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what is roll mill

rolling mills: 6 different types of rolling mills [images & pdf]

rolling mills: 6 different types of rolling mills [images & pdf]

In this article, youll learn what is Rolling mill and how it works and 6 types of rolling mills with explained with images and also you can download the PDF file of this post.Rolling Mills and TypesContents show1. Rolling Mills and Types2. Types of Rolling Mills2.1. 1. Two High Rolling Mills2.2. 2. Three High Rolling Mills2.3. 3. Four High Rolling Mills2.4. 4. Cluster Rolling Mill2.5. 5. Planetary Rolling Mill2.6. 6. Tandem or Continuous Mill3. ConclusionRolling mill is the extensively used process and the most expensive one in terms of equipment costs. It accounts for almost 90% of the metal produced by forming.Image credit: IndiamartIn the rolling process, the job is drawn through a set of rolls due to interface friction, and the compressive forces reduce the thickness of the workpiece or change in its cross-sectional area. The types of rolls used in rolling mills are depended upon the shape, size and the gap between the rolls and their contour. Because of workability and limitations in equipment, rolling is done in the following steps, that is a number of passes through the rolls may be required to get the required configuration.During rolling initial passes results in a reduction of cross-sectional area, while intermediate passes try to bring the shape closer to the final shape and the final or finishing passes bring the material to the required shape and size. Plates, bars, rounds, structural shapes, sheets and strips can be obtained by rolling.Here are the some of similar article you can checkout:Heat treatment: Types, Working and Process of Heat TreatmentMetal Casting Process: Types of Moulding, Sands and Its classification.Types of Rolling MillsFollowing are the 6 different types of rolling mills used in many industries:Two high rolling millsThree high rolling millsFour high rolling millsCluster rolling millsPlanetary rolling millsTendem or Continuous mills1. Two High Rolling MillsIt contains two heavy rolls fixed one over the other. The rolls are supported in bearing housed in sturdy upright frames (called stands) which are grouted to the rolling mill floor. The vertical gap between the roll is adjustable. The rolls rotate in opposite directions and are driven by electrical motors.The direction of rotation of rolls cannot be changed, therefore the work has to be fed into rolls from one direction only. If rolling requires more than one pass in the same set of rolls, the material will have to be brought back to the same side after the first pass.2. Three High Rolling MillsIt consists of three rolls positioned directly over one another as shown in the figure below. The direction of rotation of the first and second rolls are opposite as in the case of two high mills. The direction of rotation (path) of second and third rolls is always opposite to each other.Always all three rolls rotate in their bearings in the same direction. The advantages of this will mill is that work material can be fed in one direction between the first and second roll and the return pass can be provided in between the second and third rolls. This results in the transport of material from one side of rolls to the other.Read also: List of Mechanical Properties That Every Mechanical Engineer Should Know3. Four High Rolling MillsThe mill has four horizontal rolls, two smaller diameters and two much larger. The larger rolls are called backup rolls. The smaller rolls are the working rolls, but if they would be thicker in the centre and thinner at either end.Backup rolls hold the working rolls and restrict deflection when the material is being rolled. The usual products of these mills are hot and cold plates and sheets.4. Cluster Rolling MillIt consists of two small diameter working rolls and four or more backing rolls. The larger number of backup rolls provided becomes necessary as the backup rolls cannot exceed the diameter of working rolls by more than 2-3 times.5. Planetary Rolling MillIn the planetary mill type of rolling machine, a large backup roller is surrounded by a number of planetary working rollers as shown in the figure.Each planetary roll gives a continuous reduction. It is employed to reduce large thicknesses in a single pass of a steel strip. Its rolling capacity is higher than cluster machine but less than a tandem rolling machine.6. Tandem or Continuous MillIn this tandem mill types of rolling mill, It includes of a number of non-reversing two-high rolling mills provide one after other. So that the material can be passed through them all in order.This is only suitable for mass production work, as lower volumes require a quicker change of set up and they will consume a lot of labour and work.ConclusionSo now, we hope that we have clear all your doubts about Types of Rolling Mill. If you have still any doubts about the Types of Rolling Mill you can contact us or ask in the comments.We have also a Facebook community for you guys. If you want, you can join our community, here is the link toour Facebook group.Thats it thanks for reading. If you like our article then please share it with your friends. If you have any questions about any topic you can ask in the comment section.Subscribe to our newsletter to get notified when we upload new posts.Email Address SubscribeDownload the free PDF file of this post by clicking below:Read Next:Milling Machine: Main Parts Working PrincipleDrilling machine Parts, Types, Operations [Complete Guide] with PDFLathe Machine: Parts, Types, Operations, Attachments

Rolling mill is the extensively used process and the most expensive one in terms of equipment costs. It accounts for almost 90% of the metal produced by forming.Image credit: IndiamartIn the rolling process, the job is drawn through a set of rolls due to interface friction, and the compressive forces reduce the thickness of the workpiece or change in its cross-sectional area. The types of rolls used in rolling mills are depended upon the shape, size and the gap between the rolls and their contour. Because of workability and limitations in equipment, rolling is done in the following steps, that is a number of passes through the rolls may be required to get the required configuration.During rolling initial passes results in a reduction of cross-sectional area, while intermediate passes try to bring the shape closer to the final shape and the final or finishing passes bring the material to the required shape and size. Plates, bars, rounds, structural shapes, sheets and strips can be obtained by rolling.Here are the some of similar article you can checkout:Heat treatment: Types, Working and Process of Heat TreatmentMetal Casting Process: Types of Moulding, Sands and Its classification.Types of Rolling MillsFollowing are the 6 different types of rolling mills used in many industries:Two high rolling millsThree high rolling millsFour high rolling millsCluster rolling millsPlanetary rolling millsTendem or Continuous mills1. Two High Rolling MillsIt contains two heavy rolls fixed one over the other. The rolls are supported in bearing housed in sturdy upright frames (called stands) which are grouted to the rolling mill floor. The vertical gap between the roll is adjustable. The rolls rotate in opposite directions and are driven by electrical motors.The direction of rotation of rolls cannot be changed, therefore the work has to be fed into rolls from one direction only. If rolling requires more than one pass in the same set of rolls, the material will have to be brought back to the same side after the first pass.2. Three High Rolling MillsIt consists of three rolls positioned directly over one another as shown in the figure below. The direction of rotation of the first and second rolls are opposite as in the case of two high mills. The direction of rotation (path) of second and third rolls is always opposite to each other.Always all three rolls rotate in their bearings in the same direction. The advantages of this will mill is that work material can be fed in one direction between the first and second roll and the return pass can be provided in between the second and third rolls. This results in the transport of material from one side of rolls to the other.Read also: List of Mechanical Properties That Every Mechanical Engineer Should Know3. Four High Rolling MillsThe mill has four horizontal rolls, two smaller diameters and two much larger. The larger rolls are called backup rolls. The smaller rolls are the working rolls, but if they would be thicker in the centre and thinner at either end.Backup rolls hold the working rolls and restrict deflection when the material is being rolled. The usual products of these mills are hot and cold plates and sheets.4. Cluster Rolling MillIt consists of two small diameter working rolls and four or more backing rolls. The larger number of backup rolls provided becomes necessary as the backup rolls cannot exceed the diameter of working rolls by more than 2-3 times.5. Planetary Rolling MillIn the planetary mill type of rolling machine, a large backup roller is surrounded by a number of planetary working rollers as shown in the figure.Each planetary roll gives a continuous reduction. It is employed to reduce large thicknesses in a single pass of a steel strip. Its rolling capacity is higher than cluster machine but less than a tandem rolling machine.6. Tandem or Continuous MillIn this tandem mill types of rolling mill, It includes of a number of non-reversing two-high rolling mills provide one after other. So that the material can be passed through them all in order.This is only suitable for mass production work, as lower volumes require a quicker change of set up and they will consume a lot of labour and work.ConclusionSo now, we hope that we have clear all your doubts about Types of Rolling Mill. If you have still any doubts about the Types of Rolling Mill you can contact us or ask in the comments.We have also a Facebook community for you guys. If you want, you can join our community, here is the link toour Facebook group.Thats it thanks for reading. If you like our article then please share it with your friends. If you have any questions about any topic you can ask in the comment section.Subscribe to our newsletter to get notified when we upload new posts.Email Address SubscribeDownload the free PDF file of this post by clicking below:Read Next:Milling Machine: Main Parts Working PrincipleDrilling machine Parts, Types, Operations [Complete Guide] with PDFLathe Machine: Parts, Types, Operations, Attachments

