as much as 25%.
In 2020, Weir Minerals replaced a competitor cone crusher within an iron-ore mine in China with a Trio TP900. The incumbent cone crusher was suffering from lack of availability and excessive downtime.
Circuit optimization should start with identifying the deficiencies and knowing the goals surrounding throughput/tonnage, material reduction, resource consumption (energy, water, etc.), machine reliability, machine availability and total cost of ownership. Identifying this gives information about where adjustments need to be made and, on what scale, from minor setting tweaks to larger scale upgrades.
Drescher explained: Its necessary to know and understand all the parameters (feed material, feed granulation, product granulation, mass flows), and the crushers must be adjusted so that circuit loads help improve the product and overall performance, not reduce the output.
For example, the primary crusher product size needs to be adjusted to the secondary crusher feed size or the AG/SAG feed size, and also the secondary unit product size needs to be adjusted to the mill or HPGR feed size, which needs to be adjusted according to concentrator specifications. The same logic needs to be applied for throughput and feed rates. Inaccurate adjustments usually lead to overall reduced plant technoeconomic efficiency, especially if its an integrated plant.
This task should be performed at the early stages of a project because, once the steel or civil works are finished and equipment is installed, the available space sets up clear limitations for new or additional equipment installations. Arrangement changes can also carry extraordinary costs.
Circuit performance should be monitored throughout the life of the plant, and mines should conduct a full range of lab tests and run a complete plant simulation when looking to make significant changes. Every person interviewed for this article recommended engaging an expert at this stage.
I understand that some operations may have their own process engineers. However, I would always recommend that original equipment suppliers and associated process specialists are consulted when approaching any optimization project, Matthies said.
ROM characteristics provide operators with information on the product hardness, feed curve, abrasiveness essentially predicting the flow sheet, equipment selection and possible equipment changes over time.
Because of this, circuit optimization requires a macro viewpoint of all equipment and targets within a flowsheet, along with a micro-view of crushers and other equipment on an individual basis. This can be hard for a mining company to achieve alone, and the utilization of experts at this stage can provide objective analysis and recommendations.
When it comes to detailed specifics on the crushers themselves, the highest level of support comes from people who are knowledgeable in the design and operation of the equipment along with wider experiences, Onnela said. In our Chamber Optimization Program, Metso Outotec uses in-house developed simulation tools and laboratory equipment to study detailed parameters and understand the crushing circuit, and how changes also influence the other equipment.
Improvements require measurements, and the capability to detect improvement potential from the measured data. Applying the latest digital technologies is adding an exciting new dimension to bettering the performance and lifetime of critical equipment such as crushers, and the ability to process big data is enabling valuable new performance and health-related services.
Onnela explained: Measuring inherent variable crushing conditions requires longer-term data to make high-quality conclusions and profitable decisions. In this work, digital technologies are a key enabler.
The ability to connect to crushers remotely allows access to huge amounts of accurate factual data. Supporting this, sensor development is also close to the level where we can talk about creating online digital twins of crushers, allowing scenario simulations and clear value-added action proposals based on data collected.
Sensor technology also diminishes the need for sampling data manually in conditions where people can face health and safety risks. Online sensing also gives a better overall view of the crusher performance condition compared to a sporadic sampling campaign.
The team at Weir recently supplies custom-engineered ESCO crusher liners to an iron-ore mine in Russia. The customer gains four more days of wear life with a 16% increase in the bowl liner life and a 20% increase in mantle utilization. (Photo: Weir Minerals)
Digital technologies are essentially bridging the data gap between end-users and experts, allowing issues to be identified before they arise and preventative measures to be taken where necessary. With the rapid expansion of data collection and storage, many OEMs are now being asked to upgrade existing equipment so that performance data can be collected, quickly analyzed and reviewed regularly, leading to better performance and reliability.
Having full equipment data insights is particularly important for the mining and aggregates industries given that equipment is typically dispersed over large areas. Being digitally connected enables operators and maintenance staff to monitor the performance and health of their equipment quickly from the
safety of their office.
With the array of sensors and optical devices now available, real-time monitoring and, more importantly, instantaneous reaction to the results obtained, allows us to operate the crusher under its most efficient conditions, Malone concluded. We also now have a better understanding of the predictability of component life, which allows us to proactively plan maintenance and changeout schedules and prevent major time loss due to failure. This all leads to a quicker and safer way to work with a lot less downtime.
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roller crusher - all industrial manufacturers - videos
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roll crusher manufacturer & design | williams crusher
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Williams is an industry-leading roll crusher manufacturer and designer for high-quality roll crushers with desirable benefits such as high throughput capacity, minimal maintenance requirements, low cost per ton operation, and more. Learn more about our heavy-duty roll crushers below or contact our sales engineers to talk about your application needs.
A combination of impact, shear, and compression are the forces necessary to perform the crushing and size reduction in a Williams roll crusher. The material enters the roll crusher machine and is impacted by the roll as it rotates. Then, as the material is pulled between a crushing plate or rolls, shear and compression forces act upon the material.
The rolls act as flywheels, contributing to smooth operation and efficient use of power. Roll crushing surfaces operate at a fixed distance apart, as opposed to the continually changing distances in a jaw or cone crusher. This creates a more consistent product size.Roll crushers are low in profile and relatively easy to install. They can be fed with a minimum of headroom, or even choke fed. Adjustments are simple andinternal parts are readily accessible.
