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small scale gold processing plant forced air flotation cell

gold leaching equipment, circuits & process plants

gold leaching equipment, circuits & process plants

In Leaching for Gold, there is often a tendency to overlook or minimize the importance of the small mine. The small mine of today may develop into the large mine of tomorrow. Under proper management and financing it has as good a chance of yielding a profit as the larger property. Unfortunately large capital is seldom interested in them and they are left to the small groups who are not in a position to obtain the best engineering service. Mills are often erected without proper metallurgical tests and expensive Gold Leachingplant equipment are installed at a time when such large expenditures of capital on the surface is not justified by the underground developments. Careful metallurgical testing on the ore might have disclosed the fact that a simple method of amalgamation or concentration could have been employed and the mill built for a third the cost of a Gold Leaching plant.

By taking advantage of the fact that gold is one of the heaviest metals known and readily forms an amalgam with mercury, an effective but simple and inexpensive plant can be built for most small gold mines. Usually the major percentage of the gold values are in the native or metallic state and are free at commercial fineness of grinding and can be recovered by some combination of amalgamation and concentration.

Plate amalgamation, where the gold values are caught and held in the quicksilver film on a copper plate is the only step required for a commercial recovery on some few ores. In most cases a portion of the gold is filmed so that it does not amalgamate readily or is contained in ores with other minerals that also amalgamate or foul the quicksilver sufficiently to destroy its effectiveness for gold recovery. Here a form of selective concentration such as the Mineral Jigs and blanket tables, is used to concentrate the gold values in a small bulk of high grade concentrates for treatment in an amalgamation barrel or other amalgamator, where the gold is amalgamated and recovered as bullion.

The advantages of these simple plants are many and are not only attractive to the proved small mine but also to those under development. Within recent years many of our well known mines have been developed and brought into large scale production from revenue secured from a small milling plant operating on development ore.

A study of a large number of mills using amalgamation and concentration has disclosed bullion recoveries ranging from 60 per cent to 90 per cent and total recoveries, including concentrates, from 85 per cent to 97 per cent. The average bullion recovery will be about 70 per cent and very often this is of utmost importance as geographic location makes the shipping of the concentrate to a smelting plant undesirable.

While cyanidation is usually favored for treating gold ores to get maximum recovery of the values in bullion form, nevertheless, the fact that an amalgamation plantcan be built for approximately one- third of a complete Gold Leaching mill, together with the lower operating costs of the simpler plant, partially offsets the lower recovery. It is customary to impound the tailings from the amalgamation plant and these are cheaply treated when mine developments have justified the erection of the more complete Gold Leachingplant. An amalgamation and concentration plant can be operating intermittently without sacrificing efficiency, and this allows the operation of the plant for only one or two shifts per day to keep the peak power requirements at a minimum as mine compressors can be operated or the hoisting done while the mill is not in operation. The fact that 60 to 90 per cent of the values can be recovered by amalgamation will usually supply sufficient revenue from the mill to pay for development charges andbuild a reserve for the construction of the complete Gold Leaching plant.

With reasonable care in the design and construction of the original amalgamation and concentration plant all of the equipment can be utilized in the later complete Gold Leaching mill. By using standard equipment it is possible to add the Gold Leaching equipment following the already installed amalgamation and concentration units as these are an essential part of the completed plant.

Other advantages of these simple and inexpensive amalgamation and concentration plants are that they can be successfully operated with unskilled labor as no chemical knowledge or previous experience is necessary. Even flotation has been simplified through the use of Sub-A Flotation Cells; this addition of flotation means no marked increase in milling costs, but often a large increase in recovery due to the saving of extremely fine mineral values.

It is interesting to note the numerous dividend paying gold properties, particularly those in Eastern Canada, which have followed the treatment methods shown in the following flowsheets during the development stage and they have gradually added to the equipment as the profits and ore developments warranted. The use of standard proved equipment eliminates the biggest element of chance, and from this nucleus a more efficient and complete plant can be acquired as the flexibility of the equipment permits the change from one flowsheet to another.

