mill products | industry software | sap
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tin mill products - berlin metals
Tin mill products include electrolytic tinplate, electrolytic chromium coated steel (also referred to as tin free steel or TFS), and black plate, the uncoated steel. About 90% of tin mill products made in the world are used by the container industry in the manufacture of cans, ends, and closures for the food and beverage industry. The balance of production is used for automotive components, shelving, computer chassis, telecommunications cable, cookware, etc.
Tin-coated vessels are known to have existed as early as 23 A.D., but the tin was apparently only used for decoration. The first tinplate appears to have been made in Bavaria in the fourteenth century, and by the sixteenth century, a thriving tinplate industry existed in Saxony and Bohemia. Tinplate manufacture spread to England in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries.
The tinplate industry as we know it today is founded on the invention of the process of preserving sterilized food for long periods of time by Nicolas Appert in 1810. By 1812, Appert was successfully packaging a variety of products in glass containers for a growing market.
The Appert process was adapted to the preservation of food in tinplate containers by John Hall in 1812 in London. By the 1820s, canned foods were widely sold in England and France, and by 1839, foods were being canned in the United States. The American can industry grew explosively as a result of the Civil War, the subsequent settling of the west, and the growth of the oil industry.
Starting in the 1880s, a series of technical innovations transformed the tinplate industry. These included the replacement of wrought iron with steel for the black plate in about 1880; the development of continuous cold reduction in 1927, that eliminated hot-pack rolling; the introduction of continuous electro-tinning on a small scale in Germany in 1934 and on a commercial scale in the United States in 1937, which replaced the hot dip process; the invention of double cold reduction in 1960; and the invention of TFS in the early 1960s in Japan and the United States.
Concurrently, many advances occurred in canmaking technology that exploited the improvements in the quality of tin mill products. Tin mill products are also used by the automotive, building, appliance, and furniture industries, all of which take advantage of the unique properties of these light-gauge steel products.
Black plate (basically a clean, light gauge cold rolled steel, see Steelmaking) destined for coating goes directly from either the temper mill or double cold reduction mill to the coating line. Learn about the sequence of operations that occurs in a tinplating line, at speeds up to 2000 feet per minute, below:
Sheet and tin mill products are differentiated by gauge. Electrolytic tinplate has a maximum thickness of 135 lb. base weight or 0.0149 inch nominal thickness. Tin coated sheet starts at 0.0150 inch nominal thickness and is produced up to 0.0359 inch nominal thickness.
Chromium and chromium oxide coatings, developed for food packaging in the 1960s, offer superior lacquer adhesion and good storage properties. These coatings are mixtures of chromium metal and chromium oxides. Unlike tinplate with its multiplicity of coating weights, only a single standardized chromium-coated product is manufactured.
This product, commonly referred to as tin-free steel or TFS, follows the same processing sequence as electrolytic tinplate. The coating lines are mechanically similar. During the electrolytic deposition process, chromium and chromium oxide are deposited. The metallic chromium coating on each surface is applied 5.0 milligrams (mg)/sq. ft. of area. The oxide film ranges from 0.7 to 2.0 milligrams (mg)/sq. ft., but is generally on the lower side of this range.
The product is also electrostatically oiled before it exits the coating line. Historically, the industry used butyl stearate oil (BSO), which was developed for its lubricity to prevent scratching. In some instances, it has been determined that acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC) oil used on electrolytic tinplate is more compatible with some specific lacquering and paint systems. In this case, ATBC has been preferred at the expense of the greater lubricity of the BSO.
Tin mill products are produced with certain standardized product characteristics, including terminology, composition, mechanical properties, surface finish, coating weights, and the like. These characteristics are covered in detail in the ASTM Standard Specifications.
Electrolytic Tin Coated
Single Reduced Electrolytic Tinplate (1 CR ETP) through 135 lb. base weight
Double Reduced Electrolytic Tinplate (2 CR ETP) through 100 lb. base weight
Single Reduced Electrolytic Tin Coated Sheet (1 CR TCS) starting at 0.0150 inch nominal
Electrolytic Chromium Coated
Single Reduced Electrolytic Chromium Coated Black Plate (1 CR ECCS) through .020 inch nominal
Double Reduced Electrolytic Chromium Coated Black Plate (2 CR ECCS) through 100 lb. base weight
One pound of tin per base box (shared over both surfaces) is equivalent to approximately 0.000060 inch thickness on each surface. This list represents standard coating weights. Others available upon inquiry.