Typical feed materials for Williams Roll Crushers include: bauxite, cement clinker, chalk, cinders, clay, coal, glass, gypsum, limestone, burnt lime, rock salt, sandstone, shale, sulfur ore, sea shells, and sewer sludge clinker. Single Roll Crushers, sometimes called lump breakers, can also be used for breaking frozen or agglomerated materials.
Williams Roll Crushers are used in a variety of industries such as, mining recycling, and power industries. Interested in learning more about the Williams Roll Crushers for your specific industry and application? Contact our sales engineers!
Choosing between a single roll crusher and double roll crusher depends upon the type of feed material, feed size, product size desired, and consistency of both feed and product.
Both single and double roll crushers operate most efficiently with dry, friable materials. However, single roll machines have been widely and successfully used for the reduction of moist clays. They also have been long used as primary and secondary coal crushers, both at mine sites and power plants, where a minimum of fines is desired.
Williams single roll crushers reduce via a combination of impact, shear, and compression. The rolls are always toothed in patterns suited to the feed material. Single Roll Crushers generally handle larger feed sizes at higher reduction ratios in higher capacities and are particularly well suited to be used as lump breakers.
Double roll crushers reduce primarily through compression, although some shear is obtained with toothed rolls. Rolls for these crushers come in combinations of smooth, corrugated, and toothed designs. Double Roll Crushers produce a finer product at lower reduction ratios and capacities.
Oversized, heat-treated, alloy steel shafts plus self-aligning, roller-type bearings assure long life and maximum use of power. Jackshafts for control of roller speed are standard on double roll crushers, optional on larger Single Roll Crushers.
Heavy-duty compression springs permit movement of floating roll to pass tramp metal and other uncrushables, avoiding overload and damage. Smaller Single Roll Crushers are equipped with a shear pin release.
Faces Tooth patterns and corrugations to fit feed material; abrasion-resistant alloy; easily replaceable.
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Williams Single Roll Crushers are also available in a 15 inch (381mm) diameter dust-tight version for applications such where it would be expensive to have dust collection air.
Already well known for rugged construction, low profile, high reduction ratio, and economical cost, Williams Dust-Tight Ash Single Roll Crushers also have easy access to the rotor for maintenance.
These dust-tight roll crushers are perfect for applications such as crushing ash, limestone, coal, or glass.
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p&q university lesson 7- crushing & secondary breaking : pit & quarry
In the quarry, crushing is handled in four potential stages: primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary. The reduction of aggregate is spread over these stages to better control the product size and quality, while minimizing waste.
The primary stage was once viewed merely as a means to further reduce stone following the blast or excavation prior to secondary crushing. Today, primary crushing is viewed as more important within the balance of production and proper sizing needs. The size and type of the primary crusher should be coordinated with the type of stone, drilling and blasting patterns, and the size of the loading machine. Most operations will use a gyratory, jaw or impact crusher for primary crushing.
In the secondary and subsequent stages, the stone is further reduced and refined for proper size and shape, mostly based on specifications to produce concrete and asphalt. Between stages, screens with two or three decks separate the material that already is the proper size. Most secondary crushers are cone crushers or horizontal-shaft impact crushers. Tertiary and quaternary crushers are usually cone crushers, although some applications can call for vertical-shaft impact crushers in these stages.
A gyratory crusher uses a mantle that gyrates, or rotates, within a concave bowl. As the mantle makes contact with the bowl during gyration, it creates compressive force, which fractures the rock. The gyratory crusher is mainly used in rock that is abrasive and/or has high compressive strength. Gyratory crushers often are built into a cavity in the ground to aid in the loading process, as large haul trucks can access the hopper directly.
Jaw crushers are also compression crushers that allow stone into an opening at the top of the crusher, between two jaws. One jaw is stationary while the other is moveable. The gap between the jaws becomes narrower farther down into the crusher. As the moveable jaw pushes against the stone in the chamber, the stone is fractured and reduced, moving down the chamber to the opening at the bottom.
The reduction ratio for a jaw crusher is typically 6-to-1, although it can be as high as 8-to-1. Jaw crushers can process shot rock and gravel. They can work with a range of stone from softer rock, such as limestone, to harder granite or basalt.
As the name implies, the horizontal-shaft impact (HSI) crusher has a shaft that runs horizontally through the crushing chamber, with a rotor that turns hammers or blow bars. It uses the high-speed impacting force of the turning blow bars hitting and throwing the stone to break the rock. It also uses the secondary force of the stone hitting the aprons (liners) in the chamber, as well as stone hitting stone.
With impact crushing, the stone breaks along its natural cleavage lines, resulting in a more cubical product, which is desirable for many of todays specifications. HSI crushers can be primary or secondary crushers. In the primary stage, HSIs are better suited for softer rock, such as limestone, and less abrasive stone. In the secondary stage, the HSI can process more abrasive and harder stone.
Cone crushers are similar to gyratory crushers in that they have a mantle that rotates within a bowl, but the chamber is not as steep. They are compression crushers that generally provide reduction ratios of 6-to-1 to 4-to-1. Cone crushers are used in secondary, tertiary and quaternary stages.
With proper choke-feed, cone-speed and reduction-ratio settings, cone crushers will efficiently produce material that is high quality and cubical in nature. In secondary stages, a standard-head cone is usually specified. A short-head cone is typically used in tertiary and quaternary stages. Cone crushers can crush stone of medium to very hard compressive strength as well as abrasive stone.