We are giving five typical flowsheets used in treating gold ores and are describing the possible applications of these flowsheets, together with their fields of usefulness, and while in each case there is a similarity in equipment, you will note the changes necessary for various type ores. In each case we have endeavored to show the simplest possible plant for best results on each type of ore and to show the improvements that can be made to further increase recoveries at slight additional cost.

This flowsheet is the lowest in price, and can be used on what are commonly termed as free milling gold ores where a high percentage of the values are free and where these values are unlocked at reasonably coarse grinding.This flowsheet is often used for treating high grade pockets. The ball mill is in open circuit and the size of the product to amalgamation plates is controlled by a Spiral Screen on the ball mill discharge. The concentrating table also functions as a classifier and the middling is returned as oversize product for further grinding.

Flowsheet BB has a Mineral Jig and amalgamator in addition to the equipment shown for Flowsheet AA, and is used for an inexpensive plant where values are coarse but minerals are coated or filmed, and will not amalgamate readily on plates. The jig recovers the rusty values in a high grade concentrate for forcedamalgamation treatment in the Amalgamator. Onthe ores where this flowsheet is applicable, blankets, corduroy, or Gold Matting are usually substituted for amalgamation plates and their concentrate also is treated in the amalgamator with the jig product.

This flowsheet with the ball mill in closed circuit with a classifier, and with the jig in this circuit, will give the highest recovery possible for amalgamation and gravity concentration. The addition of the classifier allows finer grinding and the efficiency of the jig is greatly increased by using it in the closed grinding circuit. This flowsheet not only improves recoveries on ores as described in the previous flowsheets, but is also useful where the minerals are fine and where metallic values are in auriferous sulphides as well as in the free state in the gangue.

The addition of flotation to Flowsheet CC brings recovery to the highest point in Flowsheet DD as flotation recovers the slime values that are normally lost where gravity concentration only is used. The values that can be amalgamated are secured in bullion form from the high grade jig and table concentrates, and the remaining values are recovered in the flotation concentrate. This flowsheet is also necessary where a minor percentage of the gold values are present as metallics at commercial fineness of grinding or where the minerals are friable and easily slimed in fine grinding such as galena or the various telluride minerals.

The addition of flotation does not increase greatly the first cost of the plant, nor does it increase the operating expenses more than a few cents per ton. In a great many cases the additional recovery made by flotation means the difference between operating at a profit and at a loss. Flotation is responsible for the success of many small mining properties today.

Where the isolated location of the mill makes shipping of concentrates prohibitive, many properties store their product until they are justified in installing a complete treatment plant on the ground; current expenses are thus paid through bullion recovered by amalgamation ahead of flotation.

The equipment in this flowsheet is identical to that of DD. Here the ability of the Sub-A Flotation Machine to effectively handle a coarse feed is capitalized on to allow the handling of greatly increased tonnages. The ball mill discharge passes in open circuit over the jig, amalgamation plates or blanket tables and the flotationmachine. A middling product is returned from theconcentrating table and is dewatered in the classifier and returned for regrinding. On tailings, dumps, or low grade ores where it is necessary to handle a larger tonnage, this flowsheet is very effective, and while the recoveries would not be as high as in Flowsheet DD, the loss in recovery is more than offset by the greatly increased tonnage handled and the resultant lower milling cost. With this flowsheet a coarse tailing can be discarded, but slime losses are entirely eliminated as these, together with the granular minerals, are recovered in the flotation machine.

This flexibility of flowsheet is possible only where the Sub-A Flotation Machine is used. The (Selective) Mineral Jig is a valuable addition here as the excessive dilution would make it impossible to use any other type of gravity concentration device ahead of flotation. The change from Flowsheet DD to Flowsheet EE can be very easily made to accommodate changes in ore and to allow greater profits from the treatment of any type gold ore encountered.

No two ores are exactly alike. What method of treatment will give you the greatest net profit in milling your ore? This can be determined by proper metallurgical tests. They will show the recoveries which may be obtained by various methods of treatment; and the type and cost of equipment required, and the operating cost for each method are then easily established.