In the rolling process, the job is drawn through a set of rolls due to interface friction, and the compressive forces reduce the thickness of the workpiece or change in its cross-sectional area. The types of rolls used in rolling mills are depended upon the shape, size and the gap between the rolls and their contour. Because of workability and limitations in equipment, rolling is done in the following steps, that is a number of passes through the rolls may be required to get the required configuration.During rolling initial passes results in a reduction of cross-sectional area, while intermediate passes try to bring the shape closer to the final shape and the final or finishing passes bring the material to the required shape and size. Plates, bars, rounds, structural shapes, sheets and strips can be obtained by rolling.Here are the some of similar article you can checkout:Heat treatment: Types, Working and Process of Heat TreatmentMetal Casting Process: Types of Moulding, Sands and Its classification.Types of Rolling MillsFollowing are the 6 different types of rolling mills used in many industries:Two high rolling millsThree high rolling millsFour high rolling millsCluster rolling millsPlanetary rolling millsTendem or Continuous mills1. Two High Rolling MillsIt contains two heavy rolls fixed one over the other. The rolls are supported in bearing housed in sturdy upright frames (called stands) which are grouted to the rolling mill floor. The vertical gap between the roll is adjustable. The rolls rotate in opposite directions and are driven by electrical motors.The direction of rotation of rolls cannot be changed, therefore the work has to be fed into rolls from one direction only. If rolling requires more than one pass in the same set of rolls, the material will have to be brought back to the same side after the first pass.2. Three High Rolling MillsIt consists of three rolls positioned directly over one another as shown in the figure below. The direction of rotation of the first and second rolls are opposite as in the case of two high mills. The direction of rotation (path) of second and third rolls is always opposite to each other.Always all three rolls rotate in their bearings in the same direction. The advantages of this will mill is that work material can be fed in one direction between the first and second roll and the return pass can be provided in between the second and third rolls. This results in the transport of material from one side of rolls to the other.Read also: List of Mechanical Properties That Every Mechanical Engineer Should Know3. Four High Rolling MillsThe mill has four horizontal rolls, two smaller diameters and two much larger. The larger rolls are called backup rolls. The smaller rolls are the working rolls, but if they would be thicker in the centre and thinner at either end.Backup rolls hold the working rolls and restrict deflection when the material is being rolled. The usual products of these mills are hot and cold plates and sheets.4. Cluster Rolling MillIt consists of two small diameter working rolls and four or more backing rolls. The larger number of backup rolls provided becomes necessary as the backup rolls cannot exceed the diameter of working rolls by more than 2-3 times.5. Planetary Rolling MillIn the planetary mill type of rolling machine, a large backup roller is surrounded by a number of planetary working rollers as shown in the figure.Each planetary roll gives a continuous reduction. It is employed to reduce large thicknesses in a single pass of a steel strip. Its rolling capacity is higher than cluster machine but less than a tandem rolling machine.6. Tandem or Continuous MillIn this tandem mill types of rolling mill, It includes of a number of non-reversing two-high rolling mills provide one after other. So that the material can be passed through them all in order.This is only suitable for mass production work, as lower volumes require a quicker change of set up and they will consume a lot of labour and work.ConclusionSo now, we hope that we have clear all your doubts about Types of Rolling Mill. If you have still any doubts about the Types of Rolling Mill you can contact us or ask in the comments.We have also a Facebook community for you guys. If you want, you can join our community, here is the link toour Facebook group.Thats it thanks for reading. If you like our article then please share it with your friends. If you have any questions about any topic you can ask in the comment section.Subscribe to our newsletter to get notified when we upload new posts.Email Address SubscribeDownload the free PDF file of this post by clicking below:Read Next:Milling Machine: Main Parts Working PrincipleDrilling machine Parts, Types, Operations [Complete Guide] with PDFLathe Machine: Parts, Types, Operations, Attachments

The types of rolls used in rolling mills are depended upon the shape, size and the gap between the rolls and their contour. Because of workability and limitations in equipment, rolling is done in the following steps, that is a number of passes through the rolls may be required to get the required configuration.During rolling initial passes results in a reduction of cross-sectional area, while intermediate passes try to bring the shape closer to the final shape and the final or finishing passes bring the material to the required shape and size. Plates, bars, rounds, structural shapes, sheets and strips can be obtained by rolling.Here are the some of similar article you can checkout:Heat treatment: Types, Working and Process of Heat TreatmentMetal Casting Process: Types of Moulding, Sands and Its classification.Types of Rolling MillsFollowing are the 6 different types of rolling mills used in many industries:Two high rolling millsThree high rolling millsFour high rolling millsCluster rolling millsPlanetary rolling millsTendem or Continuous mills1. Two High Rolling MillsIt contains two heavy rolls fixed one over the other. The rolls are supported in bearing housed in sturdy upright frames (called stands) which are grouted to the rolling mill floor. The vertical gap between the roll is adjustable. The rolls rotate in opposite directions and are driven by electrical motors.The direction of rotation of rolls cannot be changed, therefore the work has to be fed into rolls from one direction only. If rolling requires more than one pass in the same set of rolls, the material will have to be brought back to the same side after the first pass.2. Three High Rolling MillsIt consists of three rolls positioned directly over one another as shown in the figure below. The direction of rotation of the first and second rolls are opposite as in the case of two high mills. The direction of rotation (path) of second and third rolls is always opposite to each other.Always all three rolls rotate in their bearings in the same direction. The advantages of this will mill is that work material can be fed in one direction between the first and second roll and the return pass can be provided in between the second and third rolls. This results in the transport of material from one side of rolls to the other.Read also: List of Mechanical Properties That Every Mechanical Engineer Should Know3. Four High Rolling MillsThe mill has four horizontal rolls, two smaller diameters and two much larger. The larger rolls are called backup rolls. The smaller rolls are the working rolls, but if they would be thicker in the centre and thinner at either end.Backup rolls hold the working rolls and restrict deflection when the material is being rolled. The usual products of these mills are hot and cold plates and sheets.4. Cluster Rolling MillIt consists of two small diameter working rolls and four or more backing rolls. The larger number of backup rolls provided becomes necessary as the backup rolls cannot exceed the diameter of working rolls by more than 2-3 times.5. Planetary Rolling MillIn the planetary mill type of rolling machine, a large backup roller is surrounded by a number of planetary working rollers as shown in the figure.Each planetary roll gives a continuous reduction. It is employed to reduce large thicknesses in a single pass of a steel strip. Its rolling capacity is higher than cluster machine but less than a tandem rolling machine.6. Tandem or Continuous MillIn this tandem mill types of rolling mill, It includes of a number of non-reversing two-high rolling mills provide one after other. So that the material can be passed through them all in order.This is only suitable for mass production work, as lower volumes require a quicker change of set up and they will consume a lot of labour and work.ConclusionSo now, we hope that we have clear all your doubts about Types of Rolling Mill. If you have still any doubts about the Types of Rolling Mill you can contact us or ask in the comments.We have also a Facebook community for you guys. If you want, you can join our community, here is the link toour Facebook group.Thats it thanks for reading. If you like our article then please share it with your friends. If you have any questions about any topic you can ask in the comment section.Subscribe to our newsletter to get notified when we upload new posts.Email Address SubscribeDownload the free PDF file of this post by clicking below:Read Next:Milling Machine: Main Parts Working PrincipleDrilling machine Parts, Types, Operations [Complete Guide] with PDFLathe Machine: Parts, Types, Operations, Attachments

