Hello, my partner! Let's explore the mining machine together!

[email protected]

used addition in cement grinding

used concrete grinder for sale. ouke equipment & more | machinio

used concrete grinder for sale. ouke equipment & more | machinio

Product Description Self-priming epoxy floor machine Dust-free grinding machine Floor grinding Old epoxy floor refurbished machine Epoxy grinding machine The hand-pushing dust-free ground grinder is an advanced p...

Product Description Self-priming epoxy floor machine Dust-free grinding machine Floor grinding Old epoxy floor refurbished machine Epoxy grinding machine The hand-pushing dust-free ground grinder is an advanced p...

Product Description Self-priming epoxy floor machine Dust-free grinding machine Floor grinding Old epoxy floor refurbished machine Epoxy grinding machine The hand-pushing dust-free ground grinder is an advanced p...

Product Description Self-priming epoxy floor machine Dust-free grinding machine Floor grinding Old epoxy floor refurbished machine Epoxy grinding machine The hand-pushing dust-free ground grinder is an advanced p...

Product Description Self-priming epoxy floor machine Dust-free grinding machine Floor grinding Old epoxy floor refurbished machine Epoxy grinding machine The hand-pushing dust-free ground grinder is an advanced p...

Product Description Self-priming epoxy floor machine Dust-free grinding machine Floor grinding Old epoxy floor refurbished machine Epoxy grinding machine The hand-pushing dust-free ground grinder is an advanced p...

Product Description Self-priming epoxy floor machine Dust-free grinding machine Floor grinding Old epoxy floor refurbished machine Epoxy grinding machine The hand-pushing dust-free ground grinder is an advanced p...

Product Description Self-priming epoxy floor machine Dust-free grinding machine Floor grinding Old epoxy floor refurbished machine Epoxy grinding machine The hand-pushing dust-free ground grinder is an advanced p...

Best price clean epoxy resin grinding machine 380 dust free concrete floor grinding machine We are specialized in the road machine, especially the floor grinder. The grinding machine can be used forgrinding of s...

Applicable industries: Hotels, Garment Shops, Building Material Shops, Machinery Repair Shops, Manufacturing Plant, Food & Beverage Factory, Farms, Restaurant, Home Use, Retail, Food Shop, Printing Shops, Constr...

Construction dry and wet use floor concrete hand push grinder 1.Use aluminum alloy/cast iron gear box body, long life, high precision, good heat dissipation performance, gears are high-precision processing, to en...

9KW electric marble concrete floor polisher grinder grinding machine We are specialized in the road machine, especially the floor grinder. The grinding machine can be used forgrinding of standard and hard concre...

Applicable industries: Hotels, Garment Shops, Building Material Shops, Machinery Repair Shops, Manufacturing Plant, Food & Beverage Factory, Farms, Restaurant, Home Use, Retail, Food Shop, Printing Shops, Constr...

6 ways to grind a concrete floor

6 ways to grind a concrete floor

Concrete is the single most used material on earth. In the foreseeable future, there's no other man-made material that can substitute concrete to meet humans' need for housing and infrastructure. Be it foundations or floors, patios or sidewalks, the importance of concrete cannot be undermined.

Since there will always be a need for concrete, there will always be a need to keep it polished and looking its best. Property owners increasingly realize the benefits of grinding their concrete floors. Besides improving the aesthetic appeal of a property, concrete floor grinding results in a durable surface with few maintenance requirements.

If you're interested in starting your own concrete grinding and polishing business or are thinking of expanding your business into floor grinding, it's extremely necessary for you to know the ins and outs of the grinding process. This article gives helpful insights on how to grind a concrete floor more efficiently. Let's get right to it, shall we?

It's a no brainer that having the right equipment and tools for concrete grinding is crucial. You want the best combination of tools and equipment that will result in maximum performance and flexibility at a minimum cost. The following are the right tools for the job:

A grinder is a must-have tool in the concrete grinding process. Concrete grinders have various applications and use cases, including cleaning, grinding, and polishing concrete floors. The grinders employ horizontal discs that revolve to polish off rough surfaces and smooth rough edges.

There are two types of concrete floor grinders: traditional large and bulky models used for patios and floors, and newer, compact handheld models that are generally used for worktops. While each type requires different skills, both achieve the same result.