Ore tests are conducted on the basis of obtaining the simplest possible flowsheet, using standard, proved equipment. Also, as you will note in the flowsheets shown, this fundamental principle is always followed: Recover the mineral as soon as it is free.

A study of a large number of mills using amalgamation and concentration has disclosed bullion recoveries ranging from 60 per cent to 90 per cent and total recoveries, including concentrates, from 85 per cent to 97 per cent. The average bullion recovery will be about 70 per cent and very often this is of utmost importance as geographic location makes the shipping of the concentrate to a smelting plant undesirable.

While cyanidation is usually favored for treating gold ores to get maximum recovery of the values in bullion form, nevertheless, the fact that an amalgamation plant can be built for approximately one-third of a complete cyanide mill, together with the lower operating costs of the simpler plant, partially offsets the lower recovery. It is customary to impound the tailings from the amalgamation plant and these are cheaply treated when mine developments have justified the erection of the more complete cyanide plant. An amalgamation and concentration plant can be operating intermittently without sacrificing efficiency, and this allows the operation of the plant for only one or two shifts per day to keep the peak power requirements at a minimum as mine compressors can be operated or the hoisting done while the mill is not in operation. The fact that 60 to 80 per cent of the values can be recovered by amalgamation will usually supply sufficient revenue from the mill to pay for development charges and build a reserve for the construction of the complete cyanide plant.

With reasonable care in the design and construction of the original amalgamation and concentration plant all of the equipment can be utilized in the later complete cyanide mill. By using standard equipment it is possible to add the cyanide equipment following the already installed amalgamation and concentration units as these are an essential part of the completed plant.

Other advantages of these simple and inexpensive amalgamation and concentration plants are that they can be successfully operated with unskilled labor as no chemical knowledge or previous experience is necessary. Gold ore bodies can be accurately sampled by milling all of the ore from mine development work and the errors resulting from ordinary sampling methods can be entirely eliminated.

It is interesting to note the numerous dividend paying gold properties, particularly those in Eastern Canada, which have followed the treatment methods shown in the following flowsheets during the development stage and they have gradually added to the equipment as the profits and ore developments warranted. The use of standard proved equipment eliminates the biggest element of chance, and from this nucleus a more efficient and complete plant can be acquired as the flexibility of the equipment permits the change from one flowsheet to another.

We are giving four typical flowsheets used in treating gold ores and are describing the possible applications of these flowsheets, together with their fields of usefulness, and while in each case there is a similarity in equipment, you will note the changes necessary for various type ores. In each case we have endeavoured to show the simplest possible plant for best results on each type of ore and to show the improvements that can be made to further increase recoveries at slight additional cost.

This flowsheet is the lowest in price, and can be used on what are commonly termed as free milling gold ores where a high percentage of the values are free and where these values are unlocked at reasonably coarse grinding. This flowsheet is often used for treating high grade pockets. The ball mill is in open circuit and the size of the product to amalgamation plates is controlled by a Spiral Screen on the ball mill discharge. The concentrating table also functions as a classifier and the middling is returned as oversize product for further grinding.

Flowsheet BB has a Mineral Jig and amalgamator in addition to the equipment shown for Flowsheet AA, and is used for an inexpensive plant where values are coarse but minerals are coated or filmed, and will not amalgamate readily on plates. The jig recovers the rusty values in a high grade concentrate for forced amalgamation treatment in the Amalgamator. On the ores where this flowsheet is applicable, blankets, corduroy, or Gold Matting are usually substituted for amalgamation plates and their concentrate also is treated in the amalgamator with the jig product.

This flowsheet with the ball mill in closed circuit with a classifier, and with the jig in this circuit, will give the highest recovery possible for amalgamation and gravity concentration. The addition of the classifier allows finer grinding and the efficiency of the jig is greatly increased by using it in the closed grinding circuit. This flowsheet not only improves recoveries on ores as described in the previous flowsheets, but is alo useful where the minerals are fine and where metallic values are in auriferous sulphides as well as in the free state in the gangue.