During rolling initial passes results in a reduction of cross-sectional area, while intermediate passes try to bring the shape closer to the final shape and the final or finishing passes bring the material to the required shape and size. Plates, bars, rounds, structural shapes, sheets and strips can be obtained by rolling.Here are the some of similar article you can checkout:Heat treatment: Types, Working and Process of Heat TreatmentMetal Casting Process: Types of Moulding, Sands and Its classification.Types of Rolling MillsFollowing are the 6 different types of rolling mills used in many industries:Two high rolling millsThree high rolling millsFour high rolling millsCluster rolling millsPlanetary rolling millsTendem or Continuous mills1. Two High Rolling MillsIt contains two heavy rolls fixed one over the other. The rolls are supported in bearing housed in sturdy upright frames (called stands) which are grouted to the rolling mill floor. The vertical gap between the roll is adjustable. The rolls rotate in opposite directions and are driven by electrical motors.The direction of rotation of rolls cannot be changed, therefore the work has to be fed into rolls from one direction only. If rolling requires more than one pass in the same set of rolls, the material will have to be brought back to the same side after the first pass.2. Three High Rolling MillsIt consists of three rolls positioned directly over one another as shown in the figure below. The direction of rotation of the first and second rolls are opposite as in the case of two high mills. The direction of rotation (path) of second and third rolls is always opposite to each other.Always all three rolls rotate in their bearings in the same direction. The advantages of this will mill is that work material can be fed in one direction between the first and second roll and the return pass can be provided in between the second and third rolls. This results in the transport of material from one side of rolls to the other.Read also: List of Mechanical Properties That Every Mechanical Engineer Should Know3. Four High Rolling MillsThe mill has four horizontal rolls, two smaller diameters and two much larger. The larger rolls are called backup rolls. The smaller rolls are the working rolls, but if they would be thicker in the centre and thinner at either end.Backup rolls hold the working rolls and restrict deflection when the material is being rolled. The usual products of these mills are hot and cold plates and sheets.4. Cluster Rolling MillIt consists of two small diameter working rolls and four or more backing rolls. The larger number of backup rolls provided becomes necessary as the backup rolls cannot exceed the diameter of working rolls by more than 2-3 times.5. Planetary Rolling MillIn the planetary mill type of rolling machine, a large backup roller is surrounded by a number of planetary working rollers as shown in the figure.Each planetary roll gives a continuous reduction. It is employed to reduce large thicknesses in a single pass of a steel strip. Its rolling capacity is higher than cluster machine but less than a tandem rolling machine.6. Tandem or Continuous MillIn this tandem mill types of rolling mill, It includes of a number of non-reversing two-high rolling mills provide one after other. So that the material can be passed through them all in order.This is only suitable for mass production work, as lower volumes require a quicker change of set up and they will consume a lot of labour and work.ConclusionSo now, we hope that we have clear all your doubts about Types of Rolling Mill. If you have still any doubts about the Types of Rolling Mill you can contact us or ask in the comments.We have also a Facebook community for you guys. If you want, you can join our community, here is the link toour Facebook group.Thats it thanks for reading. If you like our article then please share it with your friends. If you have any questions about any topic you can ask in the comment section.Subscribe to our newsletter to get notified when we upload new posts.Email Address SubscribeDownload the free PDF file of this post by clicking below:Read Next:Milling Machine: Main Parts Working PrincipleDrilling machine Parts, Types, Operations [Complete Guide] with PDFLathe Machine: Parts, Types, Operations, Attachments

Here are the some of similar article you can checkout:Heat treatment: Types, Working and Process of Heat TreatmentMetal Casting Process: Types of Moulding, Sands and Its classification.Types of Rolling MillsFollowing are the 6 different types of rolling mills used in many industries:Two high rolling millsThree high rolling millsFour high rolling millsCluster rolling millsPlanetary rolling millsTendem or Continuous mills1. Two High Rolling MillsIt contains two heavy rolls fixed one over the other. The rolls are supported in bearing housed in sturdy upright frames (called stands) which are grouted to the rolling mill floor. The vertical gap between the roll is adjustable. The rolls rotate in opposite directions and are driven by electrical motors.The direction of rotation of rolls cannot be changed, therefore the work has to be fed into rolls from one direction only. If rolling requires more than one pass in the same set of rolls, the material will have to be brought back to the same side after the first pass.2. Three High Rolling MillsIt consists of three rolls positioned directly over one another as shown in the figure below. The direction of rotation of the first and second rolls are opposite as in the case of two high mills. The direction of rotation (path) of second and third rolls is always opposite to each other.Always all three rolls rotate in their bearings in the same direction. The advantages of this will mill is that work material can be fed in one direction between the first and second roll and the return pass can be provided in between the second and third rolls. This results in the transport of material from one side of rolls to the other.Read also: List of Mechanical Properties That Every Mechanical Engineer Should Know3. Four High Rolling MillsThe mill has four horizontal rolls, two smaller diameters and two much larger. The larger rolls are called backup rolls. The smaller rolls are the working rolls, but if they would be thicker in the centre and thinner at either end.Backup rolls hold the working rolls and restrict deflection when the material is being rolled. The usual products of these mills are hot and cold plates and sheets.4. Cluster Rolling MillIt consists of two small diameter working rolls and four or more backing rolls. The larger number of backup rolls provided becomes necessary as the backup rolls cannot exceed the diameter of working rolls by more than 2-3 times.5. Planetary Rolling MillIn the planetary mill type of rolling machine, a large backup roller is surrounded by a number of planetary working rollers as shown in the figure.Each planetary roll gives a continuous reduction. It is employed to reduce large thicknesses in a single pass of a steel strip. Its rolling capacity is higher than cluster machine but less than a tandem rolling machine.6. Tandem or Continuous MillIn this tandem mill types of rolling mill, It includes of a number of non-reversing two-high rolling mills provide one after other. So that the material can be passed through them all in order.This is only suitable for mass production work, as lower volumes require a quicker change of set up and they will consume a lot of labour and work.ConclusionSo now, we hope that we have clear all your doubts about Types of Rolling Mill. If you have still any doubts about the Types of Rolling Mill you can contact us or ask in the comments.We have also a Facebook community for you guys. If you want, you can join our community, here is the link toour Facebook group.Thats it thanks for reading. If you like our article then please share it with your friends. If you have any questions about any topic you can ask in the comment section.Subscribe to our newsletter to get notified when we upload new posts.Email Address SubscribeDownload the free PDF file of this post by clicking below:Read Next:Milling Machine: Main Parts Working PrincipleDrilling machine Parts, Types, Operations [Complete Guide] with PDFLathe Machine: Parts, Types, Operations, Attachments

Following are the 6 different types of rolling mills used in many industries:Two high rolling millsThree high rolling millsFour high rolling millsCluster rolling millsPlanetary rolling millsTendem or Continuous mills1. Two High Rolling MillsIt contains two heavy rolls fixed one over the other. The rolls are supported in bearing housed in sturdy upright frames (called stands) which are grouted to the rolling mill floor. The vertical gap between the roll is adjustable. The rolls rotate in opposite directions and are driven by electrical motors.The direction of rotation of rolls cannot be changed, therefore the work has to be fed into rolls from one direction only. If rolling requires more than one pass in the same set of rolls, the material will have to be brought back to the same side after the first pass.2. Three High Rolling MillsIt consists of three rolls positioned directly over one another as shown in the figure below. The direction of rotation of the first and second rolls are opposite as in the case of two high mills. The direction of rotation (path) of second and third rolls is always opposite to each other.Always all three rolls rotate in their bearings in the same direction. The advantages of this will mill is that work material can be fed in one direction between the first and second roll and the return pass can be provided in between the second and third rolls. This results in the transport of material from one side of rolls to the other.Read also: List of Mechanical Properties That Every Mechanical Engineer Should Know3. Four High Rolling MillsThe mill has four horizontal rolls, two smaller diameters and two much larger. The larger rolls are called backup rolls. The smaller rolls are the working rolls, but if they would be thicker in the centre and thinner at either end.Backup rolls hold the working rolls and restrict deflection when the material is being rolled. The usual products of these mills are hot and cold plates and sheets.4. Cluster Rolling MillIt consists of two small diameter working rolls and four or more backing rolls. The larger number of backup rolls provided becomes necessary as the backup rolls cannot exceed the diameter of working rolls by more than 2-3 times.5. Planetary Rolling MillIn the planetary mill type of rolling machine, a large backup roller is surrounded by a number of planetary working rollers as shown in the figure.Each planetary roll gives a continuous reduction. It is employed to reduce large thicknesses in a single pass of a steel strip. Its rolling capacity is higher than cluster machine but less than a tandem rolling machine.6. Tandem or Continuous MillIn this tandem mill types of rolling mill, It includes of a number of non-reversing two-high rolling mills provide one after other. So that the material can be passed through them all in order.This is only suitable for mass production work, as lower volumes require a quicker change of set up and they will consume a lot of labour and work.ConclusionSo now, we hope that we have clear all your doubts about Types of Rolling Mill. If you have still any doubts about the Types of Rolling Mill you can contact us or ask in the comments.We have also a Facebook community for you guys. If you want, you can join our community, here is the link toour Facebook group.Thats it thanks for reading. If you like our article then please share it with your friends. If you have any questions about any topic you can ask in the comment section.Subscribe to our newsletter to get notified when we upload new posts.Email Address SubscribeDownload the free PDF file of this post by clicking below:Read Next:Milling Machine: Main Parts Working PrincipleDrilling machine Parts, Types, Operations [Complete Guide] with PDFLathe Machine: Parts, Types, Operations, Attachments