The vertical shaft impact crusher (or VSI) has a rotating shaft that runs vertically through the crushing chamber. In a standard configuration, the VSIs shaft is outfitted with wear-resistant shoes that catch and throw the feed stone against anvils that line the outside of the crushing chamber. The force of the impact, from the stone striking the shoes and anvils, fractures it along its natural fault lines.
VSIs also can be configured to use the rotor as a means of throwing the rock against other rock lining the outside of the chamber through centrifugal force. Known as autogenous crushing, the action of stone striking stone fractures the material. In shoe-and-anvil configurations, VSIs are suitable for medium to very hard stone that is not very abrasive. Autogenous VSIs are suitable for stone of any hardness and abrasion factor.
Roll crushers are a compression-type reduction crusher with a long history of success in a broad range of applications. The crushing chamber is formed by massive drums, revolving toward one another. The gap between the drums is adjustable, and the outer surface of the drum is composed of heavy manganese steel castings known as roll shells that are available with either a smooth or corrugated crushing surface.
Double roll crushers offer up to a 3-to-1 reduction ratio in some applications depending on the characteristics of the material. Triple roll crushers offer up to a 6-to-1 reduction. As a compressive crusher, the roll crusher is well suited for extremely hard and abrasive materials. Automatic welders are available to maintain the roll shell surface and minimize labor expense and wear costs.
These are rugged, dependable crushers, but not as productive as cone crushers with respect to volume. However, roll crushers provide very close product distribution and are excellent for chip stone, particularly when avoiding fines.
Hammermills are similar to impact crushers in the upper chamber where the hammer impacts the in-feed of material. The difference is that the rotor of a hammermill carries a number of swing type or pivoting hammers. Hammermills also incorporate a grate circle in the lower chamber of the crusher. Grates are available in a variety of configurations. The product must pass through the grate circle as it exits the machine, insuring controlled product sizing.
Hammermills crush or pulverize materials that have low abrasion. The rotor speed, hammer type and grate configuration can be converted for different applications. They can be used in a variety of applications, including primary and secondary reduction of aggregates, as well as numerous industrial applications.
Virgin or natural stone processing uses a multi-stage crushing and screening process for producing defined aggregate sizes from large lumps of rock. Such classified final fractions are used as aggregates for concrete, asphalt base, binder and surface course layers in road construction, as well as in building construction. The rock is quarried by means of drilling and blasting. There are then two options for processing the bulk material after it has been reduced to feeding size of the crushing plant: mobile or stationary plants.
When stone is processed in mobile primary crushing plants, excavators or wheel loaders feed the rock into the crusher that is set up at the quarry face, gravel pit or in a recycling yard or demolition site. The crushed material is then either sent to the secondary/tertiary processing stage via stacking conveyors or transported by trucks. Some mobile crushers have an independent secondary screen mounted on the unit, effectively replacing a standalone screen.
The higher the compressive strength of rock, the higher also is its quality, which plays an important role particularly in road construction. A materials compressive strength is delineated into hard, medium-hard or soft rock, which also determines the crushing techniques used for processing to obtain the desired particle sizes.
The materials quality is influenced significantly by particle shape. The more cubic-shaped the individual aggregate particles are, the better the resulting particle interlock. Final grains of pronounced cubic shape are achieved by using several crushing stages. A cubicity showing an edge ratio of better than 1-to-3 is typical of high-quality final aggregate.
As the earths natural resources are becoming ever more scarce, recycling is becoming ever more important. In the building industry, recycling and reuse of demolition concrete or reclaimed asphalt pavement help to reduce the requirements for primary raw materials. Mobile impact and jaw plants are uniquely positioned to produce high-quality reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) and recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) for reuse in pavements, road bases, fill and foundations.
Use of RAP and RCA is growing dramatically as road agencies accept them more and more in their specs. But because RAP and RCA come from a variety of sources, to be specified for use by most departments of transportation they must be processed or fractionated and characterized into an engineered, value-added product. RCA or RAP are very commonly crushed and screened to usable sizes often by impact crushers and stored in blended stockpiles that can be characterized by lab testing for use in engineered applications.
Impact crushers are increasingly used for crushing recycling material. Impact crushers are capable of producing mineral aggregate mixes in one single crushing stage in a closed-cycle operation, making them particularly cost-effective. Different crusher units can alternatively be combined to process recycling material. A highly efficient method of processing recycling material combines crushing, screening and separation of metals. To produce an end product of even higher quality, the additional steps of washing to remove light materials such as plastics or paper by air classification and via electromagnetic metal separator are incorporated into the recycling process.
Mobile impact crushers with integrated secondary screens or without integrated screen used in conjunction with an independent mobile screen are ideal for producing large volumes of processed, fractionated RAP or RCA on a relatively small footprint in the plant. Mobile impactors are especially suited for RAP because they break up chunks of asphalt pavement or agglomerations of RAP, rather than downsize the aggregate gradation. Compression-type crushers such as jaws and cones can clog due to packing (caking) of RAP when the RAP is warm or wet.
Contaminants such as soil are part of processing demolition concrete. Mobile impact and jaw crushers when possessing integrated, independent prescreens removing dirt and fines before they ever enter the crushing circuit reduce equipment wear, save fuel, and with some customers, create a salable fill byproduct. A lined, heavy-duty vibrating feeder below the crusher can eliminate belt wear from rebar or dowel or tie bar damage. If present beneath the crusher, this deflector plate can keep tramp metal from degrading the conveyor belt. That way, the feeder below the crusher not the belt absorbs impact of rebar dropping through the crusher.