Although you can grind concrete floors using either dry or wet methods, the trend today is to go dry. Not only is the dry method faster and more convenient, but it also doesn't leave behind the messy slurry that wet grinding creates.

During the concrete grinding process, concrete floor grinders tend to create a huge amount of dust. This makes the use of dust-control equipment mandatory to keep concrete dust from going airborne. In this case, a dust vacuum collector will come in handy. When using a dust collector, less than 0.03% of the dust particles escape into the air, thus greatly reduces the risk of lung diseases.

Most concrete grinders don't come equipped with an integral dust vacuum collector, which means that you'll have to buy a separate unit. Some manufacturers sell dust extractors specifically for use with their grinders. If that's not the case, however, you'll have to shop around for one.

Every concrete grinding business requires a variety of diamond cup wheels to complete most concrete grinding projects on time. Concrete varies in hardness depending on the mix that was used, and you need to have at least one diamond cup wheel for softer concrete and one for harder concrete. Other frequently used diamond tools include grinding diamonds, polishing pads, PCD diamond tools, and grinding plates.

A situp grinder attachment kit consists of a welded steel frame and a mounting bracket that attaches to a grinder to allow you to use the grinder while seated on a mobile chair or stool. Adding this kit turns a hand grinder into a serious concrete grinder that saves your back and your knees while increasing productivity and the quality of edge grinding.

Before polishing the concrete floor, you must first evaluate the condition of the surface. It would be best if you look out for low or high spots, minor cracks and blemishes, and joint spalling. For minor surface imperfections, diamond grinding can remove them easily. For major surface imperfections such as major cracking and joint spalling, however, you may need other remedial methods such as patching.

This is basically a three- to four-step process, depending on the condition of the concrete floor. In most cases, you'll begin with a coarse 40-grit metal bond tool. The 40-grit tool is for standard concrete grinding and is ideal for grinding concrete that is medium-hard. If you're grinding a concrete floor that is extremely hard, consider using a 14/16-grit metal bond tool.

When rough grinding, begin from one side and grind from west to east across the entire concrete floor. Be sure to overlap the grinding pass as close to the previous grinding pass as possible. After several passes over the concrete floor with the 40-grit metal bond tool, repeat the process with a finer 80-grit and 150-grit metal bond tool. Remember that each diamond grit step requires an average of two passes, depending on the concrete density.

After grinding from west to east, you should change the direction and grind from north to south. Again, ensure that the grinding passes overlap one another as close as possible. It is advisable to grind the concrete floor in swing style to ensure that the grinding passes are well blended. Also, be sure to maintain a slow pace during grinding to avoid swirl grinding passes.

After doing the initial rough grinding with the metal-bonded diamond abrasives, it's usually beneficial to solidify and densify the surface. This involves applying a liquid chemical hardener to the surface. In addition to producing a better polish, the process provides the surface with extra protection from staining and water penetration.

To solidify and densify the concrete, you should use a stiff-bristled broom to apply the hardener abundantly to the surface, ensuring that the surface is well saturated. Leave the hardener for about 30 minutes to ensure that it penetrates deeply into the concrete floor. Remove any excess hardener using a floor scrubber or squeegee. Allow the hardener to cure for 12-24 hours or as instructed by the hardener maker.

After waiting for 12-24 hours, you should proceed with this step that involves polishing the concrete surface with diamond abrasives embedded in a resin matrix. Begin by polishing with a 100-grit resin bond, then switch to finer grits until you achieve the desired sheen. If you want to achieve an extremely high-gloss finish, you should go up to a final grit of 3000.

After obtaining the look that your client is striving for, you may want to protect the concrete floor by applying a commercial stain-guard product. This step is necessary, especially if the concrete floor will be exposed to chemicals, oil, or grease. Using a commercial stain-guard protector makes the concrete floor more resistant to dirt and stain absorption. You can use a wax applicator or pump sprayer to apply the stain-guard protector.

Now that you're equipped with the basic knowledge of grinding to get started, all you need is some patience and curiosity to experiment with different grinding tools. If you're looking for the right concrete grinding equipment and tools to kick-start your grinding business, be sure to check out Onfloor Technologies to get everything that you need under one roof.

how to grind 1 inch of concrete: in 3 steps [effectively]

how to grind 1 inch of concrete: in 3 steps [effectively]

The method of concrete grinding is typically used to take out 1 high or less stub toes. For average homeowners, learning how to grind 1 inch of concrete is one of the easiest and straightforward projects.

