blake jaw crusher
In the history of crushers, both chronologically, and by virtue of its standing in the field of heavy-duty crushing, the Blake jaw crusher stands first in the list. All of the large, heavy-duty primary crushers of the jaw type are built around the Blake principle which, for simplicity and brute strength, is unsurpassed by any mechanism thus far devised for rock and ore breaking.
A sectional view of a jaw crusher which incorporates the Blake double-toggle mechanism is shown below. The Blake crusher in common with all machines of the jaw family is built into a rectangular frame, at one end of which is located the crushing chamber; in fact, the end of the box-frame constitutes the stationary jaw. The movable or swing jaw is suspended from a cross-shaft (swing jaw shaft) at its upper end, this shaft in turn being supported at each end in bearings at the top of the two sides of the crusher frame.
The actuating mechanism consists of the eccentric-shaft (also supported in bearings in the sides of the frame), the pitman, and the pair of toggles, which span from swing jaw to pit-man, and from pitman to rear end of the frame. The motion of the eccentric-shaft is transmitted through the pitman to the inner ends of the toggle pair, and through their action to the lower end of the swing jaw, which pivots around the supporting shaft at its upper end. The motion is similar in one respect to that of the standard gyratory crusher, in that it is greatest at the discharge opening, and gradually decreases toward the upper part of the chamber.
The Blake Jaw crusher frames have been the subject of considerable variety in details of design and have been built of several different materials. Originally all frames were of cast iron, as was the case with all of the early gyratory machines. Then, as larger sizes were developed, cast steel became the common medium for all large and medium size crushers. When the Superior line was designed, semi-steel was selected for the frame, and steel rods extending through the side members from end to end were provided to absorb the tensile stresses. This type of construction is used in all sizes of this line, except in the 84 machines, where cast steel has been used exclusively up to the present time, these cast-steel frames being reinforced for heavy-duty applications in the same manner as the semi-steel frames of the smaller machines. Of recent years the trend has been very definitely toward the use of welded design, with side members of rolled steel plate, reinforced by stiffening ribs.
In past years both chilled cast iron andmanganese steel were used in jaw plates for the Blake crusher, depending upon the kind of rock to be crushed. The chilled ironplates did not possess the requisite strength to resist breakage, even when used on comparatively soft rock; in our case we have abandoned them in favor of manganese steel on all of our jaw crushers, regardless of size.
This crusher is representative, in its general proportions, of the prevailing practice in Blake crusher design for a number of years. In this respect it is probably just as well entitled to be classed as a standard type as the gyratory crusher which goes by that title. It is true that refinements have been made in almost every detail, as compared to early models, but the basic action and the general proportions of the crushing chamber are much the same.
The original Blake crusher was designed with a vertical stationary jaw. Probably the first departure from this arrangement was an 84 X 66 crusher, built in 1914. This machineconventional design, in that the swing jaw was made vertical. Later, when the Superior line was developed, a compromise between these two extremes was used in several of the sizes; that is, both jaws were sloped. Each of these three arrangements has certain features which are advantageous, and others which are unfavorable. Present indications are that the original arrangement, with vertical stationary jaw, will continue to hold a leading position.
Crushing angles in standard Blake-Type machines generally run in the neighborhood of 27 deg, at the minimum open-side discharge setting. Theratio-of-reduction at minimum recommended settings and with straight jaw plates average about 8:1, in the range of sizes from 15- x 10-in., to 60- x 48-in,, inclusive.
The size requirement of the primary rock crusher is a function of grizzly openings, ore chute configuration, required throughput, ore moisture, and other factors. Usually, primary crushers are sized by the ability to accept the largest expected ore fragment. Jaw crushers are usually preferred as primary crushers in small installations due to the inherent mechanical simplicity and ease of operation of these machines. Additionally, jaw crushers wearing parts are relatively uncomplicated castings and tend to cost less per unit weight of metal than more complicated gyratory crusher castings. The primary crusher must be designed so that adequate surge capacity is present beneath the crusher. An ore stockpile after primary crushing is desirable but is not always possible to include in a compact design.
Many times the single heaviest equipment item in the entire plant is the primary crusher mainframe. The ability to transport the crusher main frame sometimes limits crusher size, particularly in remote locations having limited accessibility.
In a smaller installation, the crushing plant should be designed with the minimum number of required equipment items. Usually, a crushing plant that can process 1000s of metric tons per operating day will consist of a single primary crusher, a single screen, a single secondary cone crusher, and associated conveyor belts. The discharge from both primary and secondary crushers is directed to the screen. Screen oversize serves as feed to the secondary crusher while screen undersize is the finished product. For throughputs of 500 to 1,000 metric tons per operating day (usually 2 shifts), a closed circuit tertiary cone crusher is usually added to the crushing circuit outlined above. This approach, with the addition of a duplicate screen associated with the tertiary cone crusher, has proven to be effective even on ores having relatively high moisture contents. Provided screen decks are correctly selected, the moist fine material in the incoming ore tends to be removed in the screening stages and therefore does not enter into subsequent crushing units.
All crusher cavities and major ore transfer points should be equipped with a jib-type crane or hydraulic rock tongs to facilitate the removal of chokes. In addition, secondary crushers must be protected from tramp iron by suspended magnets or magnetic head pulleys. The location of these magnets should be such that recycling of magnetic material back into the system is not possible.