It contains two heavy rolls fixed one over the other. The rolls are supported in bearing housed in sturdy upright frames (called stands) which are grouted to the rolling mill floor. The vertical gap between the roll is adjustable. The rolls rotate in opposite directions and are driven by electrical motors.The direction of rotation of rolls cannot be changed, therefore the work has to be fed into rolls from one direction only. If rolling requires more than one pass in the same set of rolls, the material will have to be brought back to the same side after the first pass.2. Three High Rolling MillsIt consists of three rolls positioned directly over one another as shown in the figure below. The direction of rotation of the first and second rolls are opposite as in the case of two high mills. The direction of rotation (path) of second and third rolls is always opposite to each other.Always all three rolls rotate in their bearings in the same direction. The advantages of this will mill is that work material can be fed in one direction between the first and second roll and the return pass can be provided in between the second and third rolls. This results in the transport of material from one side of rolls to the other.Read also: List of Mechanical Properties That Every Mechanical Engineer Should Know3. Four High Rolling MillsThe mill has four horizontal rolls, two smaller diameters and two much larger. The larger rolls are called backup rolls. The smaller rolls are the working rolls, but if they would be thicker in the centre and thinner at either end.Backup rolls hold the working rolls and restrict deflection when the material is being rolled. The usual products of these mills are hot and cold plates and sheets.4. Cluster Rolling MillIt consists of two small diameter working rolls and four or more backing rolls. The larger number of backup rolls provided becomes necessary as the backup rolls cannot exceed the diameter of working rolls by more than 2-3 times.5. Planetary Rolling MillIn the planetary mill type of rolling machine, a large backup roller is surrounded by a number of planetary working rollers as shown in the figure.Each planetary roll gives a continuous reduction. It is employed to reduce large thicknesses in a single pass of a steel strip. Its rolling capacity is higher than cluster machine but less than a tandem rolling machine.6. Tandem or Continuous MillIn this tandem mill types of rolling mill, It includes of a number of non-reversing two-high rolling mills provide one after other. So that the material can be passed through them all in order.This is only suitable for mass production work, as lower volumes require a quicker change of set up and they will consume a lot of labour and work.ConclusionSo now, we hope that we have clear all your doubts about Types of Rolling Mill. If you have still any doubts about the Types of Rolling Mill you can contact us or ask in the comments.We have also a Facebook community for you guys. If you want, you can join our community, here is the link toour Facebook group.Thats it thanks for reading. If you like our article then please share it with your friends. If you have any questions about any topic you can ask in the comment section.Subscribe to our newsletter to get notified when we upload new posts.Email Address SubscribeDownload the free PDF file of this post by clicking below:Read Next:Milling Machine: Main Parts Working PrincipleDrilling machine Parts, Types, Operations [Complete Guide] with PDFLathe Machine: Parts, Types, Operations, Attachments

The direction of rotation of rolls cannot be changed, therefore the work has to be fed into rolls from one direction only. If rolling requires more than one pass in the same set of rolls, the material will have to be brought back to the same side after the first pass.2. Three High Rolling MillsIt consists of three rolls positioned directly over one another as shown in the figure below. The direction of rotation of the first and second rolls are opposite as in the case of two high mills. The direction of rotation (path) of second and third rolls is always opposite to each other.Always all three rolls rotate in their bearings in the same direction. The advantages of this will mill is that work material can be fed in one direction between the first and second roll and the return pass can be provided in between the second and third rolls. This results in the transport of material from one side of rolls to the other.Read also: List of Mechanical Properties That Every Mechanical Engineer Should Know3. Four High Rolling MillsThe mill has four horizontal rolls, two smaller diameters and two much larger. The larger rolls are called backup rolls. The smaller rolls are the working rolls, but if they would be thicker in the centre and thinner at either end.Backup rolls hold the working rolls and restrict deflection when the material is being rolled. The usual products of these mills are hot and cold plates and sheets.4. Cluster Rolling MillIt consists of two small diameter working rolls and four or more backing rolls. The larger number of backup rolls provided becomes necessary as the backup rolls cannot exceed the diameter of working rolls by more than 2-3 times.5. Planetary Rolling MillIn the planetary mill type of rolling machine, a large backup roller is surrounded by a number of planetary working rollers as shown in the figure.Each planetary roll gives a continuous reduction. It is employed to reduce large thicknesses in a single pass of a steel strip. Its rolling capacity is higher than cluster machine but less than a tandem rolling machine.6. Tandem or Continuous MillIn this tandem mill types of rolling mill, It includes of a number of non-reversing two-high rolling mills provide one after other. So that the material can be passed through them all in order.This is only suitable for mass production work, as lower volumes require a quicker change of set up and they will consume a lot of labour and work.ConclusionSo now, we hope that we have clear all your doubts about Types of Rolling Mill. If you have still any doubts about the Types of Rolling Mill you can contact us or ask in the comments.We have also a Facebook community for you guys. If you want, you can join our community, here is the link toour Facebook group.Thats it thanks for reading. If you like our article then please share it with your friends. If you have any questions about any topic you can ask in the comment section.Subscribe to our newsletter to get notified when we upload new posts.Email Address SubscribeDownload the free PDF file of this post by clicking below:Read Next:Milling Machine: Main Parts Working PrincipleDrilling machine Parts, Types, Operations [Complete Guide] with PDFLathe Machine: Parts, Types, Operations, Attachments

It consists of three rolls positioned directly over one another as shown in the figure below. The direction of rotation of the first and second rolls are opposite as in the case of two high mills. The direction of rotation (path) of second and third rolls is always opposite to each other.Always all three rolls rotate in their bearings in the same direction. The advantages of this will mill is that work material can be fed in one direction between the first and second roll and the return pass can be provided in between the second and third rolls. This results in the transport of material from one side of rolls to the other.Read also: List of Mechanical Properties That Every Mechanical Engineer Should Know3. Four High Rolling MillsThe mill has four horizontal rolls, two smaller diameters and two much larger. The larger rolls are called backup rolls. The smaller rolls are the working rolls, but if they would be thicker in the centre and thinner at either end.Backup rolls hold the working rolls and restrict deflection when the material is being rolled. The usual products of these mills are hot and cold plates and sheets.4. Cluster Rolling MillIt consists of two small diameter working rolls and four or more backing rolls. The larger number of backup rolls provided becomes necessary as the backup rolls cannot exceed the diameter of working rolls by more than 2-3 times.5. Planetary Rolling MillIn the planetary mill type of rolling machine, a large backup roller is surrounded by a number of planetary working rollers as shown in the figure.Each planetary roll gives a continuous reduction. It is employed to reduce large thicknesses in a single pass of a steel strip. Its rolling capacity is higher than cluster machine but less than a tandem rolling machine.6. Tandem or Continuous MillIn this tandem mill types of rolling mill, It includes of a number of non-reversing two-high rolling mills provide one after other. So that the material can be passed through them all in order.This is only suitable for mass production work, as lower volumes require a quicker change of set up and they will consume a lot of labour and work.ConclusionSo now, we hope that we have clear all your doubts about Types of Rolling Mill. If you have still any doubts about the Types of Rolling Mill you can contact us or ask in the comments.We have also a Facebook community for you guys. If you want, you can join our community, here is the link toour Facebook group.Thats it thanks for reading. If you like our article then please share it with your friends. If you have any questions about any topic you can ask in the comment section.Subscribe to our newsletter to get notified when we upload new posts.Email Address SubscribeDownload the free PDF file of this post by clicking below:Read Next:Milling Machine: Main Parts Working PrincipleDrilling machine Parts, Types, Operations [Complete Guide] with PDFLathe Machine: Parts, Types, Operations, Attachments

Always all three rolls rotate in their bearings in the same direction. The advantages of this will mill is that work material can be fed in one direction between the first and second roll and the return pass can be provided in between the second and third rolls. This results in the transport of material from one side of rolls to the other.Read also: List of Mechanical Properties That Every Mechanical Engineer Should Know3. Four High Rolling MillsThe mill has four horizontal rolls, two smaller diameters and two much larger. The larger rolls are called backup rolls. The smaller rolls are the working rolls, but if they would be thicker in the centre and thinner at either end.Backup rolls hold the working rolls and restrict deflection when the material is being rolled. The usual products of these mills are hot and cold plates and sheets.4. Cluster Rolling MillIt consists of two small diameter working rolls and four or more backing rolls. The larger number of backup rolls provided becomes necessary as the backup rolls cannot exceed the diameter of working rolls by more than 2-3 times.5. Planetary Rolling MillIn the planetary mill type of rolling machine, a large backup roller is surrounded by a number of planetary working rollers as shown in the figure.Each planetary roll gives a continuous reduction. It is employed to reduce large thicknesses in a single pass of a steel strip. Its rolling capacity is higher than cluster machine but less than a tandem rolling machine.6. Tandem or Continuous MillIn this tandem mill types of rolling mill, It includes of a number of non-reversing two-high rolling mills provide one after other. So that the material can be passed through them all in order.This is only suitable for mass production work, as lower volumes require a quicker change of set up and they will consume a lot of labour and work.ConclusionSo now, we hope that we have clear all your doubts about Types of Rolling Mill. If you have still any doubts about the Types of Rolling Mill you can contact us or ask in the comments.We have also a Facebook community for you guys. If you want, you can join our community, here is the link toour Facebook group.Thats it thanks for reading. If you like our article then please share it with your friends. If you have any questions about any topic you can ask in the comment section.Subscribe to our newsletter to get notified when we upload new posts.Email Address SubscribeDownload the free PDF file of this post by clicking below:Read Next:Milling Machine: Main Parts Working PrincipleDrilling machine Parts, Types, Operations [Complete Guide] with PDFLathe Machine: Parts, Types, Operations, Attachments