These grinders are powerful and come with more speed options compared to hand-held concrete grinders. A range of choices is also available for concrete grinders. For example, restricted or small areas require single-disc models. While for larger areas, you can choose between dual, triple, and even four-disc configurations. More disc configuration means more areas can be covered in a short amount of time.

It is best suited for smaller areas, home projects. You can use them for industrial work also if the surface is tight. The standard diameter range of the grinding disc of a hand-held grinder is 5 12 inches. Another worth-mentioning thing is, a variety of disc attachments is available for hand-held tools. One additional benefit of hand-held grinders is; dust control will be much easier when you can hook them up to an industrial vac.

Both concrete grinder types are available with the corded and cordless option. Additionally, some models come with a built-in water-mist mechanism for dry and wet applications, dust-free grinding system.

If your project is to handle proofing work or thin-film coating removal, diamond-segmented disc attachments offer the best result. This type of disc attachment comes with various grit levels and ranges from fine to coarse.

But one problem with this attachment is, it clogs soon. As a result, handling a commercial project is of utmost frustration with it. Also, silicone-carbide stones are not efficient in delivering satisfactory results on a large surface.

This attachment performs using carbide-tipped blocks. It features beveled edges, and this way, grinding thicker coating is a matter of time when you have a tungsten-carbide tipped concrete grinder in your hand. Another great feature is; you will never experience any scratch on the concrete when you use this attachment.

These are all basic tools that will require before starting the grinding 1 concrete floor project. If any of these tools are already acquired by you or someone can lend them to you, buying them will be unnecessary.

Firstly, locate the area of the concrete floor where you will be grinding. Ensure that no plumbing or electricity line is not running beneath the located area. Moreover, have a look at the concrete to evaluate the concrete surface.

Concrete grinders consist of rotating discs, and in the disc, you will find tiny bits of diamond embedded in its metal matrix or resin. These diamond bits rotate horizontally to grind and polish the concrete floor.

As stated earlier, concrete grinders discs are available in 3 major types, different friction levels, bond hardness, size, and diamond density to perform different activities. Depending on your project requirement, choose the right kind of attachment.

Answer: Grinding 100 sq. ft. of concrete floor inch will not be a challenging task when you have the right tool and attachment in your hand. Pick a hand-held concrete grinder and attach a diamond-segmented tip to grind down effortlessly.

Answer: Undoubtedly, an angle grinder is powerful enough to grind concrete surfaces. But the performance will be poor compared to a walk-around concrete grinder. A walk-around concrete grinder has a built-in water spray system that keeps the blade cool and produces less dust when cutting concrete. They are also suitable for heavy-duty handling tasks, while an angle grinder is less efficient in handling grind concrete tasks.

When the question comes to how to grind 1 inch of concrete, the key factor is picking the right tool with the best attachment. With the best-suited tool, grinding 1 of concrete will be effortless for sure.

Since we discussed the type and attachments of the concrete grinder depending on the project, hopefully, you will not face the hassle of picking the right tool. Always ensure wearing protective gears when dealing with a concrete grinder because it is a powerful tool. If you are inattentive during a project, any unwanted situation may arise.

Hi, I am Rogers Weber, the man behind Solvesonic. I am a mechanical engineer. I use many kinds of tools almost every day at my workplace. I love to write about tools, home improvement, and DIYs. I enjoy helping people to solve their problems through my website.

used concrete grinders for sale. ouke equipment & more | machinio

used concrete grinders for sale. ouke equipment & more | machinio

Product Description Self-priming epoxy floor machine Dust-free grinding machine Floor grinding Old epoxy floor refurbished machine Epoxy grinding machine The hand-pushing dust-free ground grinder is an advanced p...

Product Description Self-priming epoxy floor machine Dust-free grinding machine Floor grinding Old epoxy floor refurbished machine Epoxy grinding machine The hand-pushing dust-free ground grinder is an advanced p...

Product Description Self-priming epoxy floor machine Dust-free grinding machine Floor grinding Old epoxy floor refurbished machine Epoxy grinding machine The hand-pushing dust-free ground grinder is an advanced p...