These mobile jaw and impact crushers may feature a diesel and electric-drive option. In this configuration, the crusher is directly diesel-driven, with the conveyor troughs, belts and prescreen electric-driven via power from the diesel generator. This concept not only reduces diesel fuel consumption, but also results in significantly reduced exhaust emissions and noise levels. This permits extremely efficient operation with low fuel consumption, allowing optimal loading of the crusher.
Jaw crushers operate according to the principle of pressure crushing. The raw feed is crushed in the wedge-shaped pit created between the fixed crusher jaw, and the crusher jaw articulated on an eccentric shaft. The feed material is crushed by the elliptic course of movement and transported downwards. This occurs until the material is smaller than the set crushing size.
Jaw crushers can be used in a wide range of applications. In the weight class up to 77 tons (70 metric tons), they can be used for both virgin stone and recycled concrete and asphalt aggregates processing as a classic primary crusher for natural stone with an active double-deck grizzly, or as a recycling crusher with vibrating discharge chute and the crusher outlet and magnetic separator.
Output for mobile jaw crushers ranges from 100 to 1,500 tph depending on the model size and consistency of the feed material. While larger mobile crushers produce more aggregate faster, transport weights and dimensions may limit how easily the crusher can be shipped long distances. Mobile jaw crushers can have either a vibratory feeder with integrated grizzly, or a vibrating feeder with an independent, double-deck, heavy-duty prescreen. Either way, wear in the system is reduced because medium and smaller gradations bypass the crusher, with an increase in end-product quality because a side-discharge conveyor removes fines. A bypass flap may provide easy diversion of the material flow, eliminating the need for a blind deck.
Jaw crusher units with extra-long, articulated crusher jaws prevent coarse material from blocking while moving all mounting elements of the crusher jaw from the wear area. A more even material flow may be affected if the transfer from the prescreen or the feeder trough is designed so material simply tilts into the crushing jaw.
Mobile jaw and impact crushers alike can be controlled by one operator using a handheld remote. The remote also can be used to move or relocate the crusher within a plant. In other words, the crusher can be run by one worker in the cab of an excavator or loader as he feeds material into the crusher. If he sees something deleterious going into the hopper, he can stop the crusher.
Impact crushing is totally different from pressure crushing. In impact crushing, feed material is picked up by a fast moving rotor, greatly accelerated and smashed against an impact plate (impact toggle). From there, it falls back within range of the rotor. The crushed material is broken again and again until it can pass through the gap between the rotor and impact toggle.
A correctly configured mobile jaw or impact crusher will enhance material flow through the plant and optimize productivity. New-design mobile jaw and impact crushers incorporate a highly efficient flow concept, which eliminates all restriction to the flow of the material throughout the entire plant. With this continuous-feed system, each step the material goes through in the plant is wider than the width of the one before it, eliminating choke or wear points.
For example, a grizzly feeder can be wider than the hopper, and the crusher inlet wider than the feeder. The discharge chute under the crusher is 4 inches wider than the inner width of the crusher, and the subsequent discharge belt is another 4 inches wider than the discharge chute. This configuration permits rapid flow of crushed material through the crusher. Also, performance can be significantly increased if the conveying frequencies of the feeder trough and the prescreen are adapted independently to the level of the crusher, permitting a more equal loading of the crushing area. This flow concept keeps a choke feed to the crusher, eliminating stops/starts of the feed system, which improves production, material shape and wear.
Users are focused on cost, the environment, availability, versatility and, above all, the quality of the end product. Simple crushing is a relatively easy process. But crushing material so that the particle size, distribution and cleanliness meet the high standards for concrete and asphalt requires effective primary screening, intelligent control for optimal loading, an adjustable crusher with high drive output, and a screening unit with oversize return feed.
This starts with continuous flow of material to the crusher through a variable-speed control feeder. Having hopper walls that hydraulically fold integrated into the chassis makes for quick erection of hopper sides on mobile units. If available, a fully independent prescreen for either jaw or impact models offers the ability to effectively prescreen material prior to crushing this allows for product to be sized prior to crushing, as opposed to using a conventional vibrating grizzly. This has the added value of increasing production, reducing wear costs and decreasing fuel consumption.
This independent double-deck vibrating screen affects primary screening of fines and contaminated material via a top-deck interchangeable punched sheet or grizzly, bottom-deck wire mesh or rubber blank. Discharged material might be conveyed either to the left or to the right for ease of positioning. The independent double-deck vibrating prescreen improves flow of material to the crusher, reducing blockages and feed surges.
Modern electrical systems will include effective guards against dust and moisture through double-protective housings, vibration isolation and an overpressure system in which higher air pressure in the electrical box keeps dust out. Simple and logical control of all functions via touch panel, simple error diagnostics by text indicator and remote maintenance system all are things to look for. For crushing demolition concrete, look for a high-performance electro- or permanent magnet with maximum discharge capacity, and hydraulic lifting and lowering function by means of radio remote control.
For impact crushers, a fully hydraulic crusher gap setting with automatic zero-point calculation can speed daily set-up. Featured only on certain mobile impact crushers, a fully hydraulic adjustment capability of the crushing gap permits greater plant uptime, while improving quality of end product.