Crushing plants for the tonnages indicated may be considered to be standardized. It is not prudent to spend money researching crusher abrasion indices or determining operating kilowatt consumptions for the required particle size reduction in a proposed small crushing plant. Crushing installations usually are operated to produce the required mill tonnage at a specified size distribution under conditions of varying ore hardness by the variation of the number of operating hours per day. It is normal practice to generously size a small crushing plant so that the daily design crushing tonnage can be produced in one, or at most two, operating shifts per working day.
jaw crushers | mclanahan
Jaw Crushers are used to reduce the sizeof many different types of materials in many applications. The Jaw Crusher was first introduced by Eli Whitney Blake in 1858 as a double-toggle Jaw Crusher. Introduced in 1906, McLanahans Universal Jaw Crusher was one of the first modern era overhead eccentric Jaw Crushers. On the overhead eccentric style Jaw Crusher, the moving swing jaw is suspended on the eccentric shaft with heavy-duty double roll spherical roller bearings.
The swing jaw undergoes two types of motion: one is a swing motion toward the opposite chamber side (called a stationary jaw die due to theaction of a toggle plate), and the second is a vertical movement due to the rotation of the eccentric. These combined motions compress and push the material through the crushing chamber at a predetermined size.
More than 110 years of engineering and customer service experience keep customers running to McLanahan tomeet their production goals. McLanahan Jaw Crushers are proudly made in the USA and have imperial designs. With our grass roots design coupled with listening to customer needs for product enhancement over the years, McLanahan offers traditional hydraulic-shim adjustment Jaw Crushers as well asH-Series Jaw Crushers that featurehydraulic discharge setting adjustment, adjust-on-the-fly chamber clearing in the event the site loses power (once power is restored) and hydraulic relief for overload events with auto-reset.
Whether the traditional hydraulic-shim adjustment or the H-Series Jaw Crushers, both machines have an aggressive nip angle that providesconsistent crushing throughout the entire crushing chamber, which leads to increased production and less downtime on maintenance.
A Jaw Crusher uses compressive force for breaking material. This mechanical pressure is achieved by the crusher'stwo jaws dies, one of which is stationary and the other is movable. These two vertical manganese jaw dies create a V-shaped cavity called the crushing chamber, where the top of the crushing chamber is larger than the bottom. Jaw Crushers are sized by the top opening of the crushing chamber. For example, a 32 x 54 Jaw Crusher measures 32" from jaw die to jaw dieat the top opening or gape opening and54 across the width of the two jaw dies.
The narrower bottom opening of the crushing chamber is used to size the discharge material. A toggle plate and tension rods hold the pitman tight near the bottom of the moving swing jaw. The toggle plate is designed to perform like a fuse and protect the crusher in the event that an uncrushable materialenters the crushing chamber. As a rule, Jaw Crushers have a 6:1 or 8:1 ratio for crushing material. Still using the 32 x 54 Jaw Crusher example, the top size of thefeed entering the crushing chamber has to follow the F80 rule that 80% of the top size feed material is smaller than the gape opening. Using the F80 rule with the 32 x 54 Jaw Crusher, the32 gape opening equals a26 top sized feed, and with the 6:1 ratio of reduction, the discharge setting would be around 4.
Since the crushing of the material is not performed in one stroke of the eccentric shaft, massive weighted flywheels are attached to the eccentric shaft andpowered by a motor. The flywheels transfer the inertia required to crush thematerial until it passes the discharge opening.
While Jaw Crushers are mostly used as the first stage of material reduction in systems that may use several crushers to complete the circuit, the Jaw Crusher has also been used as a second-stage crushing unit. Depending on the application requirements, Jaw Crushers can be used in stationary, wheeled portable and track-mounted locations. The Jaw Crusher is well suited for a variety of applications, including rock quarries, sand and gravel, mining, construction and demolitionrecycling, construction aggregates, road and railway construction, metallurgy, water conservancy and chemical industry.
F100 is the maximum gape opening on a Jaw Crusher. F80 is the feed size to the Jaw Crusher, calculated by taking 80 times the gape opening divided by 100. P80 is the percent passing the closed side setting in tph.
A best practice, if possible, is to blend the material arriving from the source. This will ensure a constant and well-graded feed to the crushing chamber. In turn, this will produce a steady rate of tph andpromote inter-particle crushing that helps break any flat or elongated material. It also aids in equal work hardening the manganese jaw dies and prolonging the life of the jaw dies.
Usually a Jaw Crusher is in an open circuit, but it can be used in a close circuit if the return load is not greater than 20% of the total feed and the raw feed is free of fines smaller than the closed side setting.
Efficiency can be defined by the ratio of the work done by a machine to the energy supplied to it. To apply what this means to your crusher, in your reduction process you are producing exactly the sizes your market is demanding. In the past, quarries produced a range of single-size aggregate products up to 40 mm in size. However, the trend for highly specified aggregate has meant that products have become increasingly finer. Currently, many quarries do not produce significant quantities of aggregate coarser than 20 mm; it is not unusual for material coarser than 10 mm to be stockpiled for further crushing.
rock & stone crushers | rock crushing machines | williams crusher
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