Read also: List of Mechanical Properties That Every Mechanical Engineer Should Know3. Four High Rolling MillsThe mill has four horizontal rolls, two smaller diameters and two much larger. The larger rolls are called backup rolls. The smaller rolls are the working rolls, but if they would be thicker in the centre and thinner at either end.Backup rolls hold the working rolls and restrict deflection when the material is being rolled. The usual products of these mills are hot and cold plates and sheets.4. Cluster Rolling MillIt consists of two small diameter working rolls and four or more backing rolls. The larger number of backup rolls provided becomes necessary as the backup rolls cannot exceed the diameter of working rolls by more than 2-3 times.5. Planetary Rolling MillIn the planetary mill type of rolling machine, a large backup roller is surrounded by a number of planetary working rollers as shown in the figure.Each planetary roll gives a continuous reduction. It is employed to reduce large thicknesses in a single pass of a steel strip. Its rolling capacity is higher than cluster machine but less than a tandem rolling machine.6. Tandem or Continuous MillIn this tandem mill types of rolling mill, It includes of a number of non-reversing two-high rolling mills provide one after other. So that the material can be passed through them all in order.This is only suitable for mass production work, as lower volumes require a quicker change of set up and they will consume a lot of labour and work.ConclusionSo now, we hope that we have clear all your doubts about Types of Rolling Mill. If you have still any doubts about the Types of Rolling Mill you can contact us or ask in the comments.We have also a Facebook community for you guys. If you want, you can join our community, here is the link toour Facebook group.Thats it thanks for reading. If you like our article then please share it with your friends. If you have any questions about any topic you can ask in the comment section.Subscribe to our newsletter to get notified when we upload new posts.Email Address SubscribeDownload the free PDF file of this post by clicking below:Read Next:Milling Machine: Main Parts Working PrincipleDrilling machine Parts, Types, Operations [Complete Guide] with PDFLathe Machine: Parts, Types, Operations, Attachments

The mill has four horizontal rolls, two smaller diameters and two much larger. The larger rolls are called backup rolls. The smaller rolls are the working rolls, but if they would be thicker in the centre and thinner at either end.Backup rolls hold the working rolls and restrict deflection when the material is being rolled. The usual products of these mills are hot and cold plates and sheets.4. Cluster Rolling MillIt consists of two small diameter working rolls and four or more backing rolls. The larger number of backup rolls provided becomes necessary as the backup rolls cannot exceed the diameter of working rolls by more than 2-3 times.5. Planetary Rolling MillIn the planetary mill type of rolling machine, a large backup roller is surrounded by a number of planetary working rollers as shown in the figure.Each planetary roll gives a continuous reduction. It is employed to reduce large thicknesses in a single pass of a steel strip. Its rolling capacity is higher than cluster machine but less than a tandem rolling machine.6. Tandem or Continuous MillIn this tandem mill types of rolling mill, It includes of a number of non-reversing two-high rolling mills provide one after other. So that the material can be passed through them all in order.This is only suitable for mass production work, as lower volumes require a quicker change of set up and they will consume a lot of labour and work.ConclusionSo now, we hope that we have clear all your doubts about Types of Rolling Mill. If you have still any doubts about the Types of Rolling Mill you can contact us or ask in the comments.We have also a Facebook community for you guys. If you want, you can join our community, here is the link toour Facebook group.Thats it thanks for reading. If you like our article then please share it with your friends. If you have any questions about any topic you can ask in the comment section.Subscribe to our newsletter to get notified when we upload new posts.Email Address SubscribeDownload the free PDF file of this post by clicking below:Read Next:Milling Machine: Main Parts Working PrincipleDrilling machine Parts, Types, Operations [Complete Guide] with PDFLathe Machine: Parts, Types, Operations, Attachments

Backup rolls hold the working rolls and restrict deflection when the material is being rolled. The usual products of these mills are hot and cold plates and sheets.4. Cluster Rolling MillIt consists of two small diameter working rolls and four or more backing rolls. The larger number of backup rolls provided becomes necessary as the backup rolls cannot exceed the diameter of working rolls by more than 2-3 times.5. Planetary Rolling MillIn the planetary mill type of rolling machine, a large backup roller is surrounded by a number of planetary working rollers as shown in the figure.Each planetary roll gives a continuous reduction. It is employed to reduce large thicknesses in a single pass of a steel strip. Its rolling capacity is higher than cluster machine but less than a tandem rolling machine.6. Tandem or Continuous MillIn this tandem mill types of rolling mill, It includes of a number of non-reversing two-high rolling mills provide one after other. So that the material can be passed through them all in order.This is only suitable for mass production work, as lower volumes require a quicker change of set up and they will consume a lot of labour and work.ConclusionSo now, we hope that we have clear all your doubts about Types of Rolling Mill. If you have still any doubts about the Types of Rolling Mill you can contact us or ask in the comments.We have also a Facebook community for you guys. If you want, you can join our community, here is the link toour Facebook group.Thats it thanks for reading. If you like our article then please share it with your friends. If you have any questions about any topic you can ask in the comment section.Subscribe to our newsletter to get notified when we upload new posts.Email Address SubscribeDownload the free PDF file of this post by clicking below:Read Next:Milling Machine: Main Parts Working PrincipleDrilling machine Parts, Types, Operations [Complete Guide] with PDFLathe Machine: Parts, Types, Operations, Attachments

It consists of two small diameter working rolls and four or more backing rolls. The larger number of backup rolls provided becomes necessary as the backup rolls cannot exceed the diameter of working rolls by more than 2-3 times.5. Planetary Rolling MillIn the planetary mill type of rolling machine, a large backup roller is surrounded by a number of planetary working rollers as shown in the figure.Each planetary roll gives a continuous reduction. It is employed to reduce large thicknesses in a single pass of a steel strip. Its rolling capacity is higher than cluster machine but less than a tandem rolling machine.6. Tandem or Continuous MillIn this tandem mill types of rolling mill, It includes of a number of non-reversing two-high rolling mills provide one after other. So that the material can be passed through them all in order.This is only suitable for mass production work, as lower volumes require a quicker change of set up and they will consume a lot of labour and work.ConclusionSo now, we hope that we have clear all your doubts about Types of Rolling Mill. If you have still any doubts about the Types of Rolling Mill you can contact us or ask in the comments.We have also a Facebook community for you guys. If you want, you can join our community, here is the link toour Facebook group.Thats it thanks for reading. If you like our article then please share it with your friends. If you have any questions about any topic you can ask in the comment section.Subscribe to our newsletter to get notified when we upload new posts.Email Address SubscribeDownload the free PDF file of this post by clicking below:Read Next:Milling Machine: Main Parts Working PrincipleDrilling machine Parts, Types, Operations [Complete Guide] with PDFLathe Machine: Parts, Types, Operations, Attachments

In the planetary mill type of rolling machine, a large backup roller is surrounded by a number of planetary working rollers as shown in the figure.Each planetary roll gives a continuous reduction. It is employed to reduce large thicknesses in a single pass of a steel strip. Its rolling capacity is higher than cluster machine but less than a tandem rolling machine.6. Tandem or Continuous MillIn this tandem mill types of rolling mill, It includes of a number of non-reversing two-high rolling mills provide one after other. So that the material can be passed through them all in order.This is only suitable for mass production work, as lower volumes require a quicker change of set up and they will consume a lot of labour and work.ConclusionSo now, we hope that we have clear all your doubts about Types of Rolling Mill. If you have still any doubts about the Types of Rolling Mill you can contact us or ask in the comments.We have also a Facebook community for you guys. If you want, you can join our community, here is the link toour Facebook group.Thats it thanks for reading. If you like our article then please share it with your friends. If you have any questions about any topic you can ask in the comment section.Subscribe to our newsletter to get notified when we upload new posts.Email Address SubscribeDownload the free PDF file of this post by clicking below:Read Next:Milling Machine: Main Parts Working PrincipleDrilling machine Parts, Types, Operations [Complete Guide] with PDFLathe Machine: Parts, Types, Operations, Attachments