Not only can the crushing gap be completely adjusted via the touch panel electronic control unit, but the zero point can be calculated while the rotor is running. This ability to accurately set the crusher aprons from the control panel with automatic detection of zero-point and target-value setting saves time, and improves the overall efficiency and handling of the crusher. On these mobile impact crushers, the zero point is the distance between the ledges of the rotor and the impact plates of the lower impact toggle, plus a defined safety distance. The desired crushing gap is approached from this zero point.
While the upper impact toggle is adjusted via simple hydraulic cylinders, the lower impact toggle has a hydraulic crushing gap adjustment device, which is secured electronically and mechanically against collision with the rotor. The crushing gap is set via the touch screen and approached hydraulically. Prior to setting of the crushing gap, the zero point is determined automatically.
For automatic zero-point determination with the rotor running, the impact toggle moves slowly onto the rotor ledges until it makes contact, which is detected by a sensor. The impact toggle then retracts to the defined safe distance. During this procedure, a stop ring slides on the piston rod. When the zero point is reached, the locking chamber is locked hydraulically and the stop ring is thus fixed in position. The stop ring now serves as a mechanical detent for the piston rod. During the stop ring check, which is carried out for every crusher restart, the saved zero point is compared to the actual value via the electronic limit switch. If the value deviates, a zero-point determination is carried out once again.
These impact crushers may feature a new inlet geometry that allows even better penetration of the material into the range of the rotor. Also, the wear behavior of the new C-form impact ledges has been improved to such an extent that the edges remain sharper longer, leading to improved material shape.
The machines come equipped with an efficient direct drive that improves performance. A latest-generation diesel engine transmits its power almost loss-free directly to the crushers flywheel, via a fluid coupling and V-belts. This drive concept enables versatility, as the rotor speed can be adjusted in four stages to suit different processing applications.
Secondary impact crushers and cone crushers are used to further process primary-crushed aggregate, and can be operated with or without attached screening units. These crushers can be used as either secondary or tertiary crushers depending on the application. When interlinked to other mobile units such as a primary or screen, complicated technical processing can be achieved.
Mobile cone crushers have been on the market for many years. These machines can be specially designed for secondary and tertiary crushing in hard-stone applications. They are extraordinarily efficient, diverse in application and very economical to use. To meet the diverse requirements in processing technology, mobile cone crushing plants are available in different sizes and configurations. Whether its a solo cone crusher, one used in addition to a triple-deck screen for closed-loop operation, or various-size cone crushers with a double-deck screen and oversize return conveyor, a suitable plant will be available for almost every task.
Mobile cone crushers may be available with or without integrated screen units. With the latter, an extremely efficient triple-deck screen unit may be used, which allows for closed-loop operation and produces three final products. Here the screen areas must be large so material quantities can be screened efficiently and ensure that the cone crusher always has the correct fill level, which is particularly important for the quality of the end product.
Mobile, tracked crushers and screen plants are advancing into output ranges that were recently only possible using stationary plants. Previously, only stationary plants were used for complicated aggregate processing applications. But thanks to the advancements made in machine technology, it is becoming increasingly possible to employ mobile technology for traditional stationary applications.
Mobile crushers are used in quarries, in mining, on jobsites, and in the recycling industry. These plants are mounted on crawler tracks and can process rock and recycling material, producing mineral aggregate and recycled building materials respectively for the construction industry. A major advantage of mobile crushers is their flexibility to move from one location to the next. They are suitable for transport, but can also cover short distances within the boundaries of their operating site, whether in a quarry or on the jobsite. When operating in quarries, they usually follow the quarry face, processing the stone directly on site.
For transport over long distances to a new location or different quarry, mobile crushers are loaded on low trailers. No more than 20 minutes to an hour is needed for setting the plant up for operation. Their flexibility enables the mobile crushers to process even small quantities of material with economic efficiency.
Mobile plants allow the combination of prescreening that prepares the rock for the crushing process and grading, which precisely separates defined aggregate particle sizes into different end products to be integrated with the crushing unit into one single machine. In the first stage, the material is screened using an active prescreen. After prescreening, it is transferred to the crusher, from where it is either stockpiled via a discharge conveyor or forwarded to a final screen or a secondary crushing stage. Depending on the specified end product, particles are then either graded by screening units or transported to additional crushing stages by secondary or tertiary impact crushers or cone crushers. Further downstream screening units are used for grading the final aggregate fractions.
The process of prescreening, crushing and grading is a common operation in mobile materials processing and can be varied in a number of ways. Mobile crushers with up to three crushing stages are increasingly used in modern quarries. Different mobile crushing and screening plants can be combined for managing more complex crushing and screening jobs that would previously have required a stationary crushing and screening plant.
Interlinked mobile plants incorporate crushers and screens that work in conjunction with each other, and are coordinated in terms of performance and function. Mining permits are under time constraints and mobile plants provide faster setup times. They provide better resale value and reusability, as mobile plants can also be used individually. They also reduce operating costs in terms of fewer haul trucks and less personnel.
With a so-equipped mobile crusher, the feed operator can shut the machine down or change the size of the material, all using the remote control, or use it to walk the crusher from one part of the site to the other, or onto a flat bed trailer for relocation to a different quarry or recycling yard. This reduces personnel and hauling costs compared to a stationary plant. With the mobile jaw or impact primary crusher, the only additional personnel needed would be a skid-steer operator to remove scrap steel, and someone to move the stockpiles.