Product Description Self-priming epoxy floor machine Dust-free grinding machine Floor grinding Old epoxy floor refurbished machine Epoxy grinding machine The hand-pushing dust-free ground grinder is an advanced p...

Product Description Self-priming epoxy floor machine Dust-free grinding machine Floor grinding Old epoxy floor refurbished machine Epoxy grinding machine The hand-pushing dust-free ground grinder is an advanced p...

Product Description Self-priming epoxy floor machine Dust-free grinding machine Floor grinding Old epoxy floor refurbished machine Epoxy grinding machine The hand-pushing dust-free ground grinder is an advanced p...

Product Description Self-priming epoxy floor machine Dust-free grinding machine Floor grinding Old epoxy floor refurbished machine Epoxy grinding machine The hand-pushing dust-free ground grinder is an advanced p...

Product Description Self-priming epoxy floor machine Dust-free grinding machine Floor grinding Old epoxy floor refurbished machine Epoxy grinding machine The hand-pushing dust-free ground grinder is an advanced p...

Best price clean epoxy resin grinding machine 380 dust free concrete floor grinding machine We are specialized in the road machine, especially the floor grinder. The grinding machine can be used forgrinding of s...

Applicable industries: Hotels, Garment Shops, Building Material Shops, Machinery Repair Shops, Manufacturing Plant, Food & Beverage Factory, Farms, Restaurant, Home Use, Retail, Food Shop, Printing Shops, Constr...

Construction dry and wet use floor concrete hand push grinder 1.Use aluminum alloy/cast iron gear box body, long life, high precision, good heat dissipation performance, gears are high-precision processing, to en...

9KW electric marble concrete floor polisher grinder grinding machine We are specialized in the road machine, especially the floor grinder. The grinding machine can be used forgrinding of standard and hard concre...

Applicable industries: Hotels, Garment Shops, Building Material Shops, Machinery Repair Shops, Manufacturing Plant, Food & Beverage Factory, Farms, Restaurant, Home Use, Retail, Food Shop, Printing Shops, Constr...

rotary kiln design: cement rotary kiln refractory bricks | rotary kiln refractory lining

rotary kiln design: cement rotary kiln refractory bricks | rotary kiln refractory lining

With the continuous progress of the cement industry, rotary kiln, as the core cement equipment of cement production line, is developing towards a large scale. Compared with the traditional rotary kiln, its technology is more complex, and the requirements for rotary kiln design and accessories are higher. The rotary kiln refractory lining is a layer of refractory material installed inside the kiln cylinder, which plays a protective role in many aspects, and is an important part of cement rotary kiln.

Refractory brick is a kind of rotary kiln lining. At the early time, due to the small size of the kiln body and low calcination temperature, we mainly used high-alumina brick and clay brick as the lining. In the 1960s, the kiln lining at high-temperature zone was replaced by alkaline bricks. With the large-scale of rotary kiln, its sintering temperature increases, meanwhile, the cylinder rotating speed and the diameter also increase, all of which cause certain damage to the rotary kiln refractory brick. Besides, the corrosion of alkali, sulfur, chlorine, and other volatile substances, as well as some erosive wear, aggravate the wear degree of refractory bricks inside the kiln body. After a summary, they can be respectively classified as chemical damage, mechanical stress damage, and thermal stress damage. In most cases, they act on the refractory lining in combination.

Therefore, if we want to ensure the smooth running of cement rotary kiln and prolong its service life, we should select the right kind of refractory bricks according to their damage mechanism in different parts of the rotary kiln body.

In addition, we should combine the structure of cement rotary kiln to choose the refractory brick. The cement rotary kiln can be generally divided into preheating zone, lower transition zone, upper transition zone, sintering zone, and cooling zone. The length, temperature, and function of each zone are different, so the selection of refractory lining brick should meet the requirements of each area.

Lower Transition Zone: the temperature in this area is relatively low, so the thermal conductivity of the refractory brick is required to be low. Both anti-stripping alumina brick and silicon mullite brick are frequently used in this zone. Of the two bricks, the performance of silica mullite brick is superior, its service life is about 1 time longer than the anti-spalling high alumina brick, but the price is about 1.5 times higher.