Each planetary roll gives a continuous reduction. It is employed to reduce large thicknesses in a single pass of a steel strip. Its rolling capacity is higher than cluster machine but less than a tandem rolling machine.6. Tandem or Continuous MillIn this tandem mill types of rolling mill, It includes of a number of non-reversing two-high rolling mills provide one after other. So that the material can be passed through them all in order.This is only suitable for mass production work, as lower volumes require a quicker change of set up and they will consume a lot of labour and work.ConclusionSo now, we hope that we have clear all your doubts about Types of Rolling Mill. If you have still any doubts about the Types of Rolling Mill you can contact us or ask in the comments.We have also a Facebook community for you guys. If you want, you can join our community, here is the link toour Facebook group.Thats it thanks for reading. If you like our article then please share it with your friends. If you have any questions about any topic you can ask in the comment section.Subscribe to our newsletter to get notified when we upload new posts.Email Address SubscribeDownload the free PDF file of this post by clicking below:Read Next:Milling Machine: Main Parts Working PrincipleDrilling machine Parts, Types, Operations [Complete Guide] with PDFLathe Machine: Parts, Types, Operations, Attachments

In this tandem mill types of rolling mill, It includes of a number of non-reversing two-high rolling mills provide one after other. So that the material can be passed through them all in order.This is only suitable for mass production work, as lower volumes require a quicker change of set up and they will consume a lot of labour and work.ConclusionSo now, we hope that we have clear all your doubts about Types of Rolling Mill. If you have still any doubts about the Types of Rolling Mill you can contact us or ask in the comments.We have also a Facebook community for you guys. If you want, you can join our community, here is the link toour Facebook group.Thats it thanks for reading. If you like our article then please share it with your friends. If you have any questions about any topic you can ask in the comment section.Subscribe to our newsletter to get notified when we upload new posts.Email Address SubscribeDownload the free PDF file of this post by clicking below:Read Next:Milling Machine: Main Parts Working PrincipleDrilling machine Parts, Types, Operations [Complete Guide] with PDFLathe Machine: Parts, Types, Operations, Attachments

This is only suitable for mass production work, as lower volumes require a quicker change of set up and they will consume a lot of labour and work.ConclusionSo now, we hope that we have clear all your doubts about Types of Rolling Mill. If you have still any doubts about the Types of Rolling Mill you can contact us or ask in the comments.We have also a Facebook community for you guys. If you want, you can join our community, here is the link toour Facebook group.Thats it thanks for reading. If you like our article then please share it with your friends. If you have any questions about any topic you can ask in the comment section.Subscribe to our newsletter to get notified when we upload new posts.Email Address SubscribeDownload the free PDF file of this post by clicking below:Read Next:Milling Machine: Main Parts Working PrincipleDrilling machine Parts, Types, Operations [Complete Guide] with PDFLathe Machine: Parts, Types, Operations, Attachments

So now, we hope that we have clear all your doubts about Types of Rolling Mill. If you have still any doubts about the Types of Rolling Mill you can contact us or ask in the comments.We have also a Facebook community for you guys. If you want, you can join our community, here is the link toour Facebook group.Thats it thanks for reading. If you like our article then please share it with your friends. If you have any questions about any topic you can ask in the comment section.Subscribe to our newsletter to get notified when we upload new posts.Email Address SubscribeDownload the free PDF file of this post by clicking below:Read Next:Milling Machine: Main Parts Working PrincipleDrilling machine Parts, Types, Operations [Complete Guide] with PDFLathe Machine: Parts, Types, Operations, Attachments

We have also a Facebook community for you guys. If you want, you can join our community, here is the link toour Facebook group.Thats it thanks for reading. If you like our article then please share it with your friends. If you have any questions about any topic you can ask in the comment section.Subscribe to our newsletter to get notified when we upload new posts.Email Address SubscribeDownload the free PDF file of this post by clicking below:Read Next:Milling Machine: Main Parts Working PrincipleDrilling machine Parts, Types, Operations [Complete Guide] with PDFLathe Machine: Parts, Types, Operations, Attachments

Thats it thanks for reading. If you like our article then please share it with your friends. If you have any questions about any topic you can ask in the comment section.Subscribe to our newsletter to get notified when we upload new posts.Email Address SubscribeDownload the free PDF file of this post by clicking below:Read Next:Milling Machine: Main Parts Working PrincipleDrilling machine Parts, Types, Operations [Complete Guide] with PDFLathe Machine: Parts, Types, Operations, Attachments

Subscribe to our newsletter to get notified when we upload new posts.Email Address SubscribeDownload the free PDF file of this post by clicking below:Read Next:Milling Machine: Main Parts Working PrincipleDrilling machine Parts, Types, Operations [Complete Guide] with PDFLathe Machine: Parts, Types, Operations, Attachments

Download the free PDF file of this post by clicking below:Read Next:Milling Machine: Main Parts Working PrincipleDrilling machine Parts, Types, Operations [Complete Guide] with PDFLathe Machine: Parts, Types, Operations, Attachments

Saif M. is a Mechanical Engineer by profession. He completed his engineering studies in 2014 and is currently working in a large firm as Mechanical Engineer. He is also an author and editor at www.theengineerspost.com...

process of rolling mills

process of rolling mills

Steel sections are generally rolled in several passes, whose number is determined by the ratio of initial input material and final cross section of finished product. The cross section area is reduced in each pass and form and the size of the stock gradually approach to the desired profile.

Rolling accounts for about 90 % of all materials produced by metal working process. It was first developed in the late 1500s. Hot Rolling is carried out at elevated temperature above the re-crystallization temperature. During this phase, the coarse-grained, brittle, and porous structure of the continuously cast steel is broken down into a wrought structure having finer grain size and improved properties.

A long product rolling mill comprised of equipment for reheating, rolling and cooling. The primary objectives of the rolling stage are to reduce the cross section of the incoming stock and to produce the planned section profile, mechanical properties and microstructure of the product.

When manufacturing long products, it is common to use a series of rolling stands in tandem to obtain high production rates. The stands are grouped into roughing, intermediate and finishing stages. Typical temperature, speed, inter-stand time (time between each stand), true strain and strain rate ranges at each stage are shown in Tab 1. Since cross-sectional area is reduced progressively at each set of rolls, the stock moves at different speeds at each stage of the rolling mill. A wire rod rolling mill, for example, gradually reduces the cross-sectional area of a starting billet (e.g., 150 mm square, 10-12 meters long) down to a finished rod (as small as 5.0 mm in diameter, 1.93 km long) at high finishing speeds (up to 120 m/sec).

The final dimensional quality of the rolled product is determined by the rolling stands within the finishing mill. The dimensional accuracy in the final product depends on many factors including the initial stock dimensions, roll pass sequence, temperature, microstructure, roll surface quality, roll and stand stiffness and the stock/roll friction condition.

With regards to the steel material steel, the development of the microstructure during rolling is complex and involves static and dynamic re-crystallization of austenite. From a practical point of view, the austenite grain size distribution in the rolled product is of paramount importance in controlling mechanical properties. In the roughing and intermediate stages of the rolling mill, the stock is moving slowly between the stands, such that the material has a chance to normalize itself as a result of recovery and re-crystallization. During the finishing rolling stage, the stock is traveling at a high speed between closely spaced stands and consequently, and does not have adequate time to normalize. This lack of normalization can have a significant effect on the final microstructure and mechanical properties of the rolled product.

Since the chemical composition is fixed for specific steel grades, the requirements for a particular product that can be controlled in the rolling mill consist of geometry, mechanical properties and microstructure. The product characteristics which are controlled are the geometric shape and tolerance. These are determined from the section profile of the finished product. Mechanical properties include yield and ultimate tensile strengths, % reduction in area (ductility) and hardness. Microstructure characteristics include grain size, grain distribution, phase composition and phase distribution.

Rolling involves macroscopic and microscopic phenomena (Fig 1). The macroscopic phenomena can be broadly classified as (i) heat flow during rolling, and (ii) deformation under application of rolling load. The macroscopic phenomena include such factors as given below.

The process at the microscopic level involves many complex physical phenomena associated with nucleation and evolution of the microstructure. The principal microscopic phenomena that are important during the process of rolling are (i) austenite re-crystallization and grain growth, and (ii) transformation of austenite into ferrite, pearlite, bainite and martensite (and/or other phases).

The spread and side free surfaces are very important in rolling. Spread is defined as the dimension of the deformed stock after rolling in the direction perpendicular to the direction of rolling. It measures the increase of width of the stock due to the rolling deformation. The side free surface is defined as the region of the stock surface that does not come into contact with the rolls during the rolling process. The surface profile of a deformed stock depends on the spread, free surface profile, and the elongation of the stock. This means that the final shape of the stock is mainly dependent on these parameters. Since the final shape of the stock is very important for the rolled product, these parameters are very crucial to a roll pass designer when designing a particular rolling pass for specific shape and size requirements. Accuracy in calculating these parameters are critical when satisfying such geometric requirements as roundness (in case of bars and rods) and tolerance. Roundness is defined as the difference between maximum diameter and minimum diameter. Tolerance is the allowable difference in maximum / minimum dimensions with respect to nominal dimensions.