Thanks to better technology, mobile plants can achieve final aggregate fractions, which previously only were possible with stationary plants. Production availability is on par with stationary plants. Theyre applicable in all quarries, but can be used for small deposits if the owner has several quarries or various operation sites. For example, an operator of several stone quarries can use the plants in changing market situations at different excavation sites. In addition, they also can be used as individual machines. A further factor is that mobile plants, in general, require simpler and shorter licensing procedures.
The high cost of labor keeps going up. A stationary crusher might be able to produce multiple times the amount of product, but also would require about seven or eight workers. Aggregate producers can benefit when producing material with the minimized crew used for mobile jaw and impact crushers.
Using correct maintenance practices, mobile crushers will remain dependable throughout their working life. Crushing and processing material can result in excessive wear on certain components, excessive vibration throughout the plant, and excessive dust in the working environment. Some applications are more aggressive than others. A hard rock application is going to require more maintenance on top of standard maintenance, as there will be more vibration, more dust and more wear than from a softer aggregate.
Due to the nature of its purpose, from the moment a mobile crusher starts, the machine is wearing itself out and breaking itself down. Without routine, regular maintenance and repair, a mobile crusher will not be reliable nor provide the material customers demand.
The first area of wear on any machine is the feed system. Whether its a feeder with an integrated grizzly, or a feeder with an independent prescreen, how the machine is fed contributes to wear. When setting up and maintaining a machine, the machine must be level. A machine that is unlevel left to right will experience increased wear on all components, including the feeder, the screens, the crushing chambers and the conveyor belts. In addition, it reduces production and screening efficiency, as the whole area of the machine is not being effectively used. Also, having the machine sit high at the discharge end will have the effect of feeding the material uphill in the feeder and reducing its efficiency, thus reducing production.
Another area for consideration is the equipment used to feed the machine. The operator using a loader to feed the crusher will have no control over the feed size, as he cannot see whats in the bucket. Whereas with an excavator, the operator can see whats inside and has more control over the feed into the hopper. That is, the operator is not feeding so much material all at once and is controlling the size of the feed. This reduces wear in the feed hoppers impact zones and eliminates material blockages due to feed size being too large to enter the chamber.
Dust is a problem in its own right, especially for the power plant of the mobile crusher. In a very dusty application, it is easy to plug the radiator and have engine-overheating problems. High dust levels cause increased maintenance intervals on air filters, and if not controlled properly, can enter the diesel tank and cause problems with the fuel system. Also, dust that gets inside the crusher increases wear. But if systems are put in place to remove the dust, it should keep it from going into the machine in the first place.
Dust also is a hazard on walkways and a problem for conveyors. If maintained, side-skirting and sealing the conveyors keeps dust from spilling out, building up underneath the conveyor, or building up in rollers, pulleys, bearings, and causing wear on shafts. Its important to maintain the sealing rubbers on the conveyor belts to avoid those issues. Routine maintenance calls for removing accumulated dust from inside and under the machine.
Dust also is a problem for circuit boards and programmable controllers. Dust causes electrical switches to malfunction because it stops the contacts from correctly seating. Electrical systems under positive air pressure dont permit dust to penetrate the control system. In control panels with a correctly maintained positive pressure system, filters remove dust from air that is being pumped into the cabinets. If the filters are plugged, the system will not pull as much air through, allowing dust, moisture and heat to build in the cabinet.
There are also impact aprons against which the rock is thrown, which also see high wear. There are side plates or wear sheets on the sides of the machine. The highest wear area is around the impact crusher itself, around the circumference of the rotor. If not maintained, the wear items will wear through and compromise the structure of the crusher box.
Conduct a daily visual check of the machine. The jaw is simple; just stand up on the walkway and take a look down inside. A crushers jaw plate can be flipped so there are two sides of wear on them. Once half the jaw is worn out, flip it; once that side is worn, change it.
The impact crusher will have an inspection hatch to see inside. Check to see how much material is left on the blow bars and how much is left on the wear sheets on the side of the crusher box. If half the bar is worn out after one week, change the blow bars in another week.The frequency of changes depends entirely on the application and the rock that is being crushed.
They have to be user serviceable, user friendly, and able to be changed in a short time. The best way to change these parts is a service truck with a crane; some use excavators but thats not recommended by any means.
After initial blasting, breakers are used to break down aggregate that typically is not only too large to be hauled in dump trucks, but also too large for crushers that size rock to meet asphalt, drainage system, concrete and landscaping specifications. Breakers can be mounted to a mobile carrier, such as an excavator, or to stationary boom systems that can be attached to a crusher. The total number of hydraulic breakers can vary from site to site depending on production levels, the type of aggregate materials and the entire scope of the operation.
Without hydraulic breakers, workers rely on alternative practices that can quickly affect production rates. For instance, blasting mandates shutting down operations and moving workers to a safe location. And when you consider how many times oversize aggregate might need to be reduced, this can lead to a significant amount of downtime and substantially lower production rates.
Aggregate operations can use hydraulic breakers to attack oversize without having to clear the quarry. But with an ever-growing variety of manufacturers, sizes and models to choose from, narrowing the decision to one hydraulic breaker can be overwhelming with all of the stats and speculation. Thats why its important to know what factors to consider before investing in a new hydraulic breaker.