Upper Transition Zone: the coating formation in this zone is unstable, the kiln lining is required to has good thermal shock resistance, low thermal conductivity, and strong wear resistance. Magnesia alumina spinel brick is a good choice, but its thermal conductivity is relatively high. By contrast, the wear resistance and overall performance of the silica-alumina brick are equivalent to the magnesia alumina spinel brick, and its thermal conductivity is low.

Sintering Zone: the sintering zone has a high calcining temperature and intense chemical reaction, the lining brick in this area should have a strong ability to resist the erosion of clinker, SO3, and CO2. Magnesia-chrome brick has a poor performance and is easy to react with clinker to produce Cro3, resulting in short service life. The commonly used magnesia iron spinel brick has a great effect but a high cost. Therefore, comprehensive consideration, we had better choose periclase spinel compound brick in this area.

Cooling Zone: the temperature fluctuates greatly in this zone and the coating formation is unstable. The rotary kiln refractory lining should be wear-resisting and has excellent thermal shock resistance and low thermal conductivity. In recent years, we usually use silicon mullite bricks and anti-stripping abrasive brick.

According to the above analysis, we can select suitable refractory bricks for the cement rotary kiln, but the raw materials and fuels of each cement kiln may be different, we should make appropriate adjustments according to the characteristics of our rotary kiln.

AGICO Group is an integrative enterprise group. It is a Chinese company that specialized in manufacturing and exporting cement plants and cement equipment, providing the turnkey project from project design, equipment installation and equipment commissioning to equipment maintenance.

portland cement manufacturing ordinary portland cement production | agico

portland cement manufacturing ordinary portland cement production | agico

What is Portland cement? Portland cement derives its name from Portland, England, in many cases, also called silicate cement. It is a kind of hydraulic cementing material made of calcium silicate cement clinker, limestone or blast furnace slag (less than 5%), and an appropriate amount of gypsum. At present, Portland cement has been widely used in residential construction, traffic construction, large-scale water conservancy construction, and civil engineering, etc.

For different applications, Portland cement is classified into various types. The ordinary Portland cement (OPC) refers to Portland cement containing 5 ~ 20% of active mixing material. The Portland cement with a higher proportion of admixture (more than 20%) usually named by the admixture, such as the Portland pozzolan cement, Portland fly-ash cement, Portland slag cement, etc.

The main components of Portland cement include calcium oxide (CaO), silicon dioxide (SiO2), aluminum oxide (Al2O3), and iron oxide (Fe2O3). They account for more than 95% of the total cement composition. In addition, there are other oxides like magnesium oxide (MgO), sulfur trioxide (SO3), titanium dioxide (TiO2), phosphorus pentoxide (P2O5), potassium oxide (K2O), sodium oxide (Na2O), etc., accounting for less than 5% of the total amount. These components that make up raw materials react at high temperatures and finally form compounds tricalcium silicate, dicalcium silicate, tricalcium aluminate, and tetracalcium aluminoferrite. The tricalcium silicate and dicalcium silicate determine the strength of Portland cement, in which the tricalcium silicate mostly affects the early strength. Tricalcium aluminate causes the initial setting of Portland cement.

Portland cement has a high setting and hardening speed, high strength, especially its early strength growth rate. It is suitable for high strength concrete structures, prestressed concrete engineering, and projects with high early strength requirements.

The rich content of carbon disulfide in Portland cement leads to its high heat release, high release speed, and high strength in the early stage. If it is used in winter construction, freezing damage can be avoided.

Portland cement has the characteristic of strong alkalinity, high density, and strong carbonation resistance. When the steel bar is buried in an alkaline environment, a layer of gray passivation film will be formed on the surface, which can keep the steel bar from rusting for decades. Therefore, Portland cement is especially suitable for important reinforced concrete structures and prestressed concrete works.

A large amount of calcium silicate hydrate will be produced during the hardening process of Portland cement. As a result, cement stone has high density, less free moisture, and is not easy to produce dry shrinkage cracks. Therefore, Portland cement can be used in concrete engineering in a dry environment.

Portland cement mixture is not easy to bleed, and the density of hardened cement stone is large, so the frost resistance is better than other general cement. It is suitable for concrete engineering under repeated freeze-thaw action in severe cold areas.