The mean effective plastic strain is extremely important for predicting and controlling the mechanical properties of the rolled product after rolling The mean effective plastic strain at a rolling stand is defined as the maximum average effective (equivalent) plastic strain of the rolling stock at a given mill stand during the rolling process. The microstructure evolution requires thermo-mechanical variables such as mean effective plastic strain, mean effective plastic strain rate and temperature at each rolling stands. Temperature evolution due the mechanical energy converted to heat during the deformation process is also dependent on mean effective plastic strain and mean effective plastic strain rate. Furthermore, mean effective plastic strain rate is in turn a function of mean effective strain and the process time. All of this suggests that the capability of predicting mean plastic strain is essential for controlling the mechanical properties and microstructure of the rolled product.

Calculation of roll force is important because calculation of torque and power in a rolling mill is based on calculation of roll force. Accurate prediction of roll force for grooved rolling is considerably more difficult than predicting the geometry of the rolling stock. There are essentially three problems, present during the rolling as well but somewhat easy to handle. They are (i) resistance of material to deformation, as a function of strain, strain rate and temperature, (ii) the ability to calculate the distributions of the strains, strain rates, stress and temperature in the deformation zone, and (iii) the conditions at the roll metal interface, i.e., the coefficients of friction and heat transfers.

One more important parameter of high-speed high temperature rolling is the flow-stress behaviour of the particular steel grade. Flow stress is defined, as the instantaneous yield stress or true stress of a steel defined when the steel starts to undergo continuous plastic deformation. The two principal methods for accurately obtaining the flow stress of a particular grade of steel are direct experimental results and empirical constitutive equations. Empirical constitutive equations are often derived from the regression analysis of experimental data. Typically these equations define the flow strength of a material as a function of the variable considered important.

Rolls are the tools of the rolling mill and are the costliest consumable in a rolling mill. The way the rolls are used to execute their duty of deforming steel is in many cases largely determined by the roll pass design. The purpose of the roll pass design is (i) production of correct profile within tolerance limits with good surface finish (free from surface defects), (ii) maximum productivity at the lowest cost, (iii) minimum roll wear, (iv) easy working, and (v) optimum energy utilization.

The accuracy and speed of working and roll life are all related to the roll pass design and the choice of the roll material. The rolling sequence of a roll pass design is subject to the limitations applied by the rolling load, the roll strength and the torque available for rolling. Roll pass design is also to ensure that the physical dimensions and material of the roll are capable of withstanding the heaviest loads arising during the rolling sequence.

The material of the roll is important since it must be capable of withstanding loads which plastically deforms the rolling stock without itself being plastically deformed. In the rolling of hot steel, this is not a difficult problem and iron or steel rolls are suitable if they are operated at a temperature considerably lower than that of the rolling stock. The choice of roll material whether cast iron or steel (cast or forged) depends on the specific duty the rolls are to perform and the important properties such as surface toughness, resistance to thermal cracking or shock loading or hard wearing properties. The selection of any particular roll depends on production demands, initial cost, and the specific qualities required. Tungsten carbide rolls are generally used in wire rod finishing blocks and in some shape rolling applications. These carbide rolls require high quality cooling water in a narrow pH range and limited hardness.

The roll material is important to estimate the loads which the rolls must withstand. In addition it suggests what mill size is most suitable for given ranges of products so as to ensure reasonable efficiency in working the mill. Perhaps one of the most important single factors where roll life is concerned is the wear properties of the roll material.

During the hot rolling of steel, heat is transferred to the rolls. If not cooled, the heat buildup causes increase in the temperature of the roll to a temperature equal to that of the stock being rolled. At this stage the roll would also undergo plastic deformation. To remove the heat from the roll, cooling water is applied. The difficulty in the removal of the heat from the roll is the result of two factors. The first is called the coefficient of thermal conductivity and the second is the interface between the roll and the rolling stock compared to that of the cooling water and the roll. Heat is transferred by conduction, convection, and radiation.

During the contact time of the rolling stock in the pass, the hot rolling stock heats the roll due to conduction during the contact time with the roll. As a result, the temperature profile on the surface of the roll increases when in contact with the roll and then drops as the heat is absorbed by the roll body. This also means that the best place to remove the heat from the roll is immediately after the bar leaves contact with the roll. The best rate of heat removal occurs when the difference in temperature is the greatest. A typical roll cooling water delivery system consists of holes in the delivery guide for the application of water as close to the point where the rolling stock leaves contact with the roll as possible. Two half circle water pipes for each roll also deliver secondary cooling water to assure the heat of rolling does not penetrate the roll body. The application of cooling water is to be controlled so that the water does not fall on the rolling stock at the entry point to the rolls. In case it happens, it only cool the rolling stock, create steam pockets between the roll and the rolling stock, and waste water that could be better used on the other side of the roll. To minimize roll wear, roll cooling water must be applied as close to the point where the rolling stock leaves the roll. Typical pressures of cooling water are 2 kg/sq cm to 5 kg/sq cm at a flow rate of about 1.5 litres / mm per minute. The best delivery systems use tube, nozzle and spray headers to get soft cooling at low pressure and high flow, not a hard jet that bounces the water off of the roll.

Roll surface degradation occurs primarily due to the thermal cycling of the heating and cooling of the surface versus the relatively steady state of the subsurface and adjacent material. This creates local tension and compression as the roll moves through 360 deg of rotation. The objective of roll cooling is to minimize this cycle. The objective of roll material selection is to use materials that can tolerate this cycle without fire-cracking, crazing, or wearing prematurely. The fire-cracks developed on the roll surface are required to be removed by turning down considerable material of the roll and in the process reducing the roll diameter. This affects the roll life and increases the roll cost per ton.

It is a fact that all mill rolls eventually deteriorate and the roll passes need to be changed to achieve size control and finished product surface quality. When the roll diameter reduces to less than the minimum diameter required by the mill stand after turning down, then the roll is to be discarded.

The goal of mill and the roll guide setup is to get the first bar rolled when changing product, on the cooling bed within the tolerance so that it is a saleable product. The data required to perform this function is usually provided in two forms. One is given by the mill builders and provides information about rolls, guide parts, and other equipment that needs to be changed from the previous setup. It also includes gap settings, guide adjustments, and any special instructions.

Mill floor and pulpit setup sheets also contain loop height settings, motor rpm (revolutions per minute), run-out speed, production rate, R-Factors, shear setup information and other pertinent information. To enable the fastest startup possible, the retained information should reflect the conditions at startup. That is, if the rolls are always dressed at change over, the R-Factors should be what they were the last successful rolling on new rolls. Data collected at the end of a rolling with used rolls will not be accurate when rolling on new rolls.

In a continuous mill, speed matching the stand to achieve a constant mass flow through the mill assures a low cobble rate and fewer defects. High tension can stretch reduce the cross section of the bar making shape control very difficult. At the extreme, tension can pull the bar apart, creating a cobble. Compression of the bar between stands can create flutter creating defects, or at the extreme will cause loop growth leading to a cobble.

Using the working diameter of the rolls, the roll rpm (revolutions per minute) is matched to the bar speed through the mill. As the rolls wear and the spread of the bar in the pass changes, the rpm of the stands need to be adjusted as the bar area changes. Most modern control systems modify the R-Factor as this occurs.

Input values for setting mill motor speeds are production rate, roll collar diameters and roll gaps, bar areas and widths, and gear ratios. Motor speed ratings are normally checked against calculated speeds.

Mill utilization is a measure of the percentage of time that the mill is rolling steel. The truest measure of performance is as a percentage of calendar time. Factors that influence utilization are maintenance outages, scheduled and unscheduled holiday outages, downtime for cobble clearing, roll and pass changes, excess billet gap, and other factors that create time when a billet is not in the mill. Good figures for rod and bar mills are 90 % to 93 %, for structural mills, the good mill utilization figures are 75 % to 78 %.

If a mill rolls 80 % of the calendar year, that is 365 x 24 x 0.80 = 7008 hours. If the mill rolls 800,000 tons per year, it runs at an average production rate of 114.16 tons/hour. If the utilization can be improved by 1 %, the available rolling hours is 365 x 24 x 0.81 = 7096.6, creating 87.6 extra rolling hours. At 114.16 tons/hour that is an additional 10,000 tons can be rolled.

Excess billet gap can be an unaccounted for loss of rolling time. If a mill rolls 800,000 tons per year using billets of 1.25 ton weight, it rolls 640,000 billets per year. That is 639,999 billet gaps. If the average billet gap is 5 seconds that is (5 sec x 639,999)/3600 sec/hour = 888.89 hours of billet gap. If the average billet gap is reduced by 0.5 second that would be (4.5 sec x 639,999)/3600 sec/hour = 800 hours of billet gap, creating an additional 88.89 hours of rolling time. At 114.16 tons/hour that is an additional 10147 tons of rolled steel.