In most cases, heavy equipment dealers are very knowledgeable about quarry equipment, including breakers, so they are a good resource for finding the best model for a carrier, usually an excavator or stationary boom system. More than likely, they will have specifications and information about various breaker sizes to help gauge what model is best. But being familiar with what to look for in a breaker can streamline the selection process.
The best places to look for breaker information are in the manufacturers brochure, website, owners manual or catalogue. First, carefully review the carrier weight ranges. A breaker that is too big for the carrier can create unsafe working conditions and cause excessive wear to the carrier. An oversized breaker also transmits energy in two directions, toward the aggregate and through the equipment. This produces wasted energy and can damage the carrier. But using a breaker thats too small puts excessive force on the tool steel, which transmits percussive energy from the breaker to the material. Using breakers that are too small also can damage mounting adapters and internal components, which considerably decreases their life.
Once you find a breaker that meets the carriers capacity, check its output power, which is typically measured in foot-pounds. Foot-pound classes are generalizations and are not based on any physical test. Often the breakers output will be documented in one of two ways: as the manufacturers calculated foot-pound class or as an Association of Equipment Manufacturers measured foot-pound rating. Foot-pound class ratings can be deceiving since they are loosely based on the breakers service weight and not the result of any physical test. The AEM rating, on the other hand, measures the force a breaker exerts in a single blow through repeatable and certified testing methods. The AEM rating, which was developed by the Mounted Breaker Manufacturers Bureau, makes it easier to compare breaker models by reviewing true figures collected during an actual test procedure.
For instance, three breaker manufacturers might claim their breakers belong in a 1,000-lb. breaker class. But AEM testing standards could reveal all three actually have less foot-pound impact. You can tell if a breaker has been AEM tested if a manufacturer provides a disclosure statement or if the breaker is labeled with an AEM Tool Energy seal. If you cannot find this information, contact the manufacturer. In addition to output energy specifications, manufacturers often supply estimates for production rates on different types of aggregate material. Make sure to get the right measurements to make the best decision.
In addition to weight and output power, look at the breakers mounting package. Two things are crucial for mounting a breaker to a carrier: a hydraulic installation kit and mounting components. Breakers need hydraulic plumbing with unidirectional flow to move oil from the carrier to the breaker and back again. A one-way flow hydraulic kit is sufficient to power the breaker as long as the components are sized to properly handle the required flows and pressures. But, consider a bidirectional flow hydraulic kit if you plan to use the same carrier with other attachments that require two-way flow. Check with the dealer or breaker manufacturer to determine which hydraulic package best fits current and future needs.
Hydraulic flow and pressure specifications also need to be considered when pairing a breaker to a hydraulic system. If the carrier cannot provide enough flow at the right pressure, the breaker wont perform with maximum output, which lowers productivity and can damage the breaker. Additionally, a breaker receiving too much flow can wear quickly, which reduces its service life. For the best results, follow the hydraulic breaker specifications found in owners manuals, catalogs and brochures. Youll find out if a breaker has additional systems that might require additional servicing. For instance, some breakers feature nitrogen gas-assist systems that work with the hydraulic oil to accelerate the breakers piston. The nitrogen systems specifications need to be followed for consistent breaker power output.
Brackets or pin and bushing kits are commonly required to attach the breaker to the carrier. Typically they are bolted to the top of a breaker and are configured to match a specific carrier. Some manufacturers make universal mounting brackets that can accommodate two or three different sizes of carriers. With the adjustable pins, bushings or other components inside these universal brackets, the breaker can fit a range of carriers. However, varying distances between pin centers can complicate hookups to quick coupling systems. In addition, loose components, such as spacers, can become lost when the breaker is not in use and detached from the carrier.
Some carriers are equipped with quick-coupling systems, which require a breakers mounting interface to be configured like the carriers original attachment. Some manufacturers produce top-mount brackets that pair extremely well with couplers. This allows an operator to use the original bucket pins from the carrier to attach the breaker, and eliminates the need for new pins. This pairing also ensures a fast pickup with the quick coupler.
Its also a good idea to check which breaker tools are available through the dealer and manufacturer. The most common for aggregate mining are chisels and blunts. There are two kinds of chisels commonly used in aggregate mines: crosscut and inline. Both chisels resemble a flat head screwdriver, but the crosscut chisels are used when carrier operators want to direct force in a left-to-right concentration; whereas, inline chisels direct force fore and aft. With chisel tools, operators can concentrate a breakers energy to develop cracks, break open seams or define scribe lines.
If a chisel cant access or develop a crack or seam, a blunt can be used. Blunts have a flattened head that spreads the energy equally in all directions. This creates a shattering effect that promotes cracks and seam separation. Ask your dealer if the tools you are considering are suited for the application. Using non-original equipment manufacturer tool steel can damage the percussive piston in the breaker, seize into the wear bushings, or cause excessive wear.
Regular breaker maintenance is necessary, yet its one of the biggest challenges for aggregate operations. It not only extends the life of the breaker, but also can keep minor inconveniences from turning into expensive problems. Some manufacturers recommend operators inspect breakers daily to check grease levels and make sure there are no worn or damaged parts or hydraulic leaks.
Breakers need to be lubricated with adequate amounts of grease to keep the tool bushing area clear and reduce friction, but follow the manufacturers recommendations. For example, adding grease before properly positioning the breaker can lead to seal damage or even catastrophic failure. And too little grease could cause the bushings to overheat, seize and damage tools. Also, manufacturers advise using high-moly grease that withstands working temperatures greater than 500 degrees. Some breakers have automatic lube systems that manage grease levels, but those systems still need inspections to ensure there is adequate grease in their vessels. Shiny marks on the tool are a good indication the breaker is not properly lubricated.