Portland cement manufacturing process can be divided into 6 steps: raw material crushing, pre-homogenization, fine grinding, clinker production, cement grinding, cement packing, etc. In these processes, we need the assistance of different kinds of cement equipment, such as cement kilns, cement mills, and cement crushers. The specific manufacturing processes are as follow:

After cement raw materials are mined, most of them should be crushed into small particle sizes. Coal, the main fuel for cement production, also needs to be broken in advance. In this step, all of them should be crushed by special crushing mills and then be transported to the pre-homogenization yard by belt conveyor.

The pre-homogenization refers to the preliminary homogenization of cement raw materials and fuel raw materials through the application of scientific stacking and reclaiming technology in the process of material storing and taking. In this step, the stacker is applied to pre-homogenize and stack raw materials in layers. Then the scraper reclaimer takes out raw materials and sends them to the batching station helped by the belt conveyor.

After the raw material batching is completed, cement raw meals (calcareous raw materials, clayey raw materials, and a small amount of corrective materials) need to be further ground by raw mills to realize a certain fineness, appropriate chemical composition, and uniform structure so that they can meet the calcination requirements of various cement kilns. The frequently used raw mills include cement ball mill, cement vertical mill, Raymond mill, etc. The air-swept coal mill is used for coal grinding.

Clinker production is the most critical stage in the cement manufacturing process. At present, the new dry process clinker production technology is the most advanced clinker production method. It has the advantages of high efficiency, energy-saving, and high production quality. By this production method, the raw meal powder will be pre decomposed in cyclone preheater and calciner firstly, and then enter cement kiln to be calcined under high temperature. After that, the calcined clinker will be cooled by the grate cooler and stored in the clinker warehouse.

After calcination, the clinker needs to be mixed with gypsum and additives to meet the requirements of different properties. Then, they will be ground by cement mills to appropriate particle size, forming a certain particle gradation, which increases the hydration area and accelerates the hydration speed.

Cement packing is the last step in the cement manufacturing process. After the cement powder is discharged from the unloading system at the bottom of cement silos, they will be sent into the cement packaging machine by the bucket elevator. In the packing machine, they are packaged into bags and then be transported to different sales markets.

AGICO Group is an integrative enterprise group. It is a Chinese company that specialized in manufacturing and exporting cement plants and cement equipment, providing the turnkey project from project design, equipment installation and equipment commissioning to equipment maintenance.

cement and cement additives - structural guide

cement and cement additives - structural guide

Structural loads, structural analysis and structural design are simply explained with the worked example for easiness of understanding. Element designs with notes and discussions have added to get comprehensive knowledge. Also, construction materials, shoring system design, water retaining structures, crack width calculations, etc. have discussed in addition to other aspects.

Cement is a binding that sets, hardens, and adheres to other material to bind them together. It is manufactured through a closely controlled chemical combination of calcium, silicon, aluminum, iron and other ingredients.

Limestone, shells and chalk or marl combined with shale, clay, slate, blast furnace slag, silica sand and iron ore are used to make the cement. These ingredients, when heated at high temperatures form a rock-like substance that is ground into the fine powder that we commonly think of as cement.

Raw materials that included calcium, silicon, iron and aluminum are used in cement manufacturing. Mainly, limestone, clay and sand are used to fulfill the requirements of these materials. Limestone used to fulfill the requirements of the calcium and additions in small proportions of sand and clay fulfill the need for silicon, iron and aluminum. In addition, there is much other raw material used in cement manufacturing. Addition of those materials is based on the requirements of the production.

After the collection of the raw materials, proportioning and grinding is done. In general, limestone and clay contents are 80% and 20% respectively. Then the materials are pre-headed as a measure to improve the productivity of the process and to make it environmental friendly production. Further, pre-heading utilizes the emitting hot gases from the kiln.

The kiln is a rotating furnace that does the manufacturing process. In this phase (Kiln phase) a slurry of materials is made after the raw materials are heating. The temperature of the central part of the kiln is around 10000C and decomposition of the limestone is taking place in this area. CaO will be remaining after the reaction when CO2is released.

The lower part of the kiln will be heated around 1500 17000C. The reaction of the lime and clay yields the calcium aluminates and the calcium silicates in this region. This process creates aluminates and silicate of calcium clinkers. They are hard and like smalls stones having dimensions around 5 to 10mm. The following reaction can be observed in this process.

CEMENT TYPESCement is categorized by different standards and development based on use and the specifications. Guidelines considered by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) is discussed here. ASTM-C150 (standard specification of Portland cement) and C595 (standard specification for blended hydraulic cement) specifications are as follows.