The addition of flotation to Flowsheet CC brings recovery to the highest point in Flowsheet DD as flotation recovers the slime values that are normally lost where gravity concentration only is used. The values that can be amalgamated are secured in bullion form from the high grade jig and table concentrates, and the remaining values are recovered in the flotation concentrate. This flowsheet is also necessary where a minor percentage of the gold values are present as metallics at commercial fineness of grinding or where the minerals are friable and easily slimed in fine grinding such as galena or the various telluride minerals.

The addition of flotation does not increase greatly the first cost of the plant, nor does it increase the operating expenses more than a few cents per ton. In a great many cases the additional recovery made by flotation means the difference between operating at a profit and at a loss. Flotation is responsible for the success of many small mining properties today.

Where the isolated location of the mill makes shipping of concentrates prohibitive, many properties store their product until they are justified in installing a complete treatment plant on the ground; current expenses are thus paid through bullion recovered by amalgamation ahead of flotation. The equipment in this flowsheet is identical to that of DD. Here the ability of the Flotation Machine to handle a coarse feed is capitalized on to allow the handling of greatly increased tonnages. The ball mill discharge passes in open circuit over the jig, amalgamation plates or blanket tables and the flotation machine. A middling product is returned from the concentrating table and is dewatered in the classifier and returned for regrinding. On tailings, dumps, or low grade ores where it is necessary to handle a larger tonnage, this flowsheet is very effective, and while the recoveries would not be as high as in Flowsheet DD, the loss in recovery is more than offset by the greatly increased tonnage handled and the resultant lower milling cost. With this flowsheet a coarse tailing can be discarded, but slime losses are entirely eliminated as these, together with the granular minerals, are recovered in the flotation machine.

This flexibility of flowsheet is possible only where the standard Sub-A Type Flotation Machine is used. The Mineral Jig is a valuable addition here as the excessive dilution would make it impossible to use any other type of gravity concentration device ahead of flotation. The change from Flowsheet DD to Flowsheet EE can be very easily made to accommodate changes in ore and to allow greater profits from the treatment of any type gold ore encountered.

The 5 Gold Leaching Equipment Flowsheets illustrated above indicate the equipment essential for small cyanide mills of five different tonnages. These flowsheets are all similar with equipment sized for the tonnages shown. They are typical flowsheets for continuous counter-current decantation cyanidation plus a Mineral Jig in the grinding circuit with provisions for amalgamation of the jig concentrates.

The Mineral Jig and Amalgamation Unit have a definite place in cyanide plants as the coarse and granular gold can be readily recovered which may not be completely dissolved by the cyanide solution during the treatment time given to the pulp. The cyanide process has the advantage of producing precious metals in bullion form with the highest net return from those gold and silver ores amenable to cyanidation. The counter current decantation washing circuit has been found to be a most economical method for removing dissolved precious metals. Washing Tray Thickeners require the minimum floor space and capital costs. In counter current decantation wash water and barren solution are added in the last thickener units and flow counter to pulp flows, becoming enriched and are finally passed to clarification and precipitation where precious metals are precipitated and recovered.

The above flowsheets illustrate a method of increasing both capacity and recovery in a small gold plant by several stages. This is typical of the Pay As You Grow method of increasing capacity and profits essential in so many small operations. Because each ore has its own individual characteristics it is wise to first start with reliable test data. This is just as important in developing a flowsheet for a small mill as it is for a large plant.

Gold Flowsheet No. 1 shows a typical simple mill for the recovery of gold by amalgamation and by concentrating tables. However, on many ores such a flowsheet gives high losses of both fine gold and sulfide minerals.

Gold Flowsheet No. 3 indicates the addition of a required mill, classifier and extra Sub-A Flotation cells to provide for an increase in capacity and improvement in recoveries by regrinding of middling products.

Gold Flowsheet No. 4 shows an increase in flotation capacity to further improve recovery. The additions as illustrated allow an operation to be started on limited capital and gradually to be expanded as conditions warrant.