Little has changed in basic crusher design over past decades, other than that of improvements in speed and chamber design. Rebuilding and keeping the same crusher in operation year after year has long been the typical approach. However, recent developments have brought about the advent of new hydraulic systems in modern crusher designs innovations stimulated by the need for greater productivity as well as a safer working environment. Importantly, the hydraulic systems in modern crusher designs are engineered to deliver greater plant uptime and eliminate the safety risks associated with manual intervention.
Indeed the crushing arena is a hazardous environment. Large material and debris can jam inside the crusher, damaging components and causing costly downtime. Importantly, manually digging out the crusher before repairs or restarts puts workers in extremely dangerous positions.
The Mine Safety and Health Administration has reported numerous injuries and fatalities incurred when climbing in or under the jaw to manually clear, repair or adjust the typical older-style jaw crusher. Consider that fatalities and injuries can occur even when the machine is locked out and tagged out. Recent examples include a foreman injured while attempting to dislodge a piece of steel caught in the primary jaw crusher. Another incident involved a fatality when a maintenance man was removing the toggle plate seat from the pitman on a jaw crusher. The worker was standing on a temporary platform when the bolts holding the toggle seat were removed, causing the pitman to move and strike him.
The hydraulic systems on modern crusher designs eliminate the need for workers to place themselves in or under the crusher. An overview of hydraulic system technology points to these three key elements:
A hydraulic chamber-clearing system that automatically opens the crusher to a safe position, allowing materials to pass.
A hydraulic overload relief that protects parts and components against overload damage.
A hydraulic adjustment that eliminates the maintenance downtime associated with manual crusher adjustments, and maintains safe, consistent crusher output without the need for worker intervention.
Whether a crusher is jammed by large material, tramp iron or uncrushable debris; or is stalled by a power failure the chamber must be cleared before restarting. Manual clearing is a lengthy and risky task, especially since material can be wedged inside the crusher with tremendous pressure, and dislodging poses much danger to workers placed in harms way inside the crusher.
Unlike that of the older-style jaw, the modern jaw will clear itself automatically with hydraulics that open the crusher to a safe position, and allow materials to pass again, without the need for manual intervention. If a feeder or deflector plate is installed under the crusher, uncrushable material will transfer smoothly onto the conveyor without slicing the belt.
To prevent crusher damage, downtime and difficult maintenance procedures, the hydraulic overload relief system opens the crusher when internal forces become too high, protecting the unit against costly component failure. After relief, the system automatically returns the crusher to the previous setting for continued crushing.
The modern crusher is engineered with oversized hydraulic cylinders and a traveling toggle beam to achieve reliable overload protection and simple crusher adjustment. All closed-side setting adjustments are made with push-button controls, with no shims being needed at any time (to shim is the act of inserting a timber or other materials under equipment). This is a key development as many accidents and injuries have occurred during shim adjustment, a process which has no less than 15 steps as described in the primary crusher shim adjustment training program offered by MSHA.
roll crusher | hrc - hazemag
For industrial beneficiation of primary and secondary raw materials, selection of the most appropriate crushing method plays a key role in the production of specific grain sizes, shapes and surfaces, or to break down multi-component materials.
The selected crusher must conform to todays stringent requirements for processing rocks, ores and coals. Materials to be crushed are becoming more and difficult to process, high throughput capacities are required. High focus is now placed on energy consumption, and the use of energy-efficient roll crushers, with high throughput rates, is becoming increasingly important from an economic and ecological point of view.
Roll Crusher operation is based on the principle of continuous pressure generated between two counter-rotating rolls; allowing uninterrupted crushing, in contrast to the intermittent action of jaw crushers. During operation, the high rotational energy of the crushing rolls and the drive components reduces peak loads, resulting in a more regular level of power consumption.
If non-breakable tramp metal is present in the feed material, it is essential that the crushing gap can open to let the tramp material pass. This is achieved by employing a floating roll, which is mounted in pivoting rocker arms. The rocker arms are supported by the lower housing via hydraulic cylinders. In order to guarantee parallel retraction of the floating roll, a torsion shaft connects the two rocker arms. The rotational reaction of the floating roll allows an almost seamless movement and creates a wide escape path.
HAZEMAG Roll Crusher housings and drive mountings are robustly-designed for heavy-duty applications. They are fitted with easily replaceable wear parts, with removable maintenance hoods below the feed hopper enabling quick and easy exchange of crushing segments.
The drive is assembled on a base frame, which is connected with the roll crusher. The floating roll drive, also supported in pivoting mode, is connected with the floating roll rocker arm by a coupling rod. This ensures that a constant drive belt tension exists during the retraction movement of the floating roll, and during gap adjustment.
The crushing rolls for primary and secondary crushers comprise a polygonal roller body equipped with exchangeable crushing segments. Unique geometry between the roller body and crushing segments, achieves an optimal, form-fitting attachment, allowing them to withstand the high crushing forces. The shape and number of teeth are determined by the respective application.
With the standard PLC control the crushing gap, and therefore the product, can be controlled and monitored from the control room as well as from the switchgear cabinet on the crusher. With this system, the crushing gap can be reduced very easily just by the push of a button to compensate for wear of the crushing tools.
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