In addition, based on the type/applications there are other categorizations of cement. They are mainly based on the purposes to be used for the construction. The following types can be identified more commonly.

In addition, there are two intermediate strength classes, 37.5 and 47.5, for mixer combination of portland cement conforming to BS 12 with ground granulated blast furnace slag (ggbs) conforming to BS 6699.

Physical and chemical properties of the cement are tested usually before the use. A number of testes and sections of the test could be based on the relevant specifications. The following physical properties are tested usually.

In addition, the chemical composition of the cement is also checked to make whether they are within the limits. The ration of the percentage of lime to the percentage of Silica, Alumina and iron oxide are normally checked. The article written about the testing of cement provides a more detail description of the testing of cement

MINERAL OR SUPPLEMENTARY ADDITIVESMineral additives are identified as supplementary cementitious material (Pozzolana) is a finely ground siliceous material which, as such, does not possess cementitious properties itself, but react with chemically with calcium hydroxide released from the hydration of the Portland cement at normal temperature to form low solubility having cementitious properties. The action is termed pozzolanic action. These material are more commonly used to make the concrete mixture is more economical, reduces permeability, increase strength or influence other concrete properties, which can be used individually or in combination with Portland or blended cement or as partial equipment of Portland cement.

Natural Pozzolana is clay, shales, opaline cherts, diatomaceous earth, and volcanic tuffs and humanities. The most commonly used artificial pozzolanas are fly ash, blast- furnace slag, silica fume, rice husk ash, metakaoline and surkhi. Pozzolans are added to the concrete as an additive or as a substitution to the cement. Pozzolans, when used as a replacement, are generally substituted for 10 -50 % of cement. Pozzolans reduce the expansion causes by alkali-aggregate-reaction or alkali-silica reactivity in concrete. This expansion can be controlled by adding pozzolans in the range of 5-35% by mass of cement depending on the type of the aggregate and the alkali content of cement.

Fly ash or pulverized fuel ash is the residue from the combustion of pulverized coal collected by mechanical dust collectors or electrostatic precipitators or separators from the fuel gases of thermal power plants. Fly ash also a combination of oxides of calcium, aluminum, and silicon same as the cement but it has considerably less calcium oxide.

Partial size of the fly ash is in the range of 1-100 microns (0.1mm) and the average size is about 20 microns which is similar to the Portland cement average particle size. Fly ash can be used as prime material in many cement-based products. Pouring concrete, concrete blocks and brick construction can be identified as common uses of it.

There are two different types of fly ash. They are Class F and Class C fly ash. Class F fly ash contains particles covered in a kind of melted glass. It has the ability to resist the risk of expansion and the sulfate attach. Class C also resist to expansions from chemical attack. Class C fly as is more commonly used for structural concrete. Typically, Class F fly as used at a dosage of 15 to 25 percent by mass of cementitious material, while Class C fly ash is used at a dosage of 15 to 40 percent.

Fly ash is a good substitute as well as good replacement material in concrete when compared with advantages and disadvantages. Especially the low emission of the carbon which is a requirement of sustainable development, can be identified as one of the key factors to be considered when thinking about the future. The following main advantages can be gained with the used of fly ash.

There are some disadvantages of fly ash. Especially for small scale construction, these materials may not be applicable. A special arrangement is required at the batching plant when the concrete having the fly ash is taken. The cost would be higher in such situations. The following could be considered as main factors.

It is a waste industrial by-product obtained during the production of iron and it is used to improve the properties of concrete. Workability, strength and durability improvement can be expected with the addition of the GGBS.Mainly like in cement, oxides of calcium, silicon, aluminum, and magnesium are present in the GGBS. The content of these materials is comparatively less when compared with the Portland cement. The particle sizes are in the range of 0.1 to 40 microns and specific surface area is in the range of 400 to 600 m2/kg.

GGBS can be added to the concrete at the batching plant. As per the studies, GGBS can be replaced from 30 to 85 percent of the cement by weight. However, most of the time, it is in the range of 40 to 50 percent.

Silica fume light dark grey cementitious material composed of at least 85 percent ultrafine, amorphous non-crystalline spherical silicon dioxide particles. It is a byproduct of silicon metal production or ferrosilicon alloy production. Because of the chemical and physical properties, it is a very reactive pozzolan. Concrete containing silica fume can have very high strengths and good durability.