** Extracted from Memorandum Series No. 47, by C. S. Parsons, Engineer, Ore Dressing and Metallurgical Division, Mines Branch, Department of Mines, Ottawa. Published by permission of the Director, Mines Branch.

Source: This article is a reproduction of an excerpt of In the Public Domain documents held in 911Metallurgy Corps private library.[/fusion_builder_column][/fusion_builder_row][/fusion_builder_container]

small portable gold process plant

small portable gold process plant

This arrangement and flowsheet of a Mini Portable Gold Processing Plant permits several mineral separations by flotation and provides for the possible recovery of other minerals by gravity concentration. The flowsheet is ideal for a pilot-plant in field testing of ores to determine the economic feasibility of an ore deposit prior to the installation of a larger plant or for processing ore during the development stages of a mining property.

The arrangement shown here features the economy type rubber-lined Grinding Mill. This mill is roller-mounted with V-belt drive around the mill shell, driven from motor-connected gear reducer. Material discharged from the grindingmill is sized through a spiral screen ahead of a Cyclone Classifier. The flotation cells handling initial feed are equipped with patented discharge cones for return and recovery of a heavy mineral fraction by a jig.Tailings from the flotation machines are fed to a #6 Concentrating Table to assure gravity recovery of any valuable mineral not amenable to flotation. Pan Filters are provided to de-water concentrates.

One of the most serious problems confronting the mining industry today is how to profitably begin the small scale milling of ores from mines where insufficient ore has been developed to warrant an expensive mill installation, but where a large plant might be needed later. The same question arises in connection with the economical working of numerous small but relatively high grade ore deposits.

Portable Mills, and in particular, Truck Mills, are a most practical solution to this problem. For a relatively small investment a complete and efficient mill can be brought to the mine and speedily put into operation. When the high grade deposit has been worked or the formerly promising operation no longer fulfills the operators expectations, the mill may be transported as a complete unit to another location.

In the Truck Mill the portability has been carried out to the highest degree. All of the units are carried on a truck or semi-trailer, which serves as the operating floor for most of the units. Power for the entire milling unit is usually supplied with either a Diesel or gasoline driven electric generating set, but a belt driven mill can be supplied.

small scale modular gold flotation plant | gold processing modular plant | products | mineral processing equipment and solutions - hze

small scale modular gold flotation plant | gold processing modular plant | products | mineral processing equipment and solutions - hze

The relocatable modular flotation plant recovers gold from the sulfide ores. especially for high grade ores. The concentrate produced by flotation is sent to the next process, intensive cyanide leaching.

For the situations of raw materials and the customers requirements, it is free to select the comminution module, grinding and classification unit, gravity concentration module, flotation module, concentrate settling module, water supply module and power supply module to form a complete plant which recovers gold as much as possible.

The ores are usually crushed in two stages. According to the actual situation of the site, the primary crusher can be mounted in the mining area or the processing plant. The crusher is usually driven by a diesel engine if it is located in the mining area.

The closed-circuit grinding and classification system consisting of the ball mill and spiral classifier can liberate ore into the suitable particles for recovering gold. The unit can be adjusted to a closed-circuit system consisting of the ball mill, slurry pump and hydrocyclone if the customer demands.

It is suggested to select the gravity concentration module to form a perfect combination to achieve the highest recovery if some coarse gold particles exist in the ore. The concentrate produced by gravity concentration can be mixed with flotation concentrate together or smelted separately.

If there are a large number of oxidized ores in the original ore besides sulfide ore, it is suggested that the carbon slurry carbon leaching process should be adopted directly in small-scale concentrators.

This module is composed of the slurry conditioner, reagent solution preparation tanks and flotation cells. The reagents are made into solutions in the reagent solution preparation tanks. The overflow slurry coming from classification process is mixed uniformity with reagent solution by the slurry conditioner then it flows into a series of closed-circuit flotation cells to produce concentrate. A series of flotation cells are divided into rougher, cleaners and scavengers to ensure good recovery.