10 largest producers of tin | tin-producing companies | inn
World tin production decreased in 2020, amounting to 270,000 metric tons (MT) compared with 296,000 MT in 2019. China retained its position as the largest producer of tin with output of 81,000 MT, with Indonesia coming in a distant second at 66,000 MT.
According to the US Geological Surveys most recent report on the metal, the decline in tin production came on the back of higher prices. That coincides with the fact that the tin market has been in deficit for nine of the last 10 years, and is expected to remain in deficit as tin use increases.
While its interesting to look at tin production at the country level, its also worth knowing which companies are the largest producers of tin. That information can be found on the International Tin Associations list of the 10 top refined tin-producing companies. Read on to learn more details on the largest producers of tin in 2020.
Chinas Yunnan Tin Company was easily the largest producer of tin in 2020, putting out 74,800 tonnes of the metal; thats a small decrease from the previous year. The company, which trades on the Shenzhen Stock Exchange, is a subsidiary of state-owned Yunnan Tin Group (Holding) Company, which traces its roots back to 1883. In addition to being the largest tin-producing company in the world, Yunnan Tin Company is also the largest precious metals research and development center in China.
PT Timah is a state-owned Indonesian company that was established in 1976 and is headquartered in Bangka-Belitung province. Its a manufacturer and exporter of tin with operations ranging from exploration and mining to processing to marketing.The company has a number of subsidiaries.
Last year, it produced 45,700 tonnes of tin, a sizeable decrease from 76,400 tonnes in 2019, dropping it from the number one spot. According to the International Tin Association, PT Timah was able to more than double its tin production in 2019 because Indonesias export regulations forced many private smelters to halt operations. In turn, some of these otherwise idle smelting facilities were rented to PT Timah, increasing its tin production capacity significantly. By 2020, many of those same private smelters were able to resume their own production.
The third largest producer of tin last year was Malaysia Smelting, which produced 22,400 tonnes of tin in 2020, down from 24,300 tonnes in 2019. This company is also over a century old, and since 1887 has been a key integrated producer of tin and tin-based products, as well as a leader in custom tin smelting.
The companys origins date back to the beginning of the 20th century, and it currently owns the San Rafael mine, which it bills as South Americas largest tin-producing mine. San Rafael has been operated by Minsur since 1977, and today produces 12 percent of the worlds tin. Minsur also holds a smelter and refinery where it completes the tin production cycle.
Founded in 1994, Yunnan Chengfeng Non-ferrous Metals is Chinas second largest producer of tin, behind Yunnan Tin Company. In 2020, it produced 16,500 tonnes of tin, decreasing its output by 13.6 percent. Aside from tin, it produces indium, silver, gold, lead, bismuth and antimony. It has over 1,800 sets of smelting equipment, as well as 100 sets of environmental protection equipment.
Founded in 1963, Thailand Smelting and Refining, better known as THAISARCO, is a private firm that manufactures tin, tin alloys and tin-related value-added products. In 2020, the company produced 11,300 tonnes of tin. The company has been managed and operated by the UKs Amalgamated Metal since 1995, and Amalgamated Metal is its largest shareholder.
Guangxi China Tin is another of the largest producers of tin, putting out 10,100 tonnes last year. Behind Yunnan Tin Company and Yunnan Chengfeng Non-ferrous Metals, its the third biggest producer of tin in China. The private company, which was established in 1990, also produces indium, lead, antimony, zinc, silver, cadmium and bismuth, among other metals.
As its name suggests, Jiangxi New Nanshan entered the global tin market fairly recently when the first tin smelter came online in the Chinese province of Jiangxi in 2009. The smelter originally had a designed capacity of 10,000 tonnes of refined tin per year. In 2019, Jiangxi New Nanshan became a top 10 tin producer after a 122 percent increase in tin output. In 2020, the company raised its production level by more than 40 percent to reach 10,100 tonnes.
Belgiums Metallo Chimique produced 8,100 tonnes of tin in 2020, down from 9,300 tonnes in 2019. The private company operates a unique recycling and refining facility that processes secondary raw materials for the production of copper, tin, lead and nickel.
The last largest producer of tin on this list is Chinas Gejui Zi-Li Metallurgy, which produced 7,000 tonnes of tin last year. Yunnan Tin Company bought a 67 percent stake in the company in 2007, and Gejui Zi-Li currently operates a smelter based in the same city as Yunnan Tin Company. A private company, Gejui Zi-Li is Chinas fifth largest tin producer.
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