Silica fume is a very fine material having around 1/50 the size of ordinary Portland cement. The average size of a particle varies 0.1-0.3 microns and the minimum specific surface areas are around 15000m2/kg.

Extreme fineness, large surface area and high content of amorphous silicon dioxide gives silica fume super pozzolanic properties. Reduction of bleeding and segregation in fresh concrete, improvement of the strength and the durability of hardened concrete are some of the key advantages of the silica fume. Low porosity with its fineness reduces permeability. In addition, the following advantages and disadvantages can be identified.

cement additives

cement additives

Cement additives are materials added to cement for the optimization of the cement properties and the cement grinding process. Cement additives are classified into different product groups such as grinding aids, strength enhancers and performance enhancers.

Each individual cement plant has different characteristics of local raw materials, availability of possible clinker replacements (such as supplementarycementitious materials - SCM) and varying conditions during the cement grinding process. In addition, local standards and customers needs regarding cement performance vary due to unique climate and construction methods. Therefore, the solution for highest possible production rates or maximized use of supplementary cementitious materials needs to be adjusted individually.

Grinding Aids are used in the cement mill (Ball Mill, Vertical Roller Mill, HoroMill) to increase the productivity, save electrical energy and/or to increase the fineness and improve defined cement properties, e.g. powder flowability.

A typical example is SikaGrind-400. Based on the knowledge of its design and production, Sika has developed a polycarboxylate polymer-powered grinding aid technology, which is able to improve the performance of traditional grinding aids. A typical example is SikaGrind-840.

There are several ways to increase the mechanical strength of cement. It is common to use cement additives that increase the mechanical strength by chemical activation, without changing the cement surface and particle size distribution. Alkanolamines are frequently used and are able to increase the compressive strength (at different or all age) by max. five MPa. Typical examples are SikaGrind-200 and SikaGrind-700. These admixtures increase the productivity of the grinding aid at the same time.

Clinker is often replaced with supplementary cementitious materials (SCM) such as granulated blast furnace slag, natural pozzolanes and fly ash in order to reduce CO2 emissions and material cost. However, SCM may counteract strength development, powder flowability, mortar workability and durability, which are critical for cement quality. Examples of our performance enhancers are SikaGrind LS-43 for Portland Limestone Cement production and SikaGrind-184 for slag cement.

Whether being confronted with a special problem or in the daily challenge to improve profitability, Sika will assist you in reaching your targets. Local conditions and demands vary strongly, making it necessary to handle every plant individually. Sika can offer tailor-made solutions, designed to meet individual challenges, thereby working together as partners with one joint target.

To begin the product and process optimization, well-defined and technically feasible targets related to the present production and quality parameters are agreed upon. Based on our experience in cement production process and product know-how, one or two SikaGrind products are recommended for plant trials. If necessary, laboratory pre-trials can be arranged in one of Sika's regional cement laboratories.

Preparation and execution of plant trials are handled by Sika staff in cooperation with plant staff. The production data and cement analysis results determined in specialized laboratories are then discussed between you and Sikas cement specialists, to agree upon the target fulfillment and define next steps.

In case of inconclusive results or the need for further optimization work, another plant trial cycle with potential product modification and laboratory pre-trials may be necessary. Sika's analytical laboratory is well-equipped with modern instruments and well-trained technicians.

Related News
  1. dangote inaugurates new ibese cement plant
  2. rotary kiln calcined bauxite view calcination rotary kiln
  3. embee rotary screen dryer machine price
  4. b&m price for rotary drier
  5. price of cost of rotary drying facility
  6. china cement mill manufacturer
  7. cement plant duct auto design
  8. rotary kiln for lime plants
  9. concrete crusher new mexico for rent
  10. rotary dryer kya h in hindi
  11. france crusher aggregate for sale
  12. iron ore dressing in bong mines
  13. quarry machinery sale ireland
  14. rice milling in the philippines
  15. nigeria tangible benefits portable stone stone crushing machine manufacturer
  16. thickener magnetic separating best
  17. mobile crusher for sale in the united states
  18. galaţi low price small salt stone crusher manufacturer
  19. coal mill 5 farmers
  20. china crusher berenger tamil nadu