The concentrate slurry flows into a set of pond to settle naturally, and the clarified water is recycled in the plant. The settled concentrate is packed into the bags artificially for transporting to the next processing, cyanide leaching.

The flotation machine has large air suction capacity and low power consumption. Each cell has three functions: air inhaling, slurry suction and froth flotation. A certain number of flotation machines form a closed flotation circuit without any auxiliary equipment. All cells can be arranged horizontally. The flotation line and the number of cells of every stage can be adjusted at any time to achieve the best flotation effect according to the change of minerals.

There is an adjusting device at the discharge end of every flotation stage which is very convenient to adjust the slurry level. There are backward blades on both sides of the impeller, which can cause the reasonable slurry circulation and avoid coarse particles precipitation.

The chamber between the impeller and stator becomes a negative pressure zone during the impeller rotating. Air and slurry are sucked into the chamber forced by the negative pressure, and fully mix together to generate many small bubbles adhered by the useful mineral particles. The bubbles float up to recover gold well.

pilot plant flotation cells & machines

pilot plant flotation cells & machines

The No. 5, No. 7 and No. 8 Denver Sub-A Flotation Machines are relatively small and designed for continuous service in laboratory, pilot plants and small scale commercial plants. From mini to small scale flotation cells for piloting any mineral types, from copper to zinc, lead or nickel and gold without forgetting silver and platinum.

They are similar in design to the commercial size DENVER Sub-A Flotation Machines and results achieved in these units can be duplicated in the larger machines. Units can effectively handle coarse, slime free pulps as well as finely ground pulps. Units consist of fabricated steel tanks and superstructure, suspended mechanisms and removable weirs and partitions. All wearing parts are of hard iron or Decolloy. Superstructure also serves as distribution supply for addition of low pressure air if desired. Units can be operated on self-induced air if desired. Anti-friction type bearings are carried in lightweight aluminum spindle-bearing housing. Entire assembly consisting of sheave, spindle- bearing housing, stand-pipe and flotation mechanism can be removed from the cell as a single unit.

Machines may be operated with individual cell pulp level control for selective flotation and cleaning operations. The intermediate weirs and feed pipes may be removed for open, free-flow operation which isdesirable for rougher and scavenging recovery processes.

The need often arises for a batch flotation cell having a greater capacity than the standard size batch laboratory unit. Separations yielding a very high ratio of concentration do not produce sufficient concentrate from conventional size batch cells for subsequent cleaning and re-cleaning investigations unless numerous charges are run. The requirement to produce moderately large quantities of concentrates for preliminary market evaluations (such as in the non-metallic field) also arises and a large capacity batch cell fulfills this purpose without the expense of making a pilot plan run.

To meet this need Denver Equipment Company supplies the semi-commercial size No. 8 DENVER Sub-A Flotation Machine. The No. 8 Batch Unit Flotation Cell has a capacity of 2.75 cu. ft. and will handle approximately 50 pounds of solids per batch. The machine is equipped with a sloping bottom and discharge spigot to facilitate emptying and thorough washing. Weir control as required for continuous use has been eliminated. Unit can be supplied with mechanical froth paddle, -steel stand with casters for portability. Stainless steel construction is available for tests requiring an acid pulp.

The No. 7 DENVER Sub-A Flotation Cell (24-26 liter capacity) can also be arranged as a batch cell having a capacity of 5,000-6,000 grams of solids per batch. Let us recommend the unit best suited to your requirements.

scale-up in froth flotation: a state-of-the-art review - sciencedirect

scale-up in froth flotation: a state-of-the-art review - sciencedirect

Large flotation tanks present design and performance challenges.Scale-up of flotation tanks is extremely important yet scarcely discussed.Studies can be categorised into kinetic and machine design scale-up.Gaps in knowledge on flotation scale-up and design are highlighted.This review critiques current scale-up methods and suggests paths for future research.