Yield is the measurement of production loss from furnace charge to bundled, piled, or coiled finished product. The factors that influence yield are scale loss, crop loss, cobble loss, and any other factor that reduces the weight of the finished product. When the billet is charged into the reheat furnace, it is either weighed or assumed to have a nominal weight based on its cross section and grade. As it progresses through the furnace, scale is formed that is removed at the descaler or fall off during rolling. This can amount to around 1 % to 1.2 % of the charged weight. Shears that crop the malformed front end of the bar as it progresses through the mill can remove up to 0.3 m to 0.4 m of material at each shear. After dividing the bar onto the cooling bed, a cold shear or saw cuts the bar to saleable lengths, cleaning up the variations in length. Structural mills often take an additional saw cut on piled and bundled material. All the removed material contributes to yield loss. Good figures for yield are around 97 % to 98 % for bar and rod mills, and 92 % t0 94 % for structural mills. If the product is rolled with negative tolerance and sold on nominal weight basis then the yield becomes much higher. Because of this reasons some of the rebars mills which are rolling with negative tolerance, and selling rebars on nominal weight basis are reporting a finished product yield of 100 % or more, though their nominal mill yield is normal 97 %.

Cobble rate is the measure of the percentage of charged billets lost to cobbles. If the cobble rate is 0.75 %, then 0.75 % of all billets charged are lost to cobbles. If a mill rolls 640,000 billets per year then it means that 4800 billets are lost. At 1.25 tons per billet the loss in tons is 6000 tons. Hence it necessary that all attempts are to be made in the mill to reduce the cobble rate.

two roll mills |labtech usa east | john halvorsen

two roll mills |labtech usa east | john halvorsen

Polymer mills available with roll diameters of 100, 110, 150 and 200 mm. Roll heating is available in 3 ways, with our Standard 3-Zone or TRUE 3-Zone electric roll heating system, with Oil heating and cooling system, or with Electric roll heating and water cooling system.

welded roll forming system versus tube mills: whats the difference?

welded roll forming system versus tube mills: whats the difference?

The welding of streel strip into a product, such as round tube or pipe, box frames, and structural members, is a multibillion-dollar industry that had its beginnings more than a century ago. Many items that we use today, like furniture tubing, oil pipe, and fuel lines, are manufactured on welded tube mills.

In the last 20 years OEMs have been asked to apply the principles learned from tube mills to the much larger roll forming processing market. This has created another technology area today known as welded roll forming.

Companies may move from nonwelded open shapes to welded roll formed shapes for many reasons. Welded roll formed shapes have structural strength and integrity, help eliminate secondary operations in downstream manufacturing, and can offer savings in steel and construction labor. While there are benefits, there are also costs, which typically involve an investment in capital equipment and skilled people who know how to use the technology.

These questions, asked often within the industry, are plagued with many conditional aspects that cloud the final answer. Intricate details often are required to help machine builders focus on the best option.

In the classic sense, a tube mill is a kind of welded roll form system; however, not every welded roll form system is a tube mill. Tube mills are welded roll form systems that have been fine-tuned to run a specific diameter range, typically at fast speeds (see Figure 1).

On all welded roll form systems, including tube mills, welding can occur with processes like high-frequency (HF) induction, HF contact, electric resistance, and laser beam welding. For the sake of this discussion, it is assumed that the correct welding process has been determined based on the specific material requirements.

Figure 2 shows the typical forming flower of a tube mill forming the strip into a round product just before welding. From there the round product can stay round or can be sized or reshaped into a square or rectangle.

In a tube mill, the forming machine forms the strip into a round, weldable product. The forming machine has two main parts: breakdown and fin-pass sections. Once welded, the tube can be left round, though it undergoes further forming to size it to a more accurate outside diameter. The sizing section shown in Figure 3 has round roll stands with specialty reshaping stands toward the exit and a double turks-head to finish. Used for straightening, a turks-head has two pairs of rolls, one arranged vertically and the other horizontally.

Defining a welded roll forming system is a little more difficult. Again, in the classical sense, a tube mill is one kind of a welded roll forming system. But if someone refers to a welded roll forming system, that person is probably not talking about a tube mill, but other roll forming machines able to form various, often highly complex shapes to within tight tolerances.

Much like forming on the tube mill, with breakdown and fin-pass sections, welded roll forming systems have a similar forming setup, with the fin-pass section occurring in the last few stands before welding (see Figure 4).

When working with nonround shapes, such as a step beam (see Figure 5), the roll forming system tends to form the shape as is before welding. Some in the industry call this near-net-shape forming. Others call this the form square-weld square process. Once the shape is formed and welded, most recommend at least two additional passes to work the welded shape once more to finalize the dimensions.

This specialty pass progression has led tube mill builders to design systems with a given diameter range to have between five and nine driven forming passes, with their sister idle side passes. The actual pass count often is a function of the ratio of the workpiece diameter to the material thickness, material yield strength, as well as the minimum to maximum range for both material OD and thickness.

Welded roll forming mills tend to have mostly driven passes, though using idle side passes is becoming more common. Many factors come into play when determining the most robust pass count for stable welding. Pass counts depend not only on material wall thickness and yield strength, but also on the overall complexity of the shape to be formed. The pass count also depends on material movement during the process, as well as the experience of the roll tooling designer.

To determine the best machine, consider the strengths and weaknesses of each. Tube mills specialize in simple shapes. Besides round shapes, theyre capable of producing squares, rectangles, and ellipses.

If youre looking to form a few complicated shapes, the tube mill may not be the best choice. Forming some shapes on the tube mill simply isnt possible, but a welded roll forming mill can form highly complicated shapes quite readily.

Also consider the outside corner radii of those shapes. In some cases, a tube mill can form those radii down to 2 times the material thickness, but this isnt typical. Usually a tube mill can form radii down to between 2.5 to 3 times the material thickness.

Welded roll forming mills have a different tooling setup that allows for tight, accurate radii. Specifically, it has to do with how the forming rolls engage the material on the corner. On a welded roll forming mill, both the female and the male roll engage the corner, making forming very exact. Typically, radii can be formed down to less than 2 times the material thickness.

Also consider the consistency of the corner radius, as measured from corner to corner on the roll formed product. Shapes formed on a tube mill may have discrepancies between opposite and/or adjacent corners. This occurs because of one-sided bending, with just one roll (not both male and female) fully engaged with the material.

Male and female roll engagement in welded roll form systems has another benefit: It helps produce consistent flat sides or features, with no crowning or other reshaping. Because tooling on a tube mill gives the workpiece no inside support, flat sides or features tend to reshape during the process and emerge from the tube mill with a crown.

Also take into account any pre-punching operations that a job might benefit from or require. Punching typically is not recommended on tube mills. This is because of inconsistencies with so-called round-to-shape material movement. It can be very difficult to lock the hole location in a round shape and then reshape it into a square, hoping the hole ends up in the correct position. Moreover, punched holes may warp during the reshaping phase.

Pre-punching in welded roll forming is usually better because it allows you to accurately locate hole features. The punched holes also tend to hold their shape during forming, if those holes are put in the right location. If the hole is near a corner, however, the hole shape still can change.

Finally, consider processing speed. This hinges mainly on pre-punching operations. Since pre-punching is not normally performed on tube mills, these mills have been designed to run up to 750 feet per minute (FPM), depending on the product OD and wall thickness. If a pre-punching job is running on a welded roll forming mill, processing speeds typically are 100 FPM or less, though they can be improved with special tooling like a rotary pierce tool, which looks like a roll with punches sticking out of it. These punch or pierce the material as the roll rotates. (Rotary piercing does have limits and may not work in some applications.)

If pre-punching is not required, then a welded roll forming system can process at the same speeds as a tube mill. To achieve and maintain these speeds, however, a welded roll form system needs some tube mill specialty equipment added, such as an accumulator and high-performance cutoff.

So again, which is best? If you have only simple shapes to form, a tube mill may be the way to go; if you have complex shapes with multiple radii, holes, and other features, a welded roll forming system is the way to go.

But what if you have a simple shape with tight tolerances? What if those radii need to be consistent from corner to corner? What if you need sides to be precisely flat, with no chance of crowning? In these cases, a welded roll forming system may be more suitable for the job, unless product specifications can be changed.

home | torrey mills - three roll mill

home | torrey mills - three roll mill

The three roll mill is a dispersing tool. As fine particles tend to agglomerate in traditional agitators, a three roll mill applies tremendous shear force to break apart those agglomerates. With the capability to reduce particles down to 1 micron, the three roll mill is versatile enough for a variety of high shear applications.

Your satisfaction is a top priority. Have a question or need a solution to a problem? Our engineering team understands the pressures of managing your process and is committed to assuring you're satisfied with our products.

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