Froth flotation has been one of the most important and widely used methods to concentrate minerals since its introduction over a hundred years ago. Over the last few decades, in order to process more mineral while reducing capital costs, flotation equipment has become exponentially larger. The increase in tank volume, however, has brought new challenges in the operation and design of industrial flotation tanks. This review analyses the literature on flotation tank scale-up for the first time, contrasting several techniques and approaches used in both historical and state-of-the-art research. The study of flotation scale-up is crucial for the optimisation of industrial plant performance and the maximisation of laboratory-scale research impact. While important advances in our understanding of flotation have been achieved, large flotation tank design and scale-up has, to a large extent, remained in-house know-how of manufacturing companies. This review of the literature relevant to flotation tank scale-up has resulted in a new classification, dividing the scale-up literature into two main areas of study, namely Kinetic scale-up and Machine design scale-up. This review indicates that current scale-up rules governing the design of flotation tanks focus mainly on pulp zone kinetic parameters and neglect the effects on the froth zone, despite the importance of froth stability and mobility in determining flotation performance. Froth stability and mobility are closely linked to the distance the froth needs to travel, which increases with tank diameter. Although including internal elements, such as launders and crowders, has been the industrial solution for enhancing froth transport and recovery in larger tanks, the design and scale-up of these elements have not been thoroughly studied. Gaps in our knowledge of flotation are discussed in the context of addressing the scale-up problem, considering froth transport and froth stability. Addressing these gaps will pave the way for the design and operation of large flotation tanks of enhanced performance.

gold processing,extraction,smelting plant design, equipment for sale | prominer (shanghai) mining technology co.,ltd

gold processing,extraction,smelting plant design, equipment for sale | prominer (shanghai) mining technology co.,ltd

Prominer maintains a team of senior gold processing engineers with expertise and global experience. These gold professionals are specifically in gold processing through various beneficiation technologies, for gold ore of different characteristics, such as flotation, cyanide leaching, gravity separation, etc., to achieve the processing plant of optimal and cost-efficient process designs.

Based on abundant experiences on gold mining project, Prominer helps clients to get higher yield & recovery rate with lower running cost and pays more attention on environmental protection. Prominer supplies customized solution for different types of gold ore. General processing technologies for gold ore are summarized as below:

For alluvial gold, also called sand gold, gravel gold, placer gold or river gold, gravity separation is suitable. This type of gold contains mainly free gold blended with the sand. Under this circumstance, the technology is to wash away the mud and sieve out the big size stone first with the trommel screen, and then using centrifugal concentrator, shaking table as well as gold carpet to separate the free gold from the stone sands.

CIL is mainly for processing the oxide type gold ore if the recovery rate is not high or much gold is still left by using otation and/ or gravity circuits. Slurry, containing uncovered gold from primary circuits, is pumped directly to the thickener to adjust the slurry density. Then it is pumped to leaching plant and dissolved in aerated sodium cyanide solution. The solubilized gold is simultaneously adsorbed directly into coarse granules of activated carbon, and it is called Carbon-In-Leaching process (CIL).

Heap leaching is always the first choice to process low grade ore easy to leaching. Based on the leaching test, the gold ore will be crushed to the determined particle size and then sent to the dump area. If the content of clay and solid is high, to improve the leaching efficiency, the agglomeration shall be considered. By using the cement, lime and cyanide solution, the small particles would be stuck to big lumps. It makes the cyanide solution much easier penetrating and heap more stable. After sufficient leaching, the pregnant solution will be pumped to the carbon adsorption column for catching the free gold. The barren liquid will be pumped to the cyanide solution pond for recycle usage.

The loaded carbon is treated at high temperature to elute the adsorbed gold into the solution once again. The gold-rich eluate is fed into an electrowinning circuit where gold and other metals are plated onto cathodes of steel wool. The loaded steel wool is pretreated by calcination before mixing with uxes and melting. Finally, the melt is poured into a cascade of molds where gold is separated from the slag to gold bullion.

Prominer has been devoted to mineral processing industry for decades and specializes in mineral upgrading and deep processing. With expertise in the fields of mineral project development, mining, test study, engineering, technological